(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Geology (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Geology (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains

Year: 2016

Subject: Geology

Geology Paper-1


1. Answer the following in about 150 words each : 10x5=50 marks

(a) Describe the significance of unconformities in establishing stratigraphic record. 10 marks
(b) Explain the utility of establishing seismic zones. 10 marks
(c) Explain the nature and effects of seismic waves. 10 marks
(d) Describe the importance of cleavage in geological studies. 10 marks
(e) Write briefly on Global Positioning System (GPS). 10 marks

2.(a) Explain the concept of Davis on geomorphic cycles. 15 marks
(b) Describe the genetic classification of faults, aided with neat sketches. 15 marks
(c) Discuss the classification and global distribution of volcanoes and describe various volcanic products. 20 marks

3.(a) Discuss the applications of remote sensing in Geology. 20 marks
(b) What are valley glaciers ? Describe the major landforms produced due to glacial erosion. 15 marks
(c) Describe strain markers and their significance. 15 marks

4.(a) Enumerate the tools and equipments required to undertake geological mapping. Explain the importance of geological mapping. 20 marks
(b) Give an account of the application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). 20 marks
(c) Explain the major discontinuities within the Earth's interior. 10 marks


5. Write notes on the following in about 150 words each: 10x5=50 marks

(a) Bagh beds 10 marks
(b) Importance of index fossils in establishing correlation 10 marks
(c) Significance of biostratigraphy and its utility 10 marks
(d) Types of forces acting on a dam 10 marks
(e) Subsurface distribution of water 10 marks

6.(a) Give an account of seismic refraction method in the exploration for groundwater. 20 marks
(b) Explain the evolutionary trends of Hominidae. 20 marks
(c) Describe the significance of trace fossils. 10 marks

7.(a) What are landslides? Explain the causes of landslides and the measures that can be taken to overcome this phenomenon. 20 marks
(b) Give an account of the stratigraphy, lithology and environment of deposition of the Jurassic rocks of Kutch. 20 marks
(c) Explain the process of separation of micro-fossils from the matrix. 10 marks

8.(a) What are springs ? Give an account of various types of springs. 15 marks
(b) Describe the evolution of the Himalayas. 20 marks
(c) Give an account of the evolutionary changes noticed in the glabella of trilobites. 15 marks

Geology Paper-2


1. Attempt the following questions with suitable diagrams : 10x5=50 marks

(a) Differentiate between magmatic differentiation and assimilation. 10 marks
(b) Discuss the basic differences in the crystal structures, physical and optical properties of pyroxene and amphibole. 10 marks
(c) Enumerate briefly on how the clastic rocks are classified on the basis of their grain-size. 10 marks
(d) Describe briefly the different types of twinning commonly found in minerals. Comment upon causes of twinning 10 marks
(e) Explain why all plcochroic mincrals are anisotropic but all anisotropic minerals are not pleochroic. 10 marks

2.(a) With neat sketches describe the symmetry elements and forms of the normal class of the orthorhombic system. Name three minerals of this class. 20 marks
(b) Give an account of the atomic structure, chemical composition, and physical and optical properties of the minerals of mica group. 20 marks
(c) A mineral section remains dark in all positions under crossed polars. How would you proceed to determine whether the mineral is (i) isotropic, (ii) uniaxial or (iii) biaxial ? 10 marks

3.(a) Discuss Bowen's Reaction Series. What is its significance in the process of crystallization of magma? 20 marks
(b) Briefly discuss the classification of sandstones. What is the general tectonic environment in which quartz arenites are found? 20 marks
(c) With ncat sketches describe the textures and structures of metamorphic rocks. 10 marks

4.(a) Discuss the origin of anorthosites. 20 marks
(b) What are heavy minerals? Discuss their significance in sedimentological studies. 20 marks
(c) Write notes on 10 marks

(i) ACF diagram
(ii) AKF diagram


5. Answer the following questions with suitable sketches wherever necessary: 10x5=50 marks

(a) In a mineral, the refractive indices are determined as a = 1.548 and b = 1-634. Calculate the birefringence of the mineral and comment on its optic nature. 10 marks
(b) Briefly discuss the different ore-forming processes in sedimentary environment. 10 marks
(c) What is rank of coal ? Discuss the general changes that coal may undergo during its increase in rank. 10 marks
(d) Describe the distribution of gold deposits in India. 10 marks
(e) Describe the mineralogy, chemical composition and occurrences of manganese nodules in Indian Ocean. 10 marks

6.(a) How oil reserves are formed and accumulated in nature? What are the different types of oil traps ? Illustrate with neat diagrams. 20 marks
(b) Discuss briefly the problem of fluoride contamination in groundwater giving emphasis on its distribution and related health hazards. 20 marks
(c) What is an earthquake? Discuss briefly the main causes of earthquake. How earthquake intensity is measured ? 10 marks

7.(a) What are the common methods adopted for resistivity survey in an area ? Describe briefly their field procedures and working principle. Also discuss advantages – disadvantages of the methods. 20 marks
(b) Describe briefly the geochemical classification of elements. Add a note on the role of trace elements in magmatic crystallisation. 20 marks
(c) Discuss briefly the 'National Mineral Policy. 10 marks

8.(a) What are the differences between Banded Iron Formation and Ironstone ? W there is minimum/no detritus found in Banded Iron Formation ? 20 marks
(b) Give a brief description of mode of occurrence and distribution in India of Bauxite deposits. 20 marks
(c) Enumerate the legislative measures in India for environment protection. 10 marks

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