Sample Material of Current Public Administration Magazine
1.Accountability & Responsibility
Minister Civil Servant Relationship
The executive branch of the government includes both ministers and civil servants, but their roles and responsibilities differ. A minister is a political or elected executive who enjoys power as a result of their constitutional position and derives power from the people. A civil servant is a permanent or administrative executive who is chosen based on merit and gains power through administrative positions and technical expertise. A minister is in charge of establishing broad policy guidelines, representing the people's interests, and being accountable to Parliament. A civil servant is accountable to the minister for enforcing the government's policies, giving the minister independent advice, carrying out the government's plans and programs, and reporting to the minister. A minister is only in place for a short period of time and may change with each election or cabinet reshuffle. A government employee is super durable and may serve under various clergymen and states. A pastor frequently has two or three years in an ecclesiastical post thus when the person comprehends the issues, the individual has next to no opportunity to finish anything. A civil servant can develop a long-term perspective on the actions that the department should take.
In a welfare state, administration relies heavily on the relationship between ministers and civil servants. While civil servants carry out the objectives or vision, ministers provide them. Government employees and clergymen cooperate in strategy making, and government workers are responsible to pastors. Ministers are held accountable by elected representatives, who exercise the power.
2. Indian Government and Politics
The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) is the central office of the Prime Minister of India. It assists the Prime Minister in his or her duties and responsibilities as the head of the government and the leader of the nation. The PMO coordinates and supervises the work of various ministries, departments, agencies and organizations under the government. The PMO also handles the Prime Minister's correspondence, appointments, travels, public relations, media and communications.
The PMO is located in South Block, overlooking the grandeur of Rashtrapati Bhawan, the official residence of the President of India. The PMO is headed by the Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister, who is assisted by several other senior officials and staff members.
The PMO is not only an administrative office, but also an empowering entity that assists federal entities in developing and reviewing their strategies, policies and initiatives and aligning them with the vision, strategy, directions and key plans of the government. The PMO provides support and consultation to the Prime Minister, the UAE Cabinet and Minister of Cabinet Affairs, assisting them in the decision making process.
The role of the Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister is to act as the senior-most bureaucrat and the administrative chief of the Prime Minister's Office (PMO). The Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister assists the Prime Minister in his or her duties and responsibilities as the head of the government and the leader of the nation. The main functions of the officeholder often include, but are not limited to
3. Economic Administration
Zero-based budgeting (ZBB) is a method of budgeting in which all expenses must be justified and approved for each new period, typically each year. The process of zero-based budgeting starts from a "zero base," and every function within an organization is analyzed for its needs and costs. The budgets are then built around what is needed for the upcoming period, regardless of whether each budget is higher or lower than the previous one.
Zero-based budgeting aims to put the onus on managers to justify expenses and to drive value for an organization by optimizing costs and not just revenue. Zero-based budgeting also helps to avoid blanket increases or decreases to a prior period's budget, which may not reflect the current needs and priorities of the organization.
Zero-based budgeting requires a detailed analysis of every cost category and activity in an organization. It also requires a clear alignment of the budget with the strategic objectives and vision of the organization. Zero-based budgeting can help to identify and eliminate wasteful or unnecessary spending, as well as to allocate resources more efficiently and effectively.
Zero-based budgeting can be a time-consuming and complex process that involves a lot of data collection, analysis and communication. It also requires a strong commitment and support from the top management, as well as the involvement and collaboration of all stakeholders. Zero-based budgeting may not be suitable for every organization or every situation, as it may not account for some intangible benefits or long-term investments that are difficult to quantify or justify.
4. Current Topics
The role of the governor in India is to act as the constitutional head of a state, while the chief minister is the executive head. The governor is appointed by the president of India, on the advice of the central government, for a term of five years. The governor has various powers and functions, such as:
• Executive powers: The governor appoints the chief minister and other ministers, on the advice of the chief minister. The governor also appoints the advocate general, the state election commissioner, and the chairman and members of the state public service commission. The governor can also dismiss the state government under certain circumstances, such as when no party has a clear majority, or when the state government loses the confidence of the assembly.
• Legislative powers: The governor summons, prorogues and dissolves the state legislature, on the advice of the chief minister. The governor also addresses the first session of each year and special sessions of the legislature. The governor can nominate one member from the Anglo-Indian community to the legislative assembly, and one-sixth of the members to the legislative council, if it exists. The governor can also give assent, withhold assent, or reserve for the president's consideration, any bill passed by the state legislature.
• Financial powers: The governor causes the annual budget of the state to be laid before the state legislature. The governor can also make advances from the contingency fund of the state to meet any unforeseen expenditure. The governor constitutes a finance commission every five years to review the financial position of the panchayats and municipalities.
• Judicial powers: The governor appoints judges of the subordinate courts, on the advice of the chief justice of the high court. The governor can also grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment to any person convicted of any offence against a state law.
• Discretionary powers: The governor can act according to his or her discretion in some matters, such as giving assent to a bill when there is a difference of opinion between him or her and the ministers, sending a report to the president regarding the failure of constitutional machinery in a state, or reserving a bill for president's consideration.
5. Indian Administration
The chief secretary is the top-most executive official and senior-most civil servant of the state government in India. The chief secretary is an officer of the Indian Administrative Service and is appointed by the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet on the recommendation of the chief minister. The chief secretary has various powers and functions, such • Acting as the head of the state administration: The chief secretary is the ex-officio head of the state Civil Services Board, the State Secretariat, the state cadre Indian Administrative Service and all civil services under the rules of business of the state government. The chief secretary supervises, coordinates and monitors the work of all departments and agencies of the state government.
• Acting as a secretary to the state cabinet: The chief secretary is an ex-officio secretary to the state cabinet and is also called "Secretary to the Cabinet". The chief secretary attends the meetings of the cabinet and its sub-committees, prepares the agenda, keeps records of the proceedings and takes steps for the implementation of the decisions.
• Acting as a principal advisor to the chief minister: The chief secretary acts as a principal advisor to the chief minister on all matters of state administration. The chief minister consults him or her on all policy issues related to the governance of the state. The chief secretary explains to the chief minister about the administrative implications of the proposals forwarded by the state ministers.
• Acting as a liaison between the Centre and the state: The chief secretary acts as a vital link between the Centre and the state. The chief secretary communicates with the central government on various matters concerning the state. The chief secretary also represents the state in various inter-state or national forums or committees.