1. Scheme of the Preliminary Examination : The Preliminary Examination will consist of only one paper, viz., a paper on “General Studies”. The paper will be of an objective type consisting of 200 multiple-choice questions. The paper will carry 200 marks and will be of 2½ hours duration. The standard of the paper will be of the level of knowledge as expected of a graduate of any faculty of a recognized University. The paper will include questions covering the following fields of knowledge:   


English Composition

25 Marks


General Science

25 Marks


Current events of National & International Importance

25 Marks


History of India

25 Marks


Geography of India with special reference to West Bengal

25 Marks


Indian Polity and Economy

25 Marks


Indian National Movement

25 Marks


General Mental Ability

25 Marks

The Preliminary Examination is meant to serve as a Screening Test only for the purpose of selection of candidates for the Main Examination. The marks obtained in this examination by the candidates will not be considered for  final selection. Only those candidates who will be declared qualified at the Preliminary Examination in a year shall be eligible for admission to the W.B.C.S. (Exe.) etc.(Main) Examination of that year.

2. Scheme of the Main Examination : The Main Examination shall consist of six Compulsory papers and one optional subject consisting of two papers (Only for candidates applying for group A and / or B) to be chosen by the candidates from the list of optional subjects given below. There will be two papers of the optional subject of 200 marks each. Each paper, Compulsory or Optional, will carry 200 marks and will be of 3 hours duration.
Out of six compulsory papers four papers i.e. (i) General Studies- I, (ii) General Studies- II, (iii) The Constitution of India and Indian Economy including role and functions of Reserve Bank of India and (iv) Arithmetic and Test of Reasoning will be of MCQ Type to be answered in OMR answer sheets and remaining two compulsory papers i.e. Paper - I and Paper - II will be of conventional type written examination.
Compulsory Papers : Six compulsory papers are as follows:-

Paper I : Bengali/Hindi/Urdu/Nepali/Santali - Letter writing (within 150 words) / Drafting of Report (within 200 words),Précis Writing, Composition and Translation from English to Bengali/Hindi/Urdu/Nepali/Santali

Paper II : English - Letter writing (within 150 words) / Drafting of Report (within 200 words), Précis Writing, Composition and Translation from Bengali/Hindi/Urdu/Nepali/Santali to English

Paper III : General Studies-I : (i) Indian History with special emphasis on National Movement and (ii) Geography of India with special reference to West Bengal.

Paper IV : General Studies-II : Science and Scientific & Technological advancement, Environment, General Knowledge and Current Affairs.

Paper V : The Constitution of India and Indian Economy including role and functions of the Reserve Bank of India.

Paper VI : Arithmetic and Test of Reasoning.

3. List of Optional Subjects : (Vide restriction on choice in Item No.-4 below and syllabi in Appendix-I)

Subject  Code
Bengali   01
Hindi      02
Sanskrit  03
English  04
Pali       05
Arabic  06
Persian  07
French 08
Urdu 09
Santali 10
Subject Code
Comparative Literature 11
Agriculture 12
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science 13
Anthropology 14
Botany 15
Chemistry 16
Civil Engineering 17
Commerce and Accountancy 18
Computer Science 19
Economics 20
Electrical Engineering 21
Geography 22
Geology 23
History 24
Law 25
Mathematics 26
Management 27
Mechanical Engineering 28
Medical Science 29
Philosophy 30
Physiology 31
Physics 32
Political Science 33
Psychology 34
Sociology 35
Statistics 36
Zoology 37

4. The standard of Arithmetic part of Compulsory Paper – VI(Arithmetic & Test of Reasoning) will be similar to that of the Compulsory Mathematics paper at the Madhyamik Examination of the Board of Secondary Education, West Bengal. Test of Reasoning will cover Analytical Reasoning:Data Sufficiency, Logical Reasoning : (i) Logical Deduction (ii) Forcefulness of the Arguments(iii) Implication of sentences (iv) Inferring from diagrams, Series: (i) Letter series, (ii) Number series, Inferring from Data, Analogy tests, Symbol Interpretation, Mathematical puzzles, Odd man out, Perception test, Non-verbal reasoning & Selecting the correct sequence.
The standard of other compulsory papers will be of the level of learning expected from a graduate of any faculty of a recognized University.
The two papers of the optional subjects will be of conventional type and the standard of the examination will be approximately that of an Honours Degree Examination as prescribed by the recognized Indian Universities except  Law, Medical Science and Engineering subjects which will be that specified for the LLB, MBBS and BE or equivalent courses respectively recognized by Indian Universities / Institutions.

The Topic ‘Environment’ in paper General Studies II will include the following:-

Bio diversity and Coastal Regulation Zone, Global Warming, Industrial and Environmental Pollution, Ozone Layer and related issues.
The Topic ‘Indian Economy including role and functions of the Reserve Bank of India’ of the compulsory paper- V will consist of the following:-
Central State relation and devolution of central funds to state, Planning process and objectives of five years plan, Functions of RBI and Monetary policy, Central Finance Commission & State Finance Commission and Fiscal Policy of Government of India.

5. Answers in all the papers, Compulsory and Optional, except the language papers may be written either in English or in Bengali (unless otherwise directed in these rules or in the question papers). Answers in the following optional papers may also be written in Nepali:
Optional : (1) Political Science
(2) Botany

Note : Candidates shall write their answers to all the questions in only one and the same language in any particular paper.

Candidates may use the Devanagari or Bengali Script in the answer papers on Sanskrit, the Devanagari Script in the answer papers on Hindi or Nepali, and the Bengali, Arabic, Persian, Urdu in the answer papers on Bengali, Arabic, Persian and Urdu respectively.Questions for Santali Paper will be set in Olchiki script and answers should also be written in Olchiki.

6. A summary of the group-wise papers in the Main Examination :

Group ‘A’ & ‘B’ Services & Posts : All 6 compulsory papers and one optional subject consisting of two papers.
Group ‘C’ & ‘D’ Services & Posts : All 6 compulsory papers.

7. Personality Test : A number of candidates selected in order of merit on the results of the Main Examination for all the services and posts included in Groups A, B, C and D shall have to appear at a Personality Test. Each candidate will be asked questions on matters of general interest. The object of the test will be to assess the candidate’s personal qualities e.g., alertness of mind, power of clear and logical exposition, intellectual and moral integrity, leadership and also the candidate’s range of interests. Candidates for Group ‘B’ Service (West Bengal Police Service) will be specially tested at the interviews with regard to their suitability for the service. 
Marks for the Personality Test

  • (i) Group ‘A’ & ‘B’ 200 Marks
  • (ii) Group ‘C’ 150 Marks
  • (iii) Group ‘D’ 100 Marks

Note : No separate Personality Test will be held for different groups viz. Group-‘A’, Group-‘B’, Group-‘C’ and Group-‘D’ in respect of a candidate. Marks will be awarded according to different services against allotted full marks for  Personality Test. In all the answer papers under examination due credit will be given for proper economy of words combined with clarity, precision and effectiveness of expression and originality of approach. 

8. Deduction of marks : A deduction of 10% of full marks may be made from the total marks secured by a candidate in a particular paper if he / she discloses his / her identity by writing his / her name, roll number or by putting any identifying marks in the answer script of that paper. There shall be negative marking for each wrong answer to multiple-choice questions (MCQ) type.

9. Discretion of the Commission : The Commission has discretion to fix qualifying marks in any or all the papers/subjects
and in the aggregate.If a candidate fails to secure qualifying marks in any paper / subject, the marks in that paper / subject will not be considered in calculating his / her aggregate. 

Abstract Table of Papers / Subjects and Marks Main Examination and Personality Test 


Compulsory Papers







Bengali/Hindi/Urdu/Nepali/Santali - Letter writing (within 150 words) / Drafting of Report (within 200 words), Précis Writing, Composition and Translation from English to Bengali/Hindi/Urdu/Nepali/Santali






English - Letter writing (within 150 words) / Drafting of Report (within 200 words), Précis Writing, Composition and Translation from Bengali/Hindi/Urdu/Nepali/Santali to English






General Studies-I : (i) Indian History with special emphasis on National Movement and (ii) Geography of India with special reference to West Bengal.






General Studies-II : Science and Scientific & Technological advancement, Environment, General Knowledge and Current Affairs.






The Constitution of India and Indian Economy including role and functions of Reserve Bank of India.






Arithmetic and Test of Reasoning.






Optional Subject - One subject to be chosen, Two papers of 200 marks each.






Personality Test






Total Marks






Questions on English Composition will cover Synonyms, Antonyms, Idioms and Phrases, Vocabulary test, Phrasal Verbs, the same words bearing more than one meaning, use of appropriate and qualifying words etc. Questions on General Science will cover general appreciation and understanding of science, including matters of everyday observation and experience as may be expecte d of a well-educated person who has not made a special study of any scientific discipline. In History, emphasis will be on broad general understanding of the subject in its social, economic and political aspects. Questions on the Geography of India will relate t o Physical, Social and Economic Geography of the country, including the main features of Indian Agricultural and Natural Resources with special reference to West Bengal. Questions of Indian Polity and Economy will test the knowledge of the country’s Political System, Panchayatee Raj, Community Development and Planning in India, Questions on the Indian National Movement will relate to the nature and character of the Nineteenth Century Resurgence, Growth of Nationalism and Attainment of Independence. General Ment al Ability will relate to Logical perception, understanding and natural conclusion.



Paper – I :


1)   Topics from the History of Bangla Language.

a)   The chronological track from Proto Indo-European to Bangla (Family tree with branches and approximate dates).

b)   Historical stages of Bangla (Old, Middle, New) and their linguistic features. c)   Dialects of Bangla and their distinguishing characteristics.

d)   Elements of Bangla Vocabulary.

e)   Forms of Bangla Literary Prose-Sadhu and Chalit.

2)   Process of Phonetic Changes in Bangla Language.

Apinihiti (Anaptyxis), Abhishruti (Umlaut), Samibhavan (Assimilation), Svarabhakti / Viprakarsha, Svarasangati (Vowel harmony).

3)  Problems of standardization and reform of alphabet and spelling and those of transliteration and Romanization.


4) History of Bangla Literature.

a)  Periodization of Bangla Literature: Old Bangla and Middle Bangla.

b)   Roots and reasons behind the emergence of modernity in Bangla Literature.

c)  Evolution of various Middle Bangla forms: Mangal kavyas, Vaishnava lyrics, Adapted narratives (Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagavata) and religious biographies.

d)   Narrative and lyric trends in the nineteenth century Bangla poetry. e)   Development of prose.

f)    Bangla dramatic literature (nineteenth century, Tagore, Post-1944 Bangla drama).

5) Tagore and Post Tagoreans (upto the decade of fifties).

6) Fiction, major authors:

Bankimchandra, Tagore, Saratchandra, Bibhutibhusan, Tarasankar, Manik.

7)  Women and Bangla Literature.

a) Swarna Kumari Devi, b) Ashapurna Devi, c) Mahasweta Devi, d) Rajlakshmi Devi, e) Kabita Singha, f) Nabanita Deb Sen

Paper – II :

Section - A

1) Vaishnava Padavali (Calcutta University Publication).

Phases (Parjayas): Gourchandrika, Purvaraga, Abhisar, Mathur, Prarthona.

2) Chandimangal: Kalketu episode by Mukunda (Sahitya Akademi).

3) Meghnadbadh Kavya by Michael Madhusudan Dutta - 1st, 2nd and 3rd cantos.

4) Rajani by Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay.

5) Kapalkundala by Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay.

6) Samya and Bangadesher Krishak by Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay.

7) Punascha by Rabindranath Tagore.

8) Bichitra Prabandha by Rabindranath Tagore.

9) Chacha Kahini by Sayed Muztaba Ali.


10) Chandragupta by Dwijendralal Roy.

11) Grihadaha by Saratchandra Chattopadhyay.

12) Adhunik Bangla Kabita

Selected Poems:

i)   Saswati by Sudhindranath Dutta

ii)  Rabindranath by Achintya Kumar Sengupta iii) Aami Kabi Jata Kamarer by Premendra Mitra

iv) Bandir Bandana by Buddhadeb Basu

v) Amar Koifiat by Kazi Nazrul Islam


13) Prabandha Samgraha by Pramatha Choudhuri: Selected Essays: Bharatchandra, Birbal, Boipara

14) Pather Panchali by Bibhutibhusan Bandyopadhyay

15) a) Ekaler Galpo Sanchayan - Vol.- 1 & 2 (Calcutta University Publication). b) Selected Stories:

i)   Payomukham by Jagadish Gupta

ii)  Haraner Natjamai by Manik Bandyopadhyay iii) Fossil by Subodh Ghosh

iv) Tope by Narayan Gangyopadhyay v)  Adab by Samaresh Bose

vi) Aswamedher Ghora by Dipendranath Bandyopadhyay

16) Shrestha Kavita by Jibanananda Das.

17) Jagori by Satinath Bhaduri.

18) Ebam Indrajit by Badal Sircar.


Paper – I :


1.  Hindi Linguistic and Grammatical References i.          Definition of Language

ii.      Difference between learning and parole

iii.      Elements of Communication of Language iv.      Different aspects of Language

v.      Units of language - Phonemes, Morphemes, Syntax, Discourse, Sementics.

2.  History of Hindi language and Nagari Lipi

i.       History of Development of Hindi language (Short study)

ii.      Development of Khari Boli Hindi as literary language and Lingua Franka

(Special context to Indian Freedom struggle and post Independent India)

iii.      Area of Hindi Language

iv.      Prominent Hindi dialects and inter relationship between the dialects v.      Grammatical structure of standard Hindi

vi.      Scientific features of Nagari lipi

vii.     Development of Hindi as a global language in the modern context

SECTION-B History of Hindi Literature:

1.  Tradition of writing History of Hindi Literature

2.  Literary trends of following four periods of Hindi Literature:

a)    Adikala

b)    Madhya Kala :

i) Purva Madhyakala (Bhakti kala) (ii) Uttar Madhyakala (Riti Kala)

c)   Adhunika Kala

A.   ADIKALA- Prominent Poets and their works:

i)    Sarhapa and Goraknath

ii)   Chand Vardai and Narapati Nalha iii)  Svambhu

iv)  Abdur Rahman and Amir Khusro

B.  PURVA MADHYAKALA (Bhakti kala) - Prominent Poets and their works:

i.    Sant Kavyadhara - Kabir and Sahjo Bai ii.   Sufi Kavyadhara - Jayasi

iii.   Krish Kavyadhara - Surdas and Meerabai

iv.  Ram Kavyadhara -. Tulsidas

C.  UTTARMADHYAKALA (Ritikala) – Prominent Poets and their works :

i.    Ritibadh - Keshavdas ii.   Ritisiddha - Bihari

iii.   Ritimukta -Ghananda


1.     Trends of Navajagran (Renaissance)

2.     Development of Hindi Prose and contribution of Bhartendu Mondal

3.     Contribution of Mahavir Prasad Divedi towards the development of Hindi Prose


4.     Prominent trend of Modern Hindi Poetry-

Chahayavad, Pragtivad, Prayogvad, Nai Kavita, Samakalin Kavita and Ghazal, Sanavadi Kavita

5.     Prominent Poets - Maithili Sharan Gupta, Prasad, Nirala, Mahadevi, Dinkar, Agyeya, Muktibodh, Nagarjun, Dushyant Kumar.


i)    Development of Hindi Novels and short stories

ii)   Prominent writers-Premchand, Jainendra, Prasad, Renu, Bhishma Sahani, Yaspal, Chitra Mudgal, Mohan Rakesh and Krishna Sobti


1.   Development of Hindi Drama and Stage

2.   Prominent Dramatists-Bhartendu, Prasad, Mohan Rakesh, Lakshmi Narayan Lal

3.    The development of Hindi Theatre


1.    Development of Hindi Criticism

2.  Prominent Critics -Ramchandra Shukla, Hazari Prasad Divedi, Ram Vilas Sharma

Paper – II :

(Textual studies of the prescribed text. This paper will test the critical and analytical aptitude of the candidates)


1.   Kabir - Kabir Vani, ed. by Parasnath Tiwari, first 25 padas

2.   Surdas - Bhramar Gitsar, ed. Ramchandra Sukla, first 25 padas

3.   Tulsidas-Vinay Patrika-Geeta Press, first 15 padas

4.    Bihari -Ritikavya Sanghra ed. Jagadish Gupta, first 25 dohas

5.    Prasad -Kamayani (Shraddha and Ira Sarga)

6.    Nirala -Saroj Smriti, Jago Phir Ek Bar

7.    Mahadevi Varma - Mai Neer Bhari Dukh ki Badli, Ravindra ke Mahaprasthan Par

8.   Agyeya-Asadhya Vina, Hamne Poudhey se kaha

9.    Nagarjun-Bahut Dino Ke Bad and Pret ka Byan.

10.  Dhumil-Mochiram, Roti Aur Sansad

11.  Sarveshvar Dayal Saxsena -Tumhare Sath Rah Kar, Soundryabodh

12.  Muktibodh - Mai Dur Hun, Bhool Galati


1.   Bharatendu - Andher Nagri

2.   Mohan Rakesh - Ashad Ka Ek Din

3.   Ramchandra Shukla-Shraddha Aur Bhakti, Krodha

4.   Premchand-Godan (Novel), Paush ki Raat, Badey Ghar ki Beti, Ahuti, Mukti Marg, Idgah (Stories)

5.   Prasad - Dhruswamini

6.   Phanishwar Nath Renu - Tisari Kasam, Panchlight, Rasapriya(Stories)

7.   Manu Bhandari - Mahabhoj

8.   Bhairv Prasad Gupta-Ganga Maiyya

9.   Harishankar Parasai - Matadin Chand Par, Viklanga Shraddha ka Dor

10. Hazari Prasad Divedi-Vasant A Gaya, Devdar


Paper – I :

(a) Sanskrit Linguistics:-.

(i)   Indo European family of languages

(ii) Phonetic Laws-Grimm’s Law, Verner’s Law, Grassmann’s Law, Collitz’s Law

(iii) Phonetic Tendencies

(iv) Development of Sanskrit- Vedic and Classical Sanskrit, Non-Aryan Influence in

Sanskrit, Contribution of Sanskrit in Linguistic Studies

(b) Sanskrit Grammar- Siddhanta Kaumudi-Karaka and Samasa

(c) Translation from Vedic texts into English:- Agnisukta-1.1




Hiranyagarbha Sukta-10.121


(d) (i) Translation from Sanskrit into English


(ii) Translation from English into Sanskrit

(e) Paragraph in Sanskrit

Paper – II :

(a) History of Vedic and Classical Sanskrit Literature:-

(i)   Vedic- Samhita, Brahmana, Aranyaka, Upanisad, Vedanga

(ii) Classical- Ramayana, Mahabharata, Asvaghosa, Bhasa, Kalidasa, Sudraka, Visakhadatta, Bhavabhuti, Bharavi, Bhotti, Magha, Dandi, Banabhatta.

(iii) Philosophical - Fundamental ideas of orthodox systems of Indian Philosophy

(iv) Technical - Chandas, Arthasastra, Architecture, Medicine, Mathematics

(b) Texts (Meant for general acquaintance and not for minute study)

(i)   Kalidasa’s Abhijnanasakuntalam and Bhavabhuti’s Uttararamacaritam

(ii) Kalidasa’s Kumarasambhavam (Canto I - V ) and Bharavi’s Kiratarjuniyam (Canto I - V ) (iii) Manusamhita (Ch. VII Sl. I-144)

(iv) Isavasyopanisad


Paper – I :

In Section A, candidates will have to write an essay. Texts for detailed study in Sections B and C are given below.


An essay on a literary topic


1.   William Shakespeare- -Macbeth -As You Like It

2.   Christopher Marlowe - Edward II

3.   John Donne- - 'Canonization'; -' Death be not proud'; -'The Good Morrow'

4.   Andrew Marvell-'To His Coy Mistress'; -'The Garden'

5.   John Milton-'Lycidas'; -Paradise Lost, Book I

6.   Alexander Pope - The Rape of the Lock

7.   William Wordsworth- -'Ode on Intimations of Immortality'; -'Tintern Abbey'

8.   Samuel Taylor Coleridge -'Kubla Khan'; -'Dejection: an Ode'

9.   Percy Bysshe Shelley- - 'Ode to the Westwind' ; -' Ozymandias'

10. John Keats- -'Ode to a Nightingale' -'Ode on a Grecian Urn'

11. Alfred Tennyson-'Ulysses'; -'The Lotus Eaters'; -'Tithonus'

12. Robert Browning-'The Last Ride Together'

13. Elizabeth Barrett Browning-' How do I love thee!'


1.   Jane Austen- Pride and Prejudice

2.   Charles Dickens-Great Expectations

3.   Thomas Hardy-The Mayor of Caster bridge

4.   Mark Twain-The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

5.   Emily Bronte-Wuthering Heights

6.   Mary Shelley-Frankenstein

Paper – II :

In Section A, candidates will have to respond critically to an Unseen Passage. Texts for detailed study in

Sections B and C are given below.


Critical analysis/response to an unseen passage in prose/verse


1.     W. B. Yeats-'Easter 1916';

-'Sailing to Byzantium';

-'Leda and the Swan'

2.     T. S. Eliot-

-'The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock';

-'The Journey of the Magi';

-'Burnt Norton'

3.     W.H. Auden-

-'In Memory ofW.B.Yeats';

-'Lay your sleeping head, my love';

-'The Shield of Achilles'

4.   John Osborne-Look Back in Anger

5.   Samuel Beckett-Waiting for Godot

6.   Sylvia Plath -


- 'Nick and the Candlestick'

7.     Henry Louis Vivian Derozio-'To India My Native Land';

-'My Country'

8.   Kamala Das -' An Introduction'



1.   D.H. Lawrence-The Rainbow

2.   Raja Rao-Kanthapura

3.   Amitava Ghosh-The Shadow Lines

4.   Chinua Achebe-Things Fall Apart

5.   James Joyce -A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man

6.   Rabindranath Tagore - 'Crisis in Civilization'

7.   Virginia Woolf - 'A Room of One's Own'


Paper – I :

Candidates shall have to answer five questions taking atleast one question from each group.  Answer to questions on Group-B, Group-D and Unit 3 of Group-C must be written in Pali language either in Bengali or in Roman script.  The remaining questions must be attempted in Pali or in Bengali or in English but in only any one of these languages.


Unit 1 – Concepts of Linguistics, Languages and Phonetic Laws.

Unit 2 – Concept of Homeland of Pali, Features of Pali, Pali as M.I.A., Pali & Sanskrit, Pali & Prakrits. Unit 3 – Short notes on Phonetic Tendencies.


Unit 1 – Sandhi, Samasa, Itthipaccaya.

Unit 2 -  Karaka Vibhakti, Paccaya-Kita & Taddhita. Unit 3 – Conjugation, Declension, Make Sentences.


Unit 1 – Pali to English (unseen passages from poetry) with grammatical notes on any two words. Unit 2 -  Pali to English (unseen passages from prose) with grammatical notes on any two words. Unit 3 – English to Pali.

D)  ESSAY IN PALI consisting of 200 words on any one of the following topics:

Gotama  Buddha,  Tipiţaka,  Dhamma  –  Vinaya,  Sammāsambuddha, Paccekabuddha, Bodhisatta, Majjhima paţipadā, Ariyaaţţhangikamagga, Cattāriariyasaccāni, Dukkha, Paţiccasamuppāda, Nibbāna, Dukkhanirodhagāminīpaţipadā, Tilakkhana, Anicca, Anattā, Kammavāda.

Paper – II :

Candidates shall have to answer any three questions from Section -A and any two from Section-B. Answers of questions belonging to Section-B must be answered in Pali language in Bengali or in Roman script. The remaining three questions must be attempted in any one of the following three languages – Pali, Bengali, English.



A)   History of Canonical Literature : Vinayapitaka, Suttapitaka & Abhidhammapitaka.

B)   Non-Canonical Literature : Extra-Canonical (Anupitaka), Commentaries   (Atthakathas), Vamsa


C)   History of Early Buddhism : Pre-Buddhist India, Life of Buddha, Royal Patronage, Origin of Samgha. D)   Development of Buddhism : Buddhist Councils (1st, 2nd, 3rd & 4th); Buddhist      Schools and Sects;

Spread and Decline of Buddhism.



DHAMMAPADA –     Yamakavagga, Appamadavagga, Cittavagga, Maggavagga, Buddhavagga

SUTTANIPATA –     Pabbajja Sutta, Padhana Sutta, Karaniya Mettasutta, Khaggavisanasutta, Parayanavagga - Vatthugatha.

THERAGATHA -   Kaccayana, Talaputa, Silava

THERIGATHA -  Ambapali, Subha Jivakambabanika, Kisagotami




Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta, Mahaparinibbana Sutta, Ariyapariyesana Sutta, Singalovada Sutta, Kutadanta Suttanta. How women were admitted to the Sangha, Milindapanha-Bahirakatha, Marriage of Visakha, Annihilation of the Sakiyas, Sibi Jataka, Dasaratha Jataka

Explanation of Pali quotations from the prescribed texts in Pali language.

Ref.: www.vipassanaresearchinstitute.com for Pali texts

Ref.:  B.A. Pali Selection, Prose & Poetry, Calcutta University Publication

B.A. Pali (Hon.) Selection, Calcutta University Publication

M.A. Pali Selection, Prose & Poetry, Calcutta University Publication

F)    CRITICAL STUDY OF CHANDA AND ALAMKARA (Answers to be  written in Pali language) UNIT-I   -   VUTTODAYA       _    -  Samavutta Chanda

UNIT-II  -   SUBODHALANKARA - Yamaka, Upama, Rupaka, Vyatireka,


Paper – I :

(a) Arabic linguistics; (b) Arabic grammar; (c) Translation from Arabic into English; (d) Translation from

English into Arabic; (e) Arabic rhetoric and prosody.

Paper – II :

(a) History of Arabic literature; (b) Texts (meant for general acquaintance and not for minute study) : (1) Diwan-Ibn-ul-Fariz; (2) Sab’a Mu’allaqa; (3) Sirat-Ibn-i-Hisham; (4) Muqaddama-Ibn-i-Khaldun.


Paper – I :

(a) Persian linguistics (Persian and Indo-European family of languages; Aryan or Indo_Iranian branch, evolution of Persian language, Old Persian, Avestan language, Middle Persian or Pahlavi, Modern Persian, Iranian dialects, Persian influence on Indian languages); (b) Persian grammar; (c) Translation from Persian into English; (d) Translation from English into Persian; (e) Persian rhetoric and prosody.

Paper – II :

(a) History of Persian literature (Origin of Persian poetry, Early poets, Development of poetic forms- qasida, ghazal, masnavi,, etc. Growth of poetic themes or trendsepic, romantic, mystical, philosophical, ethical, etc. Survey of prose-works-historical, mystical, ethical, biographical, etc. Literary progress in different periods of Iranian history. Contributions of eminent poets and writers. Modern poetry, Modern prose, Indo-Persian literature); (b) Texts (meant for general acquaintance and not for minute study) : (1) Shahnama of Firdausi; (2) Chahar Maqala of Nizami Aruzi; (3) Qasaid-i-

Khaqani; (4) Diwan-i-Hafiz; (5) Masnavi of Jalaluddin Rumi; (6) Naldaman of Fayzi.


Paper – I :

Translation from French into English, Translation from English into French, French Grammar.

Paper – II :

History of French Literature, Texts, Texts (meant for general acquaintance and not for minute study) :


(1) Prose-Ronsard : Deveres choisies (Classique Larosusse) – 2 volumes, Pierre Loti; La roman d’um enfant; (2) Poetry-Ronsard : Poesies choisies (Classique Larosusse)-2 volumes. Musset : Poesies nouvelles. Drama-Moliers : L’Avare, Corneilles : La Cid.


Paper – I :

(Answer must be written in Urdu)

Section – A

1.  Development of Urdu Language :- a) Development of Indo-Aryan

i) Old Indo-Aryan

ii) Middle Indo Aryan iii)New Indo Aryan

b) Western Hindi and its dialects :-

i)   Brij Bhasha, Maghrabi Hindi Aur Uski Mukhtalif Boliyan & Haryanvi ii)  Theories about the origin of Urdu Language

c)  Daccani Urdu origin and Development, its significant linguistic feature. d)  Fort William College and its contribution to Urdu Literature.



Section – B

1.          Genres and their development :-

A.         Poetry :-

i.  Ghazal, Qasida, Masnavi, Marsia, Nazm and Rubai.

a)  Ghazal :-

i)  Wali :- Intekhab-e-wali compiled by Nurul HasanHashmi – (First five Ghazals)

ii)  Mir :- Intekhab-e-Mir compiled by Maulvi Abdul Haq –( First five Ghazals)

iii) Ghalib :- Diwane-Ghalib ( First five Ghazals)

Faiz Ahmed Faiz :- Naqsh-e-Faryadi, (first five Ghazals) Nasir Kazmi :- Barg-e-Ne ( first five Ghazals) Shaharyar :- Hijr ke Mausam ( First five Ghazals)

Qasida :   Dar Tazhik-e-Rozgar -  Sauda. Masnavi : Sahrul Bayan - Mir Hasan

Marsia; i) Jab Badban-e-Kashti Shahe Umam Gira          - Mir Anis

ii) Kis Sher ki Amad hai Ke Run Kanp Raha hai -  Mirza Dabir

Nazm;       Banjara Nama    – Nazir Akbarabadi

Masjide Qartaba – Iqbal

Tanhai    - Faiz Ahmed Faiz Ek Ladka             - Akhtarul Iman Taslise Hayat       - Pervez Shahedi

Rubai;       i.  Khenche Huwe Sar Ko Kahan jata hai         -  Mir Anis

ii.Ek Fitna hai Naqeson Mein Kamil hona         - Josh Malihabadi iii.Aa Ae Mani-e-Kayenat Mujh Mein Aaja       -  Firaq Gorakhpuri

2.          Significant features of    :-

a)      i)  Lucknow School ii)  Delhi School

b)      i)  Sir Sayed Movement

ii)   Progressive Movement

iii)    Modernism

Paper – II :

Answer must be written in Urdu

(This paper will require first hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed to test the candidates critical ability)

Section – A


1.         Bagho Bahar                                             Mir Aman Dehalvi

2.         Abe Hayat (Dibacha)                                  Md. Hussain Azad

3.         Ood-e-Hindi                                              Asadullah Khan Ghalib

4.         Ghubar-e- Khatir                                       Maulana abul Kalam Azad

5.         Godan                                                      Munshi Prem Chand

6.         Lajwanti                                                    Rajindra Singh Bedi

7.         Toba Tek Singh                                          Sa’adat Hassan Manto

8.         Maqualate sir syed (Ta’asub,                      Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

Tahzib, Rasm-o-Rewaj ki Pabandi

Ke Nuqsanat, Khushamad)

9.         Ganjhaye Giramaya                                   Rasheed Ahmed Siddiqui

(Maulana Md. Ali Johar, Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari, Md. Aqbal, Ayub Abbasi, Asghar Gondavi)

10.        Safaid Khoon                                             Agha Hashr Kashmiri


Section – B Literary criticism and its development with reference to :-

i.           Muqaddama sher-o-shaeri             -           Altaf Hussain Hali ii.          Tanquidi Nazaryat                         -           Ehtasham Hussain

iii.         Urdu Tanquid Per Ek Nazar            -           Kalimuddin Ahmed iv.         Adab aur zindagi                           -           Majnu Gorakhpuri

v.          Tanquidi Afkar                              -           Shamsur Rahman Farooqui

Section –  C Essay writing

(Compulsory, covering literary and imaginative topics).


Paper – I :

Question Papers are to be set in ‘OLCHIKI’ script and Answers should also be given in ‘OLCHIKI’ sc ript.

Section - A

1.       Topic from the History of Santali Language:

a)      The chronological track from Austro-Asiatic-Austric to Santali (Family tree with branches and approximate dates);

b)      Historical stages of Santali (Old, Middle and New) and their Linguistic features with Santali grammar (Ranor);

c)       Santali languages and its Dialects and their distinguishing characteristic;

d)      Elements of Santali Vocabulary;

e)       Forms of Santali literary prose (Relevant with personal relations);

2.       Process of Phonetic changes in Santali languages and necessity of ‘OLCHIKI’ script.

3.       Problems of standardization and reform of alphabet and spelling and those of transliteration and inevitability of ‘OLCHIKI’ Script. Ill effects of use of other script in writing Santali excepting ‘OLCHIKI’ script.

Section - B

4.       History of Santali literature:

a)       Periodization of Santali literature: Old and Middle Santali literature;

b)      Roots and reasons behind the emergence of modernity in Santali literature;

c)       Evolution of Santali oral literatures like ‘Binti’, ‘Bankher’, ‘Thuti’, Serwa Sereng (Traditional songs) and the ‘Jamsimbinti’- the scripture of SARIDHARAM religion;

d)      Narrative and lyric trends in the nineteenth century Santali poetry;

e)       Development of Santali prose;

f)       Santali dramatic literature (Nineteenth century, Pandit Raghunath Murmu, Sadhuram Chand Murmu and Post 1946 Santali drama);

5.       Majhi Ramdas Tudu (Reska), Sadhuram Chand Murmu and Pandit Raghunath Murmu (Upto 1950).

6.       Fiction - Major Authors :

Majhi Ramdas Tudu (Reska), Sadhuram Chand Murmu, Pandit Raghunath Murmu, Paul Jujar Saren, Narayan Saren (Toresutam), Sarada Prasad Kisku (Totko Malang), Nayke Mongal Chandra Saren, Domon Sahu Samir.

Paper – II :

Question Papers are to be set in ‘OLCHIKI’ script and Answers should also be given in ‘OLCHIKI’ script.

Section - A

1.       SADHURAM CHAND ANOLMALA (A total collection of Sadhuram Chand Murmu) - April, 1997, Department of Information & Cultural Affairs, Govt. of West Bengal:

i) Marang Buru Dharam Sari   Page - 19

ii)       Ana terang horko Dusao Kana     Page - 11

iii)      Deban tengon adibasi bir     Page - 61

 (All from ol daha anarhe)

iv)      Bhorom nasao    Page - 85



v)       Jati Milan                                                        Page - 93

vi)      Kolkata renah bharak                                      Page - 155

vii)     Bah julung                                                      Page - 151

(All from ‘Aldaha anarhe’)


viii)    Jamsimbinti                                                    Page - 204

ix)      Dharti Dhasao                                                 Page - 208

x)      Manmi Reah Bad Borket                                   Page - 283 - 304 (Jat hating)

(All from Lita Godet)


i)        AAD KHON MANOA REAH BIBORAN - Page - 1-19

ii)       DHARAM AAR SERWOA - Page - 203-249

3.       Kherwal Bansha Dharam Puthi - Rajhi Ramdas Tudu (Reska) Karmu ar kharmu reyah - Karambinti Galmarao - Page - 68-102

4.       Sansar Phend -  A Drama by Sadhuram Chand Murmu

5.       Bidu Chandan -  A Drama by Pandit Raghunath Murmu

6.       Sidu Kanu Santal Hool - A Drama by Pandit Raghunath Murmu

7.       The Jamsim Binti By Nayke Mongal Ch. Saren

Section - B

8.       Pandit Raghunath Murmu (Biography) By Ramchanda Murmu

9.       Santal Folk Tales (Collected) Vol-I By P. O. Bodding

10.     a)      SAOHEND MOHANK - A collection of selected Essays By Subodh Hansda and Debdulal Murmu


b)      AYO AARANG TE OLOH - Pandit Raghunath Murmu

c)       SANTARI PARSI AARSAOHET - Sarada Prasad Kisku

d)      SANTARI TULAJAKHA SAOHET - Gomosta Prasad Saren

11.     a)      SAI SERMA RENAH ANORHE - A collection of Santali Poems of 100 year with

Bengali Translation

b)      NIDA YUNTA - Sarada Prasad Kisku

c)       DHARAM GE SARIYA - Mondal Hembram d)      MAYAJAL - Narayan Saren (Tore Sutaru)

12.     MIT GEL HOR KAHNI SALAH MIT SAI MIT KAHNI - A collection of Ten Santali Folk Tales and 101 short stories.

13.     ‘Paschimbangla’ (Sadhu Ramchand Murmu Memorial Edition - Govt. of West Bengal).

14.     Saotal Bidraher 150 Bochhor - ‘Paschimbanga’ special issue.


Paper – I :

(a) Theories of Literature : Dates terms and Concepts.

(b) Literature of the Ancient World; (i) Indian, (ii) Western

(c) Bangla Sahitya : 1 (Baishnab Padabali theke Bankimchandra) (d) Bangla Sahitya : 2 (Rabindranath o Uttorkaal)

(e) Bengali Literature in Translation

(f) Indian Literature other than Bengali in Translation

Paper – II :

Western Literature -

(a) 800 – 1400 A.D. (including Song of Ronald, Tristan and representative writings of Troubadour Minnesang, Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio and Chaucer).

(b) 1400 – 1616 A.D. (including representative writings of Villon, Ronsard, Spencer, Machiavelli, Rableis, Montaigne and Shakespeare).

(c) 1616 – 1749 A.D. (including representative writings of Moliere, Racine, Swift, Voltaire and Defoe).



(d) 1749 – 1832 A.D. (including representative writings of Goethe, Schiller, Heine, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, Keats, Scott, Rene, Lamartine, Vigny, Hugo and Musset).

(e) 1832 – 1910 A.D. (including representative writings of Whitman, Baudelaire, Verlaine, Laforgue, lbsen, Balzac, Tolstoy, Maupassant and Chekhov).

(f) 1910 to the Present times (including representative writings of Yeats, Eliot, Frost, Rilke, Mayakovsky, Eluard, Neruda, Hervert, Kafka, Marquez and lonesco).


Paper – I :

Agro-ecological factors- plant growth and distribution. Distribution of crops according to region. Role of climate and weather of crop production, weather forecasting including modern methods. Greenhouse effect and global warming. Precision farming- Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information system (GIS).

Cropping pattern and cropping system-distribution, objectives, types and impact on high yielding

varieties, scope and limitations.

Package and practices of cereals (rice, wheat, maize), pulses (green gram, black gram, red gram, lentil and peas), oil seeds (mustard, sesamum, ground nut, linseed, sunflower); fibre crops (Jute, sunhemp, mesta); sugarcane and forage crops (Sorghum, napier, para, berseem, Lucerne, ricebean, cowpea, oat, dinanath grass).

Weeds- definition, characteristics, dessimination and control.

Agroforestry-Definition of forest, scope of various types of forest - social forest, rural forest, urban forest, farm forestry; forest products. Aforestation. Conservation.

Soil- definition, process and factors of soil formation, soil properties and soil conservation. Soilfertility - problems of soil and their reclamation.

Nutrition- essential elements, role of nutrients on plants, integrated nutrient management and


Water use efficiency and dryland farming- water use efficiency in relation to crops production. Criteria for scheduling irrigation. Methods and systems of irrigation. Rainwater harvesting.

Dryland farming - definition, prospects and problems. Techniques for establishment and management. Farm management - scope, importance and characteristics, farm planning, farm budgeting and farm operations.

Agro-economics - function and crop insurance.

Agril-extension - importance and role, methods of evaluation of extension programme. Role of KVK in technology transfer. Role and scope of Information Technology in Indian Agriculture. Livelihood management through agriculture (Self Help Group in agriculture).

Marketing - its channels, pricing, marketing intelligence, storage with special references to cold storage and wirehouse. Distribution- public distribution system.

Paper – II :

Crop improvement- Cell structure and functions, law of heredity, chromosome structure and aberrations, polyploidy. Mutation breeding.

History of plant breeding. Mode of reproduction, selfing and crossing techniques. Crop genetic resources - conservation and utilization. Application of principles of plant breeding. Breeding methods. Heterosis,somatic hybridization. Molecular markers, DNA finger printing and genetically modified crops.

Principles of plant physiology; absorption, translocation, photosynthesis and respiration (definition, process, factors affecting and significance). Growth and development, photoperiodism, plant growth substances (definition, classification and role).Stress-physiology.

Seed production, testing, certification and storage.

Cultivation practices of major commercial fruits, vegetables, flowers, plantation and spices, medicinal and aromatic crops. Landscaping- principles, features and designs. Postharvest technology. Protected cultivation of horticultural crops.

Pests and diseases of commercially important fruit, vegetables, flowers, plantation & spices, medicinal and aromatic crops. IPM.

Food and nutrient security. Scope for export of agricultural products.


Paper – I :


1.1        Livestock Feeds : Common feeds and fodder and their classification. Proximate analysis of feed stuff.

1.2        Energy Nutrition : Energy sources, Measures of food energy and their application such as Gross Energy, Digestible Energy, Metabolisable Energy, Net Energy, Total Digestible Nutrients. Energy requirement for maintenance, growth, pregnancy and  lactation in milk producing livestock.

1.3        Protein Nutrition: Biological value of protein, Protein efficiency ratio,    digestible crude protein. Use of NPN in ruminants, bypass protein. Protein requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy and lactation in milk producing livestock. Improvement of poor quality roughages.

1.4       Mineral and Vitamin Nutrition :        Major  and   trace   minerals,  their   sources,  physiological functions and deficiency symptoms. Role of vitamins, their sources and deficiency symptoms.

1.5        Feed Additives:  Role of probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics, enzymes, antioxidants, buffers, mould inhibitors and methane inhibitors. Antinutritional and toxic factors present in livestock feed and fodder.

1.6        Storage & Conservation of Feeds and  Fodders:  Storage of feed ingredients.  Conservation of fodder through hay and silage making and their use in livestock feeding.

1.7        Computation of Ration: Balanced ration, Formulation of ration and feeding of dairy cattle and buffaloes during different phases of growth and production (young, pregnant, lactating and dry animals). Formulation of ration and feeding of sheep,goat, pig and poultry.


2.1        Breeds : Various indigenous breeds of livestock including poultry; Exotic breeds experienced in India; Origin, distribution and breed descriptor of important breeds.

2.2        Farm Animal Practices : Dentition and ageing of animals. Disbudding, marking of animals, Grooming, Dipping, Castration, Isolation, quarantine, Disinfection and disposal of carcasses. Drug administration, Vices of animals, their prevention and  care.

2.3        Dairy Farming : Opportunities in dairy farming, Dairying under mixed and as     specialized farming.  Management of calves, heifer, pregnant, lactating and dry animals, bulls and bullocks.  Housing systems, Layout and design of different buildings for dairy animals.  Methods of milking and precautions. Factors affecting quality and quantity of milk. Organic Livestock Production.

2.4        Fodder Production : Importance of grasslands and fodders in livestock production. Feed and fodder requirements of individual animal.   Supply of greens throughout the year.   Scarcity  fodder, Recycling of animal wastes and washings for fodder production.

2.5        Sheep and Goat Farming : Homestead farming vs. Commercial farming, Goat as      poor man’s cow.

2.6           Poultry Production : Economic Importance of commercial poultry farming,   Backyard poultry farming.  Brooding management. Incubation and hatching, Management of broilers, layers and breeder flock. Designer egg.


3.1        Principles of Genetics   :   Mitosis and Meiosis.   Mendelian inheritance, deviation to Mendelian genetics.  Expression of genes. Linkage and crossing over.  Sex linked, sex influenced, and sex limited characters. Cytoplasmic inheritance, chromosomal aberrations, Gene and its structure, DNA as a genetic material, genetic code and protein synthesis, Recombinant DNA technology, Transgenesis.

3.2        Population Genetics : Quantitative and qualitative traits.  Gene and genotype frequency,  Hardy - Weinberg Law and its application. Inbreeding and methods of estimating inbreeding coefficient. Heritability, repeatability, genetic and phenotypic correlations and environmental interaction.

3.3        Animal Breeding   :   Basis of selection such as individual, pedigree, family, progeny testing. Methods of  Selection. Methods of  breeding  -  Inbreeding, out  breeding, upgrading, cross breeding. Crossing of inbred lines for commercial production. Sire index.


4.1        Hormone in reproduction  :  Hormones related to reproduction, mechanism of action, control of secretion and negative feed back mechanism of hormonal regulation.  Releasing and tropic hormones of reproduction.

4.2        Andrology  :    Puberty,  sexual  maturity  and  libido.    Factors  causing  infertility  in  males. Components of semen, physical and chemical properties of semen. Preservation of semen and artification insemination. Deep freezing of semen.

4.3        Gynaecology :   Symptoms of heat, detection of oestrus and time of insemination for optimal conception.  Anoestrus and repeat breeding. Silent heat. Management of buffaloes in summer for better conception.


5.1          Milk and milk products :   Milk industry in India. Composition and nutritive value of milk. Physico-chemical properties of milk Quality testing of   raw milk. Processing, packaging, storing, distribution and  marketing of  milk. Pasteurized, standardized, toned, doubled toned, homogenized, reconstituted, recombined and flavoured milk. Various milk products such as Cream, Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Channa, Cheese, Condensed, evaporated and dried milk. Preparation of cultured milk such as yoghurt, Dahi, Lassi and Srikhand.

5.2        Meat and meat products : Meat industry of India.Ante mortem care and management of food animals, stunning, slaughter and dressing. Meat inspection. Physical and chemical characteristics of meat. Method of meat preservation such as curing, canning, irradiation, packaging.

5.3        Poultry products Technology :   Composition and nutritive value of poultry meat and eggs. Slaughtering techniques. Grading of eggs. Structure, composition and nutritive value of eggs.

5.4        Milk and meat hygiene :  Clean milk production. Hygienic method of handling meat and meat products. Adulteration of milk and its detection. Legal standards of milk.



6.1    Concept of Sociology   :   Man and animal relationship, Society, Community, Association and Institution. Social groups, its types and function.

6.2       Principles of Extension  :  Basic philosophy, objective and concept.  Methods adopted to educate farmers under rural condition, generation of technology, its transfer and feedback.  Animal Husbandry Programmes for rural development.

Paper – II :



Osteology, arthrology and myology: Classification, physical properties and structure of long bones, joints and muscle. Study of skeleton of Pectoral, Pelvic gardles, Skull and vertebral bones of ox/buffaloes.

Splanchology : Gross morphology and topography of visceral organs of thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavity.

Neurology and asthesiology : Basic structural organization of nervous system (CNS, PNS, ANS), Eye and ear.

Anatomy of fowl : Parts of female reproductive tracts of fowl and their role in egg formation. Organs of digestive system.

(ii)         PHYSIOLOGY


Blood  :  Constituents  of  blood,  blood  cell  formation,  haemoglobin  synthesis,  coagulation  of  blood, hemorrhagic, disorders, anticoagulants. Biochemical tests for assessing liver and kidney function.

Circulatory  System  :  Haemodynamics  of  circulation,  physiology  of  heart  function,  Cardiac  Cycle, regulation of cardiac output, coronary circulation and ECG, blood pressure and hypertension, osmotic regulation, shock.

Excretion : Structure and function of nephron, formation of urine. Regulation of    electrolyte and acid-base balance, sweat glands and their function.

Respiration: Mechanism of respiration, Transport and exchange of gases in lungs and tissues. Neural control of respiration and hypoxia.

Environmental Physiology :   Climate change, climatological variables and their importance in animal ecology and behaviour. Effect of environmental stress on health and production.

Physiology of Milk Production :  Hormonal control of mammary growth, lactogenesis and galactopoiesis. Letting down and holding up of milk.


Biochemistry of carbohydrate, protein, lipids, enzymes, co-enzymes, co-factors and their role in metabolism; Biochemistry of blood and body fluids.


Pharmacology :  Principles of  drug  activity  such as  pharmacokinetics and  pharmacodynamics. Concept of drug and receptor. Does response relationship. Adverse drug reaction, drug interaction. Biopharmaceuticals and  gene  therapy  Antimicrobials,  antifungal  and principles  of  chemotherapy  in microbial infections.

Toxicology : Fundamentals and scope of toxicology. Toxicity due to insecticides, organo phosphates, heavy metals, non-metals, micotoxins and their ameliorative measures. Toxic plants.


Microbiology: Marphology and classification, cultivation and identification of microbes   related to animal diseases. Transmission of infections, sterilization and disinfactants.

Pathology: Pathogenesis and Pathognomic lesions in important microbial diseases of livestock.

Parasitology: Morphology and pathogenesis of important helminthic and protozoal diseases in livestock like ascariasis, facioliasis, Trypanosomiasis etc.


Infectious diseases : Etiology, symptoms, diagnosis and control of important bacterial, protozoal and viral diseases of domestic livestock and poultry, such as Anthrax, HS, BQ, Brucellosis, FMD, Hog Cholera, PPR, Goat Pox, Rabies, RD, IBD, Trypanosomiasis, Babesiosis, Coccidiosis etc.

Production/metabolic diseases : Etiology, symptoms, treatment and control of important metabolic diseases such as  milk  fever, ketosis, pregnancy toxaemia, hypomagnesemia of domestic animals.



Systemic states and diseases : Fever, hyperthermia, hypothermia, toxaemia, septicaemia, bloat, impaction, diarrhoea, dehydration and snake bite.

Herd health Management : Herd immunity, disease free zones, chemotherapeutics and chemoprophylaxis for herd health. Vaccination and deworming schedule of livestock and poultry.

Surgical intervention : Diagnosis and surgical intervention in fracture, hernia, choking, ruminotomy, castration and Caesarian section.


Epidemiology : Principles and applications of epidemiological measures in the study of diseases and their control. National and international regulations on livestock diseases.

Zoonoses : Socio-economic importance of zoonotic diseases. Role of animals in transmission of zoonotic diseases. Occupational zoonotic diseases.

Animal Welfare and Jurisprudence : Role of veterinarian in animal welfare. Animal Welfare Board of India. Role and function of Committee for the Purpose of Controlling and Supervising Experiments in Animals (CPCSEA), Common offences against animals. Examination of living and dead animals in criminal cases.


Method of handling and restrant of Wild animals. Conservation of wild life. Management and feeding practice and housing of Wild, Zoo and Laboratory animals.


Paper – I :

1.          Introducing anthropology: Meaning and scope of anthropology.

Major branches of anthropology:

1.1 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance :

(a) Social-cultural Anthropology,

(b) Biological Anthropology,

(c) Archaeological Anthropology,

(d) Linguistic Anthropology.

1.2        Brief outline of the growth of anthropology. Enlightenment. Colonialism and anthropology.

2.          Human evolution and Hominization process :

2.1       Theories of organic evolution. Human evolution and emergence of Man :

(a)  Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution,

(b)  Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre-Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian),

(c)  Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology.

2.2        Neutral theory of molecular evolution.

2.3        Concept of evolutionary biology: Skeletal changes, (skull, vertebral column, pelvic girdle, hind limb).


2.4        Characteristics of primates, Primate classification (general), Features and distribution of New World Monkey, Old World Monkey, Asian and African Apes.

2.5        Theories of human origin.

2.6        Geological time scale with special reference to Pleistocene epoch.

2.7                  Distribution, characteristics and phylogenetic status :

(a)         Parapithecus

(b)         Dryopithecus, Sivapithecus

(c)         Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus afarensis, Homo habilis

(d)         Homo erectus (Java Man, Peking Man) (e)         Archaic Homo sapiens

(f)         Neanderthal Man – La-chapelle-Aux-Saints, Tabun Man

(g)         Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens – Cromagnon, Grimaldi, Chancelade

3.          Human Genetics :

3.1        Methods – Mendelism, Twin-study, Cytogenetics, Population genetics.

3.2        Biological basis of inheritance: DNA structure and replication, Restriction Fragment   Length Polymorphism (RFLP), Variable Number of Tandem Repeat(s) (VNTRs), Short Tandem Repeat(s) (STRs) protein synthesis, gene, allele, cell division.

3.3        Concept  of  Human  Genome  :  nuclear  genome,  mitochondrial  genome,  Chromosome  and chromosomal aberrations in man (Numerical and structural aberrations, point mutation), Satellite DNA.

3.4        Patterns   of   inheritance   –   autosomal,   sex-chromosomal,   multifactorial,   polygenic,   sex determination, sex influenced.

3.5        Application of human genetics – consanguinity, inbreeding, genetic load, genetic counselling, forensic anthropology, personal identification, paternity identification, DNA fingerprinting, dermatoglyphics.

4.          Human variation :

4.1        Concept of Race, racism.

4.2        Basis of variation – Morphological (hair, eye) metric (stature, head shape), Polymorphic (genetic marker) – blood group (ABO, Rh), Hb, PGM, HP, Y-chromosome STR, mtDNA.

4.3        Concept of Human physique and somatotype.

4.4        Concept of ethnic groups – Mongoloid, Caucasoid, Negroid, Australoid.

5.          Human Growth and Nutrition :

5.1        Concept of human growth, stages of growth – Pre-natal, Post-natal, Adolescent.

5.2        Factors affecting the  growth and development –  genetic, environmental, nutritional, socio- economic.

5.3        Methodology of growth study.

6.          Concept of Health and disease :

6.1        Concept  of  Communicable and  Non-Communicable diseases. (Malaria  and  Type-2  diabetes respectively). Nutrition Deficiency related diseases.

6.2        Nutrition – concept of  Macro and Micro nutrients and  Deficiency.

7.          Human adaptation :

7.1        Concept of Human adaptation and acclimatization – hot, cold and high altitude. Bergman’s and Allen’s Rules.

7.2        Anthropometry and its uses in understanding human adaptation (BMI and CI), Physiological variable (blood pressure, pulse rate), Body composition (fat patterning).

8.          Cultural evolution :

8.1        Tool typology and technology of tool manufacturing.

8.2        Excavation, Exploration, Site survey, Application of GIS

8.3        Concept of Dating: Absolute (C14, K-Ar) Relative (Dendrochronology and Stratigraphy).

8.4        Features and distribution of prehistoric cultures with reference to India and Europe :

(a)         Paleolithic

(b)         Mesolithic

(c)         Neolithic

(d)         Chalcolithic

(e)         Iron Age.

9.          Theories and concept of culture and society :

9.1        Brief   outline   of   Anthropological   Theories:   Evolutionism,   Diffusionism,   Functionalism, Structuralism, Symbolism and Interpretative Approach, Post-structuralism and Post-modernism – Hermeneutics and Phenomenological Anthropology.

9.2        Concept  (brief  outline):  Social  structure,  Social  organization,  Gender,  Institution,  Group, Community.

10.        Culture and civilization :

10.1      Definition and features of culture and civilization.

10.2      Cultural relativism, Acculturation, Enculturation, Diffusion, Cultural lag, World view, Symbol.

10.3      Anthropological approaches to the study of civilization.

11.        Elements of social organization :

11.1      Family – Definition, Types, functions, recent changes.

11.2      Marriage – Definition, Types, functions, recent changes.Marriage payments (dowry and bride wealth). Incest regulation, Preferential and prescribed forms of marriage.

11.3         Kinship  -  Definition of  kinship  system.  Importance, Types  of  kinship  systems, kin  term classification.

11.4           Rules of Descent and alliance, Rules of residence, Descent groups.

12.        Economic Anthropology :


12.1      Concept and approaches.

12.2      Major  ways  of  subsistence  –  Hunting-gathering,  Pastoralism,  Horticulture  and  Settled Agriculture.

12.3      Production,  Distribution  (Reciprocity,  Market  exchange,  Re-distribution),  Consumption,  Gift exchange.

12.4      Peasant.

13.        Political anthropology :

13.1      Definition and approach.

13.2      Power, authority, social control, law, social sanction, governance.

13.3      Concepts of Band, Tribe, Chiefdom and State.

13.4      Political movement - Approaches of study, Types of socio-political movements (Revitalization, Messianic, Social solidarity, regional and Ethnic).

13.5      Ethnicity – Definition, concept of ethnic boundary.

14.        Anthropology of religion :

14.1      Definition of religion, functions of religion.

14.2      Approaches to the study of religion (intellectual, psychological, functional, interpretative).

14.3      Concepts: Myth, magic, witchcraft, sorcery, taboo, totem, divination, rituals, symbolism in religion.

14.4      Religious specialists – shaman, witch-doctor, priest.

15.        Social stratification :

15.1      Definition and features.

15.2      Theories/approaches.

15.3      Types – Caste and class.

15.4      Concepts: Status, role, age-set/age-grade, social mobility.

16.        Ecological anthropology :

16.1      Definition, scope and approaches/methods of ecological anthropology.

16.2      Concept of culture ecology.

17.        Emerging fields of social-cultural anthropology :

17.1      Development anthropology – Definition and scope, development, globalization.

17.2      Legal anthropology and Human Rights.

17.3      Anthropology of communication – visual anthropology, mass media, popular culture.

17.4      Anthropology of gender.

18.        Basic methods of data collection and interpretation :

18.1      Qualitative and quantitative approaches, ethnography, fieldwork.

18.2      Basic  methods/techniques  of  data  collection  –  observation  (special  reference  participant observation), interview, case study, schedule, questionnaire, genealogy, PRA and RRA.

18.3      Application of statistical principles – Descriptive statistics – central tendency (mean, median, mode), standard deviation, standard error, Testing of hypothesis: t-test, chi-square test.

Paper – II :



1.          History and Development of Anthropology in India :


1.1        Colonialism and Anthropology in India.


1.2        Phases of development and major trends of Anthropology in India.

1.3        Idea of Indian tradition of Anthropology. Contribution of Indian scholars : S.C.Roy, N.K. Bose, M.N. Srinivas, D.N. Majumdar, T.C. Das, S.C. Sinha and S.S. Sarkar.

2.          Evolution of Indian culture and civilization :

2.1        Prehistoric cultures: Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Iron age.

2.2        Indus Valley Civilization (origin, distribution, features with special reference to architectural, socio-economic and religious; decline; Indus script.)

2.3        Vedic society (early and late): Society, economy and polity.

2.4        Contribution of tribal cultures to Indian civilization.

2.5        Ethnoarchaeology in India with special reference to mortuary practices and megalithic burials.

3.          Emergence of man in India and contemporary variation :

3.1        Fossil remains in India: Ramapithecus, Narmada man.

3.2        Classification of Indian population: H.H. Risley, B.S. Guha and S.S. Sarkar.

3.3        Contemporary classification based on morphology, anthropometry and genetic markers (ABO, Hb, HP, mtDNA).

4.          Demographic Profile of India :

4.1        Demography: concept, theories and methods.

4.2        Structure and features of Indian population; Rates and Ratios : Fertility, Mortality; Factor s influencing fertility and mortality. Dynamics of demography in rural, urban and tribal contexts. Migration and effects of migration.

4.3        Linguistic elements in Indian population (Grierson and S.K.Chatterjee).

5.          Anthropological approaches to Indian civilization :

5.1        Cultural categories of ancient India :Varnashram, Purushartha, Karma and Rebirth.

5.2        Caste system – origin, features, functions and change in caste system, DominantCaste, Jajmani system.

5.3        Structure of Indian civilization: Theoretical understanding (R.Redfield, N.K.Bose).

5.4        Concepts for understanding Indian civilization: Sanskritization, Universalization-Parochialization, Tribe-peasant & Tribe-caste continuum, State Formation and Sacred Complex.

5.5        Idea of  folk and folk culture, folkloric elements in Indian culture (proverbs, folksong, folkart with special reference to West Bengal), folklore and identity, performances.

5.6        Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam, Christianity on Indian society.

6.          Aspects of Indian village :

6.1        Development of village study in India and its significance.

6.2        Types of village, social organization of Indian village (agricultural).

6.3        Concepts developed through village studies in India.

6.4        Changes in rural society in post-Independent India.

7.          Weaker sections :

7.1        Concepts of SC, ST, OBC, minority, women, children, aged – status, constitutional provisions, problems, programmes of development.

7.2        Linguistic minority and its problems.

8.          Tribal situation in India  :

8.1        Ethnic strains in Indian population, Geographical, Economic and linguistic distribution of India n tribes.

8.2        Major problems of Indian tribes with special reference to issues of land and forest.

8.3        Plan and programmes for the development of the STs; problems/critique of tribal development;five year plans and Indian tribes – a review.

8.4        Constitutional safeguards for STs, 5th and 6th Schedules.

8.5        Socio-economic changes in tribal millieu – Impact of urbanization, industrialization, forest policy, development projects on tribal people. Changes in tribal society in colonial and post-Independent periods. Impact of modern democratic institutions on traditional political system.

8.6        Tribal movement (Nature and distribution), Emergence of Ethnicity, Issues of Identity, Tribe and Nation-State, Indian National Movement and Indian tribes, Regionalism, Jharkhand movement, Santal movement.

9.          Anthropology of development:

9.1        Critique,  approaches,  issues  of  women  development,  cultural  factors  of   development, displacement and rehabitation, sustainable development, alternative to development.

9.2        Role of NGO in development.

9.3        Role of nthropology in development.

10.        Emerging issues in Indian Anthropology:

10.1      Human Rights and advocacy of anthropology in the contexts of women, children, health and education.

10.2      Social-cultural dimensions of health: Bio-medical, medical anthropology and ethno medicine.

10.3      Issues in context: Sect, Cult, Religions pluralism in India, Visual image and Indian society, Public

Culture in India, Refugee, Civil Society, Violence, Traditional Knowledge.


Paper – I :


Plant virus- types - TMV- Physicochemical characteristics and Multiplication, One step growth curve, Lytic cycle (T4  phage) and Lysogenic cycle (Lambda phage), Significance of lysogeny, Viroids and Prions. Bacteria - Distinguishing features of Archaea and Bacteria, Flagella (ultrastructure) and Pilli, wall  – chemical structure and differences between Gram +ve & Gram –ve bacteria, Bacterial genome and plasmid, Endospore – formation, structure and function. Genetic Recombination (Transformation, Transduction & Conjugation) Application in Medicine and Industry.


Plant Pathology:

Terms and Definitions:  Disease concept, Symptoms, Etiology and causal complex, Endemic, Epidemic, Pandemic and Sporadic diseases, Disease triangle, Disease cycle (monocyclic, polycyclic and polyetic) with special reference to Late Blight of Potato, Brown Spot of Rice and Citrus Canker. Host – Parasite Interaction.   Pathotoxin (Definition, criteria and example), Phytoalexin, Resistance. Plant Disease Management- Symptoms, Causal organism, Disease cycle and Control measures.




General account. Ultrastructure of cell. Diatom:   Cell structure, Cell division, Auxospore formation in Centrales and  Pennales. Economic Importance: Food, Phycocolloid (Agar-agar, Algin, Carrageenan), Diatomite, Algal Biotechnology – potential of microalgae for SCP, β-carotene, Biofertilizer, Biodiesel; Principles of mass cultivation of microalgae; Algal toxins.

FUNGI & LICHEN: General Account: Hyphal forms, Fungal spore forms and mode of liberation, Sexual reproduction and degeneration of sex, Homothallism and heterothallism, Life cycle patterns, Anamorphic fungi and parasexuality, Mycotoxins with emphasis on aflatoxin. Mycorrhiza: Role in Agriculture & Forestry.

Fungal Biotechnology: Mushroom, Cheese and  Ethanol-  Industrial production (brief outline), Fungal sources and uses of Mycoprotein, Enzyme (Cellulase), Amino acid (Tryptophan), Vitamin (Riboflavin), Antibiotic( Griseofulvin), Pharmaceuticals (Cyclosporin-A).

Lichen : Types, Reproduction , Economic and ecological importance.


General Account and Origin of Alternation of Generations (Homologous and Antithetic theory), Evolution of Sporophytes (Progressive and Regressive concept).

Importance: Role of bryophytes in Plant succession and Pollution Monitoring.


General Account: Colonisation and rise of early land plants.

Fossil Pteridophytes: Structural features, Geological distribution and Evolutionary significance. Telome concept and its significance in the origin of different groups of Pteridophytes. Heterospory and Origin of Seed habit.

Economic importance as food, medicine and Agriculture.


Palaeobotany & alynology:

Plant Fossil: Types, Different modes of preservation, Nomenclature and Reconstruction, Importance of fossil study.

Geological time scale with dominant plant groups  through ages.

Palynology: Pollen aperture types, NPC classification (Erdtman). Pollen wall- Sporopollenin, Stratification and  Ornamentation (sculpturing), Applied Palynology:- Palaeopalynology,.Aeropalynology ,    Forensic palynology, Melissopalynology.


GYMNOSPERMS : Progymnosperms: Phylogenetic importance.

Fossil  gymnosperms:  Structural  features  of  Cycas,  Pinus,  Lyginopteris,  Williumsonia  oldhamia  and

Geological distribution of reconstructed genera.

Economic Importance of fossils with reference to Wood, Resins, Essential oils, and Drugs.


Inflorescence types with examples. Flower: Corolla- forms, aestivation; Stamen- types; Placentation- types; Ovule - structure and forms. Fruit - types with examples.


Components of Systematics: Nomenclature, Identification, Classification; Taxonomy and its phases - Pioneer, Consolidation , Biosystematic and Encyclopaedic ; alpha- and omega- taxomony .

Nomenclature: Herbaria and Botanical Gardens – their role; important Indian Herbaria and Botanical Gardens; Dichotomous keys – indented and bracketed, Phenetics. Brief idea on Phenetics, Numerical taxonomy; Cladistics; Monophyletic, polyphyletic and paraphyletic groups; Plesiomorphy and apomorphy. Data sources in Taxonomy: Supportive evidences from: Phytochemistry, Cytology and Anatomy. Diagnostic features, Systematic position of Economically important plants (parts and uses) with special reference to the families Poaceae, Orchidaceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Malvaceae.


Pre-fertilisation changes:    Microsporogenesis and Microgametogenesis, Megasporogenesis. Post- fertilization changes. Embryogenesis and Development of Endosperm, Apomixis,  Apospory and Apogamy, Polyembryony.


Ultrastructure and chemical composition of cell wall. Stomata: Types, Ontogeny of Trachea and Sieve- tube. Stele: Stelar types & evolution/ Secondary growth with special reference to the abnormal growth in Dracaena, Boerhaavia and Bignonia. Mechanical tissues and the Pinciples governing their distribution in plants.

Organisation of shoot apex (Tunica–Corpus) and Root apex (Korper-Kappe), Adaptive anatomical features

of Hydrophytes and Xerophytes.


Habitat and Niche, Ecotone and edge–effect, Carrying capacity.

Community  ecology:  Community-  Characteristics and  diversity,  Ecological  succession  –Primary  and secondary, Seral stages (with reference to Hydrosere), autogenic and allogenic succession.

Plant indicators (metallophytes); Phytoremediation. Conservation of Biodiversity (In-situ & Ex-situ).

Plant Geography:

Phytogeographical regions; Endemism; Endemic types and Factors; Age & Area hypothesis and Epibiotic theory; Endemism in Indian flora with special emphasis on Sunderban and Eastern Himalayas.

Paper – II :

Cell & Molecular Biology


CELL BIOLOGY: Cell and its types (prokaryotic and eukaryotic), structure and functions of the major cell organelles (nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplast, ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, microbodies), cell division (mitosis and meiosis), significance of cell division, Cell cycle, structure of a typical chromosome, nucleosome model of chromosome, chromosomal aberrations (deletion, duplication, translocation and inversion), Concept of RNA world.

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: Chemical structure and nature of the nucleic acids, concept of gene, replication of DNA, concept of genomic DNA and cDNA, split genes, overlapping genes, oncogenes, genetic code, protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, central dogma, basic of recombinant DNA technology (restriction enzymes, vectors, molecular cloning, application of R DNA technology and its social ethics).

Genetics, Plant Breeding, Biometry & Evolution Biology:

GENETICS: Mendelian principles (Mendel’s monohybrid and dihybrid experiments and laws), concept of linkage and crossing over, polyploidy, multiple alleles, point mutation, sex-linked inheritance, cytoplasmic inheritance and basic population genetics.


PLANT BREEDING:    Objective of  plant breeding, methods of  propagation in  relation to  breeding methods, methods of plant breeding (selection, hybridization, concept and causes of heterosis). Maintenance of germplasm, Heterosis and hybrid seed production, Molecular Breeding (use of DNA markers in plant breeding). Maintenance of germplasm, Mass selection and pure line selection, Heterosis and hybrid seed production, Molecular Breeding (use of DNA markers in plant breeding).

BIOMETRY:  Random sampling, Frequency distribution, Central tendency– Arithmetic Mean, Mode and

Median, Measurement of dispersion – Standard Deviation, Standard error of Mean, Test of significance:

‘t’- test; chi square test for goodness of fit.   Probability, Measurement of gene frequency (Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium). Overview of Bioinformatics, nature of biological data, literature databases (searching and downloading), introduction and overview of biological databases, nucleic acid sequence databases, GenBank, Protein sequence databases, introduction to BLAST series.

EVOLUTION BIOLOGY: Concept of  biological evolution, evidence of organic evolution (taxonomic, geological, morphological and anatomical); Lamarckism, Darwinism and mutation theories of de Vries.

Physiology and Biochemistry:

Plant-water relations, Stomatal physiology-mechanism of opening and closing, Organic Translocation Photosynthesis, Photochemical reaction centres, Cyclic and noncyclic electron transport, Water splitting mechanism, photophosphorylation, Z-scheme, Calvin cycle – Biochemical reactions and stoichiometry, Photosynthetic efficiency of C3  and C4  plants and crop productivity, Photorespiration, Crassulacean acid metabolism. Respiration- EMP pathway, TCA cycle, ETS and oxidative phosphorylation, Oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and its significance, ß-oxidation of fatty acids and significance. Nitrogen Metabolism (symbiotic and non-symbiotic), structure and function of di-nitrogenase complex, ETS of di-nitrogenase, basic concept of nif and nod genes. Plant Growth Regulators (Auxin, Gibberellin, Cytokinin, Ethylene and Abscisic Acid). Photoperiodism and plant types, Phytochrome, Vernalisation, Concept of biological clock and biorhythm. Seed dormancy, Physiology of Senescence and Ageing. Stress Physiology.

Biochemistry as the molecular logic of living organisms, axioms of living organisms, the major compounds of living beings;  pH,  buffers  and  basic  bioenergetics,  chemical  structure  and  properties  of  water molecule, ionization  of  water,  Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, titration  curve  and  the  concept  of preparation of any buffer solution; biomolecules: general structure, properties, classification and metabolic importance of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids; enzymes,  basic structure (holoenzyme, apoenzyme, cofactor, coenzyme and prosthetic group), nomenclature and classification of enzymes according to IUBMB, mechanism of enzyme action (concept of active site of an enzyme, activation of free energy, principles of enzyme action, Fisher’s and Koshland’s models), enzyme kinetics (Michaelis-Menten equation and   Lineweaver-Burk plot), reversible and irreversible enzyme inhibition, allosteric enzyme regulation and covalently modulated enzyme regulation, basic concept of ribozymes, abzymes and isozymes.


Pharmacognosy and its importance in modern medicine , Crude drugs, Drug evaluation   Secondary metabolites, Interrelationship of basic metabolic pathways with secondary metabolite biosynthesis with special reference to Cinchona, Ipecac, Adhatoda and  Curcuma longa.

Plant Biotechnology & Instrumentation:

Plant tissue culture and Micropropagation. Plant Genetic Engineering:   Brief concept of different gene transfer methods. Transgenic plants.

Principles and applications of simple, compound, confocal and electron microscopy, colorimetry, visible and UV-visible spectrophotometry, deferential centrifugation, PCR, RT-PCR, Gel Electrophoresis, Blotting (Southern, Northern and Western) and ELISA.


Paper – I :

Group A

1.   Atomic Structure:

Bohr theory of hydrogen atom, Mosley’s experiment. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle; Schrodinger wave equation; Interpretation of wave function, particle in a one-dimensional box; quantum numbers; hydrogen atom wave functions; shapes of s, p and d-orbitals.

2.  Chemical Bonding:

Ionic bond: characteristics of ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle. Covalent bond and its general characteristics: polarities of bonds in molecules and their dipole moments; shapes of molecule, VSEPR theory.

Valence bond theory, concept of resonance and resonance energy; molecular orbital theory (LCAO

method); bonding in H +, H2, He +  to Ne2, NO, CO, HF, and CN-, comparison of valence bond and

molecular orbital theories, bond order, bond strength and bond length.

3. Acid-Base & Redox Reactions

Theory of acids and bases; pH, buffer solution; solubility product and salt hydrolysis.

Nernst equation (without derivation). Influence of complex formation, precipitation and pH on red ox potentials; formal potential. Feasibility of a redox titration, redox potential at the equivalence point, redox indicators.   Redox diagram (Latimer and Frost diagrams) of common elements and their applications. Disproportionation and comproportionation reactions (typical examples).

4. Chemical Periodicity:

Periodic table, group trends and periodic trends in physical properties.

Effective nuclear charge, screening effect, Slater’s rules, atomic radii, ionic radii (Pauling univalent), covalent radii.  Ionization potential, electron affinity and electronegativity (Pauling, Mulliken and Allred - Rochow scales) and factors influencing these properties.

Comparative studies of hydrides, halides, oxides of s- and p- block elements. Structure and bonding of B2H6, (SN)x, Phosphazenes and inter-halogens.

d-block elements; electronic configuration, ionization energies, oxidation states, variation in atomic and

ionic radii, magnetic and spectral properties.


5. Gaseous State and Transport Phenomenon

Maxwell distribution of molecular speeds, intermolecular collisions, collisions on wall and effusion; thermal conductivity and  viscosity of  hard  sphere gases. van  der Waals equation of  state, inter-molecular interactions, critical phenomena and liquefaction of gases,

6. Liquid State

Viscosity, Poiseuille equation, temperature dependence.

Surface tension and surface energy, wetting and contact angle, interfacial tension and capillary action; Laplace equation.

7. Solid State

Crystal systems; designation of crystal planes, lattice structure and unit cell; Miller indices, Bragg’s law; X-ray diffraction by crystals; close packing, radius- ratio rules, calculation of some limiting radius-ratio values; structures of NaCl, KCl; stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric defects, impurity defects, semi- conductors.

8. Thermodynamics

Work, heat and internal energy; first law of thermodynamics.

Second law of thermodynamics; entropy as a state function, entropy change in various processes, reversibility  and  irreversibility, free  energy  functions;  thermodynamic equation  of  state;  Maxwell’s relations; temperature, volume and pressure dependence of thermodynamic functions; J-T effect and inversion temperature; criteria for equilibrium, relation between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic quantities; Nernst heat theorem.

Definitions and interrelations among Kp, Kc and Kx ; Van’t Hoff equation, Le Chatelier principle.

9. Aromaticity

Group - C

Aromaticity and anti-aromaticity; benzene, naphthalene, annulene, azulene, tropolones, fulvenes, sydnones. Electrophilic and nucleophilic substitution. Synthesis and reactions of heteroaromatic compounds (pyrrole, furan, thiophene, pyridine).

10.  Study of Mechanisms

General methods (both kinetic and non-kinetic) of study of mechanism of organic reactions: isotopic method, cross-over experiment, intermediate trapping, stereochemistry; energy of activation; thermodynamic control and kinetic control of reactions.

Reactive  intermediates:  Generation  geometry,  stability  and  reactions  of  carbonium  ions  and carbanions free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and nitrenes.

11. Organic Reaction Types

Substitution Reactions: SN1, SN2 and SNi mechanisms; neighbouring group participation.


Elimination Reactions:  E1,  E2  and  E1cb  mechanisms; orientation in  E2  reactions-Saytzeff and

Hoffmann; pyrolytic syn elimination – Chugaev and Cope eliminations.

Addition Reactions: Electrophillic addition to C=C and CºC; nucleophilic addition to C=O, C=N, conjugated olefins and carbonyls.

Rearrangements:  Pinacol-pinacolone,  Hoffmann,   Beckmann,   Baeyer-Villiger,  Favorskii,   Fries, Sclaisen, Cope, Stevens and Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements.

12. Organic Spectroscopy:

Principle and applications in structure elucidation: Infra-red: typical functional group identification

UV-vis: Singlet and triplet states; n-p* and p-p* transitions; application to conjugated double bonds and conjugated carbonyls - Woodward–Fieser rules; charge-transfer spectra.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR): Basic principle; chemical shift and spin-spin interaction and coupling constants.

Mass Spectrometry: Parent peak, base peak metastable peak, McLafferty rearrangement.

Paper – II :


1.    Coordination Chemistry - I

Bonding  theories  of  metal  complexes;  valence  bond  theory,  crystal  field  theory  and  its modifications; application of theories in the explanation of magnetism a nd electronic spectra of metal complexes.

2.    Coordination Chemistry - II

Isomerism in coordination compounds; IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds; stereochemistry of  complexes with  4  and  6  coordination numbers;  chelate  effect  and  polynuclear complexes; trans effect and its theories; kinetics of substitution reactions in square-planer complexes; thermodynamic and kinetic stability of complexes.

3.    Bio-Inorganic Chemistry

Metal ion in biological systems and their role in ion transport across the membranes (molecular mechanism), oxygen-transport proteins: hemoglobin, myoglobin, hemerythrin; electron-transport proteins: cytochromes and ferrodoxins.

4.    Organometallic Chemistry

EAN rule, synthesis, structure and reactivity of metal carbonyls; carboxylate anions, carbonyl hydrides and metal nitrosyl compounds.

Complexes with aromatic systems; synthesis, structure and bonding in metal-olefin, -alkyne and - cyclopentadienyl complexes; coordinative unsaturation, oxidative addition reactions, insertion reactions, fluxional molecules and their characterization; compounds with metal-metal bonds and metal atom clusters.

Group - B

5.      Phase-equilibria and solutions

Gibbs phase rule and its significance. Clapeyron equation; Clausius – Clapeyron equation; phase diagram for a pure substance; phase-equilibria in binary systems, partially miscible liquids, upper and lower critical solution temperatures; properties of dilute solutions; Raoult’s and Henry’s law. Partial molar quantities, their significance; excess thermodynamic functions.

6.       Surface phenomena, catalysis and polymers

Adsorption from gases and solutions on solid adsorbents: Langmuir and B.E.T. adsorption isotherms; determination of surface area, characteristics and mechanism of reactions on heterogeneous catalysts.

Number and weight average molecular weight, their determination. Kinetics of polymerization.

7.       Chemical Kinetics

Differential and integral rate equation for zeroth, first, second and fractional order reactions; rate equations involving reverse, parallel, consecutive and chain reactions; branching chain and explosion; effect of temperature and pressure on rate constant; collision theory and transition state theory.

8.          Photochemistry and spectroscopy :

Fluorescence & phosphorescence, Jablonsky diagram, Franck-Condon principle, Lambert-Beer law. Laws of photochemistry, quantum yield, photo-stationary state, photosensitized reaction.

Rotational spectra of diatomic molecules: Rigid rotator model, selection rule, determination of bond length.

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