(GIST OF YOJANA) Various Crafts in India [APRIL-2019]

(GIST OF YOJANA) Various Crafts in India


Various Crafts in India


  •  Zari is an even thread traditionally made offine gold or silver used in traditional Indian, Pakistani and Persian garments and curtains, etc. Four types of zari are produced in India, namely, real zari, semi real zari, imitation zari and plastic zari.
  •  Real zari is made of silver and electroplated with gold, whereas semi real zari has a composition of copper coated with silver and gold electroplating. Surat is the home of zari industry in India. Other clusters producing zari are Bareilly, Varanasi, Agra, Hyderabad, Lucknow, Vadodara, Lathur, Jaipur, Barmer, etc.

Leather Footwear and other Leather Articles

  •  The leather industry, including leather footwear, is one ofthe oldest traditional industries in India. The major production centres in India arc Chennai and Ranipet in Tamil Nadu, Mumbai in Maharashtra, Agra, Lucknow and Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh, Jalandhar in Punjab, Delhi, Kamal and Faridabad in Haryana, Kolkata in West Bengal, Jaipur and Jodhpur in Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Odisha, and Calicut in Kerala.
  •  India is also known worldwide for its leather products. Leather products, such as jackets, lampshades, pouches, bags, belts, wallets, and stuffed toys are exported from India in large quantity. Leather bags and wallets account for major portion of total exports.


  •  Carpet industry is one of the oldest industries in India, and is primarily an export oriented industry. Various kinds of carpets include hand-knotted woolen carpets, tufted woolen carpets, handmade woolen durries, and pure silk carpets. Major centers of carpet production are Bhadohi, Varanasi, Mirzapur, Agra, Jaipur, Bikaner, Kashmir, and Panipat, Gwalior, West Bengal, Uttarakhand, Karnataka and Elluru in Andhra Pradesh.

Rugs and Durries

  •  India is one the leading producers of rugs in the world. Various kinds of rugs produced in India are namda (felted rugs), gabba (embroidered rugs), wooden pile rugs, cotton rugs, etc.
  •  Rug production is concentrated in Agra, Bhadoi, Mirzapur in UP,Jaipur in Rajasthan, Panipat in Haryana, and Kashmir in Jammu and Kashmir. Regions known for durrie making are Panipat, Bhavani in Tamil Nadu, Navalgund in Karnataka, Warangal in Andhra Pradesh, and Jaisalmer and Banner in Rajasthan.


  •  India is a major handloom producer in the world, accounting for 85 per cent of the total production globally.
  •  Handloom contributes 14.6 per cent to the total cloth production in the country (excluding wool, silk and yam). There are 470 handloom clusters, of which 230 clusters have more than 1,000 weaving looms.
  •  Out of these 230 clusters. 41 clusters have over 25,000 weaving looms. Major clusters in India are Bahraich, Bhuj, Karimnagar, Patan, Varanasi. Nawan, Shaher, Boudh, etc. Handloom industry is the second largest employment generator in India, next only to agriculture.

Textile Hand Embroidery

  •  In textile hand embroidery, embellishment is made on fabric with threads and sometimes with other materials.
  •  There are many popular embroidery clusters such as chikankari and zardozi of Lucknow, katha of Bengal pulkari of Punjab. kutchi embroidery of Gujarat and kashidakari of Kashmir. Zardozi has been traditionally prevalent in Lucknow and the six surrounding districts ofBarabanki, Unnao, Sitapur, Rae Bareli, Hardoi and Amethi.

Textile Hand Printing

  •  Hand printed textiles is a craft in which cloth is dyed with hand or printed using shapes. Various types of hand printing practiced in India are block printing, batik, kalamkari (hand printing by pen) and bandhani (tie and die).
  •  Some of the important centers of this craft are in Hyderabad, Machalipattnam, Varanasi, Farrukabad, Bagh, Behrongarh, Indore, Mandsar, Burhanpur, Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Kutch, Bagru, Chittroli, Sanganer, Jaipur and Jodhpur.

Cane and Bamboo

  •  Cane is largely used for furniture making, whereas bamboo is used for making jewellery and decorative utility items like lamp-stand, umbrella handles, partitions, screens, flower pots, baskets, walking sticks, tool handles, fishing rods, tent poles, ladders, toys, fans, cups, mugs, mats etc.
  •  Assam (Lakhimpur, Bongaigaon, Guwahati, etc.) and Tripura (Agartala, Nelaghar, etc.) are recognized as prominent places for cane and bamboo products both nationally as well as internationally. Assam is home to about 50 species ofbamboo. Other major cane and bamboo handicraft centers are Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh in North Eastern region, West Bengal, Kerala, and Odisha.

Filigree and Silverware

  •  Filigree is an extremely ancient technique dating back to 4000 years ago. Filigree work is performed on silver and involves significant precision and technicality. Two major clusters of silver filigree in India are Karimnagar in Andhra Pradesh and Cuttack in Odisha.
  •  The practice in Karimnagar is about two centuries old. However, it is also practiced in Warangal in Andhra Pradesh. Key raw materials used are silver wire, tracing sheet, copper, charcoal, dilute sulphuric acid.

Metal Ware

  •  The metal crafts of India display intricate craftsmanship and fine art in shaping gold, silver, brass, copper into exquisite designed images, idols, jewellery, and utility items. Different categories of handicrafts that come under metal ware are brass metal ware of Moradabad, metal bidri work and bell metal in Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, and so on.
  •  India is the largest brassware producer in the world. Major clusters of brassware are Moradabad, Murshidabad, Madurai, Salem, Cuttack and Haryana.
  •  Bidriware is a metal handicraft that originatedinBidar, Karnataka. The term
    ‘Bidriware’ originates from the township of Bidar, which is still the main centre ofthe unique metal ware. It is a form of encrusted metal ware, where one metal is inlaid on to another.
  •  Bidri products include a diverse range ofobjects including hukka bases, bowls, boxes, candle stands, trays, jewellery and buttons. Ittravelled from Iran to Ajmer in Rajasthan in the 13th century AD, and from there to Bijapur and flourished during the reign of the Deccan Sultanate.Itis alsopracticed in Aurangabad district in the state of Maharashtra and Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh. The basic metal used for Bidri is the alloy of zinc and copper.


  •  Jewellery making is considered as the most distinctive and highly artistic craft in India. India has well-established capabilities forhand-made jewellery, both in traditional and modem designs. Major centers ofhandmade jewellery are Delhi Moradabad, Sambhal, Jaipur, Kohima (Tribal), Nellore, Mysore, Nalgonda Nizamabad, etc. Nearly 500,000 goldsmiths and 6,000 diamond processors are estimated to be present in India.

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  •  Terracotta is similar to pottery, in which crafts persons use local clay available in river beds t ms such as lamps, candle stands, figures of deities and animals, etc.

Folk Painting

  •  Indian folk paintings are pictorial expressions of village painters which are marked by the subjects chosen from epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata, Indian Puranas as well as daily events. There are several vibrant folk painting types in India in different stages.
  •  The Gond tribe ofMadhya Pradesh is engaged in floor and wall painting. Warli is vivid expression of daily and social events of Warli tribe in Maharashtra. Rajasthan is famous for Phad painting done on cloth.
  •  Other types of paintings arc Pilhora painting in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh, Madhubani painting of Bihar, Chitrakar painting of West Bengal, Patachitras in Odisha, and Kalamkar Srikalahasti, Andhra Pradesh.

Coir Twisting

  •  Coir is a natural, eco-friendly, water proof and exceptionally tensile fibre extracted from the nuts of coconut palms.
  •  It is found in abundance and is used for manufacturing a wide range of eco-friendly toys, mats, brushes, mattresses, wall hangings, key rings, pen stands and other home decoratives.
  •  This craft is primarily produced in Odisha (Sakhigopal, Puri, Pipli, Bhubaneswar, Batamangala and Kendrapara). It is also produced in Kerala (Emakulam).

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