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Why read NCERT Books for UPSC IAS Exams?

Why read NCERT Books for UPSC IAS Exams

When you took the decision of starting the preparation for IAS, civil services the very first advice from the selected or other aspiring candidates would have been to go through NCERT Books.

The Question must have come to your mind:

  • Why do I have to read the school books again?

  • Isn’t it time to read books of famed and critically acclaimed authors?

  • Why not read the bulkier books?

The answer lies in the subjects clubbed under the title of ‘General studies’ which itself suggests that a candidate must have the general idea about all the topics mentioned under the syllabus.

NCERT Textbooks help in getting a general idea in the following ways:

  • They have been written for the school kids and are therefore very easily intelligible.

  • They cover all the related dimensions of any issues e.g. study of environment cover all the social, economic and political dimension at a very basic level

  • It is free of any political bias, a basic value that must reflect in all your answers

  • NCERT Books cover all the basics related to topics given in the syllabus (except those from the current affairs, for instance, latest developments in S&T)

NCERTs thus create a strong foundation for further studies based on newspaper and reference books without which the knowledge will remain superficial and create many challenges as you move ahead with your IAS Exam preparations.

Download NCERT PDF Books in English Medium

(डाउनलोड) एनसीईआरटी बुक (NCERT Books PDF in Hindi)

Download OLD NCERT PDF E-Books

Click Here for PRINT COPY of OLD & NEW NCERT Compilation for UPSC Exams

Following is the exhaustive List of NCERT Books for UPSC Exams:


Click on the link below to download Free NCERT Books in PDF Format:

Click Here for New NCERT Books PDF

Click Here for Old NCERT Books PDF

Click Here for PRINT COPY of OLD & NEW NCERT Compilation for UPSC Exams


To conclude, as has been recommended by many selected candidates in the past, an aspirant must read only limited books and must read them over and over. It is thus necessary to choose the NCERTs smartly that will help one to build strong foundations. Old NCERTs for the static subjects like History and new NCERT books with updated information for dynamic part such as economy will help an aspirant to get a good grasp on the basics.

Best Wishes for your IAS Preparations


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Old NCERT Vs New NCERT Books for UPSC Exams

Old NCERT Vs New NCERT Books for UPSC IAS Exams

Another question that is often asked is whether to read Old NCERT or New NCERT Books?

This section tries to answer all your queries related to this question

Old and new NCERTs: A Comparison

  1. Edition: Generally the NCERTs published before 2005 are considered to be old and those published after 2005 are called new. However that is not the only difference

  1. Graphics: New NCERT Books are considered to more graphical as they come with more images and colors which makes it an interesting read when compared to the old ones. The image below show the contrast. However graphics are not always bad. For instance, new NCERTs of geography have images that can explain the complex phenomenon in a very simple way

  2. Content: For the civil service exam reading a book with more content is better than those with the colors and images even though they seem to be too dull to be read. Old NCERT Books are rich in content and have been authored prominent writers such as Bipan Chandra. As an example, new NCERTs of history come with lot of pictures but are lagging in facts as well as order while the old ones cover history in a chronological and coherent manner. The question ‘Clarify how mid-eighteenth century India was beset with the spectre of a fragmented polity (2017)’ was picked up directly from the old NCERT by Bipan Chandra. Also, new NCERTs would contain the updated information and thus are relevant for subjects like polity which require a knowledge of the current affairs

  1. Availability: While both soft and hard copies of new NCERTs are easily available in the market, old ncert books are a difficult find. The hard copy can be bought only in Delhi that too not in a very reader friendly format (Mostly Xerox). However you can Download soft copies(PDF) of old ncert books here. You can enquire about the books with your friends and get them printed copied instead of going to Delhi especially to buy them, if you are based out of Delhi.

Get NCERT Books Compilation in concise printed format

How to choose NCERT Books?

There is no standard answer to this question. A lot depends on the individual’s aptitude and other factors such as nature of the subject (static/dynamic), availability etc. Those with a pictographic memory will be drawn towards the new NCERTs while people with affinity towards text will prefer the old ones.

However based on the recommendation of selected candidates following the list can be drawn out:

  • History – Old NCERT Books. As the subject is static and requires a coherent and chronological approach for better understanding

  • Economics – New NCERT Books. NCERTs will cover only the basic aspect and therefore the info must be latest and relevant to present times. Most part of the subject however has to be covered from newspaper

  • Geography – New NCERT Books. Requires updated information and diagrams for explanation which are available only in new NCERTs

  • Polity, Science & tech – New NCERT Books

Download NCERT PDF Books in English Medium

(डाउनलोड) एनसीईआरटी बुक (NCERT Books PDF in Hindi)

Click Here for PRINT COPY of OLD & NEW NCERT Compilation for UPSC Exams

Download OLD NCERT PDF E-Books

Every year at 4-5 question can be expected directly from NCERTs and many more can be solved by applying the basic concepts from NCERTs like these questions from UPSC Prelim Exam: 

The plan of Sir Stafford Cripps envisaged that after the Second World War

(a) India should be granted complete independence

(b) India should be partitioned into two before granting independence

(c) India should be made a republic with the condition that she will join the Commonwealth

(d) India should be given Dominion status


Which of the following is/are included in the capital budget of the Government of India?

1. Expenditure on acquisition of assets like roads, buildings, machinery, etc.

2. Loans received from foreign governments

3. Loans and advances granted to the States and Union Territories

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3 

The Hindu Newspaper: How and What to study in it

The Hindu Newspaper: How and What to study in it

Now that you have taken one of the toughest decision of your life which is to prepare for “Civil Services Examination” conducted by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). This examination is more of a process than an examination and one must be ready for all sorts of obstacles while going through this fanciful yet mystic journey. As we all know, some ingredients are essential for any successful journey and further as the saying goes there is one secret ingredient for every successful journey. Unfortunately, Civil Services journey is full of such ingredients however some basic minimum is followed by most of the aspirants which is “THE HINDU NEWSPAPER”.

Why read The Hindu; Not any other newspaper for government Examinations?

The answer is very simple, because it has a long history of journalism therefore they maintain the balance of objectivity and subjectivity while reporting any issue (social, political, cultural etc.). Secondly, UPSC has been asking questions in prelims, mains, interviews which can be traced back to this newspaper. Thirdly, editorials are not very long and less biased in the newer The Hindu edition. Lastly, most of the bureaucrats in our country read this paper therefore its important common source for all.

The 2nd most basic question arises among freshers is how/what to read in the newspaper?

Get a hold of 2 weeks of “The Hindu” Newspaper then put don’t put all of them at the table because you won’t read it that way, actually pressure never works except for some people. Take a copy of syllabus and if possible memories it first in broad terms. For first 2 days just read and reread the syllabus the syllabus and finally write it in your notebook in short forms like 40-50 words for example: ( Art & Culture, History: Ancient, Medieval, Modern, World, Geography: India, World and so on..) Now that you know the syllabus, you have the tool to operate on the newspaper.

Steps to read The Hindu: DO’s

  • Take a look the Front Page, Mark the news items/Articles, which are directly or Indirectly related to CSE syllabus.
  • Go to the last page; here mostly Prelims related stuff can be found such as some scientific, biological, historical factual information. Mark such news items.
  • Leave the sports section and jump to the Business Page, mark the news items by taking help of syllabus, always remember CSE syllabus is the only tool to judge any news item as important or not from UPSC perspective.
  • Now, keep marking like this till you reach regional section.
  • From page number 5 to page number 2 you might be getting 2-3 important incidents daily which are important for mains and you may write them and for humanities people this information is very relevant to score good in optionals.
  • Opinion must be read from the perspective and the context and not consider them as the only truth or for that matter completely true. This applies in case of subjective articles/opinions.

(Article) Crack IAS Preliminary in your first attempt


(Article) Crack IAS Preliminary in your first attempt

Dear Aspirants,

There are lot of rumour about civil services preparations, what should be done what should not be done. What can be done and what can not be done etc. One among them is the perception that UPSC exam can't be cracked in first attempt. However the fact proves that there are lots of aspirants who crack this exam in very first attempt. In this article we would try to give you the strategy by which you can clear this exam in very first attempt.

First we would like you to go through the entire syllabus and the examination process before starting the preparation. We would also suggest you to go through previous years questions for understanding the level of questions being asked.

Also please take a look at for learning the process and how to study.

As you can see that syllabus of this exam is very huge and level of questions is also good, so preparation needs to be thorough. It needs time to cover big syllabus in detail. So preparation should be started around an year before the prelims of next year e.g. if you are planning to give 2017exam july 2016 would be the ideal time to start the preparation. This would provide you with enough time to finish both prelims and mains syllabus.

Next big challenge is the choice of the optionals. Your choice of optional can decide your success in the UPSC exam. Lot of thoughts should be given to the decision of optionals. First make a list of few probable optionals, then look at their syllabus and previous year question papers and finally decide the optional which you think is best for you. Please try to avoid the impulse of taking an optional because everyone else is taking it.

Next challenge is about what to study and from where to study. A list of books have been mentioned in the portal, please go through them. However, Initial focus should be on building the concepts, for that purpose NCERT Books are the best source. Only and Only when you have finished NCERT, go to higher level books. UPSC takes special care to check about the concepts of the candidates. Having said that you also need to remember many things from government sources but that comes only after your basics are clear.

We keep on saying in all our articles that please go through single source again and again and dont switch the source.

Many people make the mistake of trying to read many books and they end up remembering vey things. Its an exam where reproduction of what you have read is the only thing which is important, if you have not seen the same thing multiple times it becomes very difficult to reproduce.



It is imminent that UPSC is trying to reduce the weightage of optional subject in CSE. In 2013, two papers of the optional subject were replaced by that of General studies. Before that, the two optional were of such importance that one could get through civil services by scoring 300 plus marks in both the optional paper even if GS scores were below average.

However, it is worth noting that even in the present scenario the optional papers determine selection and influence the rank to a large extent. We must acknowledge the fact that it is difficult to create a significant lead in GS. After a rigorous study of one year the serious competitors have more or less the same quantum of knowledge in GS. Some may have economics as a stronghold, others may fare better in history and geography. Therefore, at the end of the exam we realize that the range of marks of GS out of 1000 is not much. Here, the marks of optional subject become the rank booster. The target score in the optional subject should be 250, that is 50%. Anything above that is your bonus!

With the kind of importance the optional subject carries, it is imperative that one should do a lot of brainstorming before choosing any optional subject. If you revert back on your decision, that is, you change the optional subject at any time, the time of study increases by around 5 to 6 months at least. I have seen people changing their optional paper in the third attempt after two unsuccessful attempts and then managing to get into the list. But why to be baffled and tormented by wrong decision of the optional and waste even a single attempt? It is better to brainstorm for two months to decide which optional will go with the aspirant rather than take a quick decision and waste an attempt or two before reversing the earlier decision. For this, a broad understanding is required of the guidelines to decide the best optional subject. The final decision must rest with the aspirant, but that decision must be an informed one incorporating the following facts and factors;

1. Optional subjects must be looked upon as static or dynamic subjects:

Static subjects are those which have a well-defined syllabus that remains unchanging at the graduate level. For example, history and philosophy in art subjects, physics, chemistry and mathematics in science subjects and all engineering subjects, accountancy for commerce students, zoology and botany for medical students; these all can be categorized as static subjects. The content of these subjects remains same in any year. The variations can be made in the questions and that too in words, figures and inferences. The essence remains the same.

On the other hand, dynamic subjects are evolving subjects in both essence and content, such as, public administration, sociology, management, law. The questions from these subjects will take into account recent developments, trends, phenomenon and case studies. You have to be constantly updating your knowledge regarding these subjects. Then there may be some intermediate subject such as geography and psychology which involves both static as well as dynamic concepts in almost equal proportions.

But the question is which one to go for? Dear aspirant, you must be fully sovereign to decide for yourself. So that you can hold yourself accountable and no one else for the result of your examination. Do not be swayed by your peer circle. It does not mean that you should not hear others’ opinion. You must have a full ear for the experiences of others regarding an optional subject. Talk to those teachers and faculties who deal with general studies and extract their valuable views regarding the optional subjects. Nevertheless, don’t go to subject experts asking for which optional to choose. Why would a physics teacher advice you to go for public administration and vice-versa?

Some may find static subject more favorable as continuous deliberations on the subject is not required – once you do history you only have to revise it and not incorporate new knowledge or inferences with changing times. However, there is another school of thought which finds dynamic subjects interesting and possesses a keen eye to relate with the current issues and unfolding events to their optional subject, such as the one we find in public administration.

Importance of NCERT BOOKS for UPSC Exams (Why, What, How)

Importance of NCERT BOOKS for UPSC Exams (Why, What, How)

This very article may the first one you might be reading for the journey that you have chosen to become a civil servant. NCERT books can be considered as the first step out of many to conquer this challenging examination. These books are so well articulated and unbiased that you may take its information as a complete truth and make factual notes out of it especially for the history and geography. Now you might be asking the same question and facing the same dilemma which every beginner has to tackle which is about why to study NCERTs when there are so many books/coaching note/online materials/topper notes already circulating in the offline and the online world? And why not skip these books for the last and just give a passing reference once you get to the finishing line of the syllabus?

Part 1: Why NCERT books are important?

Explanation: Being the most basic books and written in very simple language, lucid and neutral perspective makes NCERTs as the base for the entire preparation. One will get most of their basic covered for the geography and history from these books. Secondly, mains answer writing language should be similar to the writing style of these books which make them as the fundamental element while preparing for the Mains examination.

Now let us analyse from Prelims and Mains perspective:

  • Every year at least 35-40 prelims questions are directly asked from the NCERTs.
  • If you read one book for the prelims it also comes handy in the mains. For Example, Geography NCERTs of class 11 and 12 and History NCERT of class 10 and 11 are the most comprehensive books which must be read by every aspirant.

  • It helps in planned study otherwise, you may be lost in the vast ocean of data and coaching materials.
  • If you are planning to choose humanities optional and you are from the non-humanities background, then study of these books will help in choosing the right optional and further, it may help in your optional paper too.

NCERT E-books PDF are available in English Medium and  Hindi Medium for FREE! download.

(Article) What are the important topics to read from a newspaper in two hours?

What are the important topics to read from a newspaper in two hours?

As we have already discussed the importance of reading the newspapers for the preparation of UPSC. Importance of newspapers is also increasing now a days as most of the paper is made out of correct news. In this article we would discuss how to finish in newspaper in less time and get the best out of it for the purpose of UPSC. While discussing how to finish the newspaper in short time preferably it should finish in 2 hours including the notes, first thing to decide is which newspaper to follow. The Hindu has been the lifeline of UPSC aspirants for a long time. It still is the most used and probably most relevant newspaper for the UPSC preparation. However Indian express is also a very good newspaper especially if your optional is Public administration and it is also very useful for the polity section for mains.

As we have been saying religiously in all our articles to please go through the syllabus. We begin the strategy to finish the newspaper in short time with same thing. Lot many things can be striked immediately which are not important for UPSC only by knowing the syllabus. Similarly especial attention will be given to things which are mentioned in the syllabus.

Mainly five pages in the newspaper should be focused by any candidate preparing for UPSC. These are:

  • Front page
  • National News page
  • Economy news page
  • International news page and
  • The Editorials

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IAS Mains Examination

The written examination will consist of the following papers:


Section 1

Section 1

  • English Comprehension & English Précis (Xth Standard) 100 Marks


  • General Studies - I 250Marks
    (Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)


  • General Studies –II 250 Marks
    (Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations)


  • General Studies –III 250 Marks
    (Technology, Economic Development, Bio‐diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management)



  • Optional Subject – Paper 1 250Marks


  • Optional Subject – Paper 2 250 Marks

Sub Total (Written test) 1750 Marks

Personality Test 275 Marks

Grand Total 2025 Marks

Optional Papers:


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Gist of NCERT Books Notes PDF UPSC Exams


Dear Candidates,
Every IAS Aspirant must know that NCERT Text Books are the first step for starting the preparation for UPSC, IAS Exams. NCERT Books provide aspirant with easy to understand language and graphic illustrations and it is must read for each and every UPSC, State PSC Exams aspirant.

Now keeping in mind the Huge no of Pages and more than 30 Books to read, we have designed a study notes which will cover All the NCERT Books required for the UPSC Exams. All the study material is specifically compiled from civil services exam point of view. The study material is highly recommended for all the civil services aspirants, and it will give comprehensive idea about he various issues and concepts, and will form strong foundation.


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  • PDF Notes of NCERT Indian Polity (Old & New)
  • PDF Notes of NCERT Geography (Old & New)
  • PDF Notes of NCERT General Science (Old & New)
  • PDF Notes of NCERT Indian Economy (Old & New)
  • Practice MCQ included 
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1 The Gist of NCERT History (PDF Copy)
2 The Gist of NCERT Indian Polity (PDF Copy)
3 The Gist of NCERT Geography (PDF Copy)
4 The Gist of NCERT General Science (PDF Copy)
5 The Gist of NCERT Indian Economy (PDF Copy)
- Practice MCQ included 
6 IAS Planner with UPSC Syllabus (PDF Copy)
7 UPSC PRE (GS+CSAT) 10 Year Solved Papers (PDF Copy)
8 THE GIST OF HINDU, YOJANA, PIB etc - 1 Year (PDF Copy)

Best of Luck!

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UPSC Exam Papers

UPSC IAS Prelims 2019
CSAT Question Paper-2

1. The number of times the digit 5 will appear while writing the integers from 1 to 1000 is

(a)  269

(b)  271

(c)  300

(d)  302

2. A solid cube is painted yellow, blue and black such that opposite faces are of same colour. The cube is then cut into 36 cubes of two different sizes such that 32 cubes are small and the other four cubes are Big. None of the faces of the bigger cubes is painted blue. How many cubes have only one face painted?

(a) 4

(b) 6

(c) 8

(d) 10

3. A and B are two heavy steel blocks. If B is placed on the top of A, the weight increases by 60%. How much weight will reduce with respect to the total weight of A and B, if B is removed from the top of A?

(a) 60%

(b) 45.5%

(c) 40%

(d) 37.5%

4. Mr 'X' has three children. The birthday of the first child falls on the 5th Monday of April, that of the second one falls on the 5th Thursday of November. On which day is the birthday of his third child, which falls on 20th December?

(a) Monday

(b) Thursday

(c) Saturday

(d) Sunday

5. Consider the following Statements and Conclusions:


1. Some rats are cats.

2. Some cats are dogs.

3. No dog is a cow.


I. No cow is a cat.

II. No dog is a rat.

III. Some cats are rats.

Which of the above conclusions is/are drawn from the statements?

(a) I, II and III

(b) Only I and II

(c) Only III

(d) Only II and III

6. The number of parallelograms that can be formed from a set of four parallel lines intersecting another set of four parallel lines, is

(a) 18

(b) 24

(c) 32

(d) 36

7. In a school every student is assigned a unique identification number. A student is a football player if and only if the identification number is divisible by 4, whereas a student is a cricketer if and only if the identification number is divisible by 6. If every number from 1 to 100 is assigned to a student, then how many of them play cricket as well as football?

(a) 4

(b) 8

(c) 10

(d) 12

8. When a runner was crossing the 12 km mark, she was informed that she had completed only 80% of the race. How many kilometres was the runner supposed to run in this event?

(a) 14

(b) 15

(c) 16

(d) 16.5

9. Raju has Rs. 9000 with him and he wants to buy a mobile handset; but he finds that he has only 75% of the amount required to buy the handset. Therefore, he borrows 2000 from a friend. Then

(a) Raju still does not have enough amount to buy the handset.

(b) Raju has exactly the same amount as required to buy the handset.

(c) Raju has enough amount to buy the handset and he will have 500 with him after buying the handset.

(d) Raju has enough amount to buy the handset and he will have 1000 with him after buying the handset.

10. In 2002, Meenu's age was one-third of the age of Meera, whereas in 2010, Meenu's age was half the age of Meera. What is Meenu's year of birth?

(a) 1992

(b) 1994

(c) 1996

(d) 1998


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1. यदि B से आगे (B समेत) अंग्रेज़ी वर्णमाला का प्रत्येक एकातर अक्षर छोटे अक्षरों (लोवर केस) में लिखा जाए। और शेष अक्षरों को बड़े अक्षरों में लिखा जाए, तो वर्ष के उत्तरार्ध के प्रथम मास को कैसे लिखा जाएगा ?
(a) JuLY
(b) jULy
(c) jUly
(d) jUlY

2. सुनीता कागज़ के एक पत्रक को तीन टुकड़ों में काटती है। पहले टुकड़े की लंबाई एक अंक वाली तीन विषम अभाज्य संख्याओं के औसत के बराबर है । दूसरे टुकड़े की लंबाई पहले टुकड़े की लंबाई और तीसरे टुकड़े की एक-तिहाई लंबाई के योग के बराबर है। तीसरे टुकड़े की लंबाई अन्य दो टुकड़ों की लंबाइयों के योग के बराबर है। कागज़ के मूल पत्रक की लंबाई कितनी है ?
(a) 13 इकाई
(b) 15 इकाई
(c) 16 इकाई
(d) 30 इकाई

3. अनुक्रम 1, 5, 7, 3, 5, 7, 4, 3, 5, 7 में, ऐसे कितने 5 हैं। जिनके ठीक पहले 3 नहीं है किन्तु ठीक बाद 7 है ?
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 3
(d) कोई नहीं

4. किसी संयुक्त परिवार में सात सदस्य A, B, C, D, E, F और G हैं, जिनमें तीन महिलाएँ हैं। G विधवा है और D के पिता F की साली/भाभी है । B और D एक ही माता-पिता की संतान हैं और A, B की पुत्री है। C, B का/की रिश्ते में चचेरा/ममेरा/फूफेरा/मौसेरा भाई अथवा चचेरी/ममेरी/फूफेरी/मौसेरी बहन है। E कौन है ?
1. F की पत्नी
2. A की दादी/नानी
3. C की चाची/मामी/मौसी/बुआ
नीचे दिए गए कूट का प्रयोग कर सही उत्तर चुनिए :
(a) केवल 1 और 2
(b) केवल 2 और 3
(c) केवल 1 और 3
(d) 1, 2 और 3

5. किसी घन के प्रत्येक फलक को काले या सफेद रंग से रँगा जा सकता है। उस घन को कितने विभिन्न तरीकों से राँगा जा सकता है ?
(a) 9
(b) 10
(c) 11
(d) 12

6. समीकरण x + y + z = 6 को कितने त्रिक (x, y, z) संतुष्ट करते हैं, जहाँ x, y और z धनपूर्ण संख्याएँ हैं ?
(a) 4
(b) 5
(c) 9
(d) 10

7. यदि $ का अर्थ है ‘विभाजित’; @ का अर्थ है ‘गुणित’; # का अर्थ है ‘घटाया गया’; तो 10#5@1$5 का मान क्या है ?
(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) 2
(d) 9

8. आठ अंकों की एक संख्या 4252746B को 3 से भाग देने पर शेषफल 0 रहता है। B के कितने मान संभव हैं ?
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 4
(d) 6

आगे आने वाले 3 (तीन) प्रश्नांशों के लिए निर्देश : निम्नलिखित सूचना को पढ़िए और उनके बाद आने वाले तीन प्रश्नांशों के उत्तर दीजिए :

छह विद्यार्थी A, B, C, D, E और F कई परीक्षाओं में बैठे। या तो C का या F का प्राप्तांक अधिकतम है। जब भी C का प्राप्तांक अधिकतम होता है, तब E का प्राप्तांक न्यूनतम होता है । जब भी F का प्राप्तांक अधिकतम होता है, B का प्राप्तांक न्यूनतम होता है। सभी परीक्षाओं में, उन्हें अलग-अलग अंक प्राप्त होते हैं; D का प्राप्तांक A के प्राप्तांक से अधिक है, लेकिन वे निकट प्रतिस्पर्धी हैं; A का प्राप्तांक B के प्राप्तांक से अधिक है; C का प्राप्तांक A के प्राप्तांक से अधिक है।

9. यदि F योग्यताक्रम में दूसरे स्थान पर आता है, तो B का स्थान क्या है ?
(a) तीसरा
(b) चौथा
(c) पाँचवाँ
(d) छठा

10. यदि B का प्राप्तांक न्यूनतम हो, तो C का स्थान क्या होगा ?
(a) दूसरा
(b) तीसरा
(c) चौथा
(d) दूसरा या तीसरा

11. यदि E का योग्यताक्रम तीसरा हो, तो निम्नलिखित में से कौन-सा एक सही है ?
(a) E का प्राप्तांक C के प्राप्तांक से अधिक होगा
(b) C का प्राप्तांक E के प्राप्तांक से अधिक होगा
(c) A का योग्यताक्रम चौथा है।
(d) D का योग्यताक्रम पाँचवाँ है।

आगे आने वाले 2 (दो) प्रश्नांशों के लिए निर्देश : निम्नलिखित कथनों, S1 और S2, को पढ़िए और उनके बाद आने वाले दो प्रश्नाशों के उत्तर दीजिए :
S1 : सोहन के वज़न का दुगुना, मोहन के वज़न या रोहन के वज़न से कम है।
S2 : रोहन के वज़न का दुगुना, मोहन के वज़न या सोहन के वज़न से अधिक है ।

12. निम्नलिखित कथनों में से कौन-सा एक सही है ?
(a) मोहन का वज़न अधिकतम है।
(b) सोहन का वज़न अधिकतम है।
(c) रोहन का वज़न अधिकतम है।
(d) किसका वज़न अधिकतम है’ यह निर्धारित नहीं किया जा सकता

13. निम्नलिखित कथनों में से कौन-सा एक सही है ?
(a) मोहन का वज़न न्यूनतम है।
(b) सोहन का वज़न न्यूनतम है।
(c) रोहन का वज़न न्यूनतम है।
(d) ‘किसका वज़न न्यूनतम है’ यह निर्धारित नहीं किया जा सकता।

आगे आने वाले 7 (सात) प्रश्नांशों के लिए निर्देश : निम्नलिखित पाँच परिच्छेदों को पढ़िए और प्रत्येक परिच्छेद के बाद आने वाले प्रश्नांशों के उत्तर दीजिए । इन प्रश्नांशों के लिए आपके उत्तर केवल संबंधित परिच्छेद पर आधारित होने चाहिए ।

परिच्छेद -1

भारत का आर्थिक पदछाप (फुटप्रिंट), इसकी जनसंख्या को देखते हुए, अभी भी US, यूरोपीय संघ या चीन की तुलना में कम है। अन्य अर्थव्यवस्थाओं से सीखने के लिए इसके पास काफी कुछ है, तथापि इसे उन समाधानों को ही कार्यान्वित करना चाहिए जो इसकी अनूठी परिस्थितियों के अनुरूप हैं। भारत को वर्तमान अधोगामी उपागम की बजाय एक सहयोग आधारित प्रभावी दीर्घकालिक नियामक व्यवस्था की खास तौर पर आवश्यकता है । विनियम वांछित परिणाम लाने का प्रयास करते हैं, तथापि ये किसी न किसी कार्यक्रम को आगे बढ़ाने के लिए राजनीतिक उपकरण के रूप में बार-बार इस्तेमाल किए जाते हैं। प्रायः विनियम रोज़गार और आर्थिक संवृद्धि पर पड़ने वाले असर – या कम प्रतिबंधी विकल्पों – का विचार करने में असफल रह जाते हैं । विनियमों का इस्तेमाल भविष्य में और अधिक व्यापक रूप से साझी होने वाली समृद्धि की कीमत पर स्थानीय बाज़ारों को बचाने में किया जा सकता है। इसके अतिरिक्त, विनियमों के अनिवार्य रूप से अनेक अनैच्छिक परिणाम होते हैं। आज की अति प्रतियोगी वैश्विक अर्थव्यवस्था में विनियमों को ऐसे “हथियारों के रूप में देखा जाना चाहिए जो अधिकांश नागरिकों के आर्थिक कल्याण को समुन्नत करते हुए लागत के औचित्य के साथ सामाजिक और पर्यावरणीय लाभ लाने का प्रयास करें।

14. उपर्युक्त परिच्छेद से निम्नलिखित में से कौन-सा एक, सर्वाधिक तर्कसंगत, विवेकपूर्ण और निर्णायक निष्कर्ष निकाला जा सकता है ?
(a) एक बेहतर नियामक व्यवस्था भारत को इसकी जनसंख्या के यथा-उपयुक्त, आमाप की अर्थव्यवस्था प्राप्त करने में सहायक होगी।
(b) प्रतियोगी वैश्विक अर्थव्यवस्था में, भारत को विनियमों का युक्तिपूर्वक ही इस्तेमाल करना चाहिए। भारत में विनियम आज की अति प्रतियोगी वैश्विक अर्थव्यवस्था के साथ अपने एकीकरण का समर्थन नहीं करते।
(d) भारत की नियामक व्यवस्था के विकास में रोजगार के सृजन और आर्थिक संवृद्धि के विचार को प्रबल रूप से रखा जाना चाहिए।

15. उपर्युक्त परिच्छेद के आधार पर निम्नलिखित पूर्वधारणाएँ बनाई गई हैं :
आजकल की वैश्विक अर्थव्यवस्था में,
1. विनियमों का प्रभावी इस्तेमाल स्थानीय बाज़ारों को बचाने के लिए नहीं किया गया है।
2. विनियमों का कार्यान्वयन करते समय सामाजिक एवं पर्यावरणीय सरोकारों की पूरे विश्व में सरकारों द्वारा आमतौर पर उपेक्षा की जाती है।
उपर्युक्त में से कौन-सी पूर्वधारणा/पूर्वधारणाएँ वैध है/हैं ?
(a) केवल 1
(b) केवल 2
(c) 1 और 2 दोनों
(d) न तो 1 और न ही 2



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