Public Administration Mains 2017 : Solved Paper Question Paper-1 (Question-2)
Q2) (a) New Public Management has been branded by
certain scholars as ‘Neo-Taylorism’ . Is it a justified comparison? What factors
have led to the decline of NPM as soon after its birth?(20 marks) (Introduction)
NPM known as ‘Entrepreneurial Government’ aims at efficiency, effectiveness and
economy in performance of public sector by employing managerial tools as
performance appraisal, cost cutting, market orientations etc. NPM is a market
ideology that talks about importing ideas generated in private organisation into
public sector organizations so that it can effectively achieve its goals in the
changing environment of LPG.
Neo-Taylorism is concerned with internal organisation of the bureaucracy like
introducing certain techniques and methods from private management into public
Factors led to the decline of NPM :
1. It sidelined publicness aspect of public administration.
2. There is a conflict between citizen orientation and customer orientation.
3. NPM perspective fails to present a concept of public accountability.
4. NPM fails to assign important place to policy making.
5. NPM fails to clarify relationship between citizens and political
6. NPM perspective , the idea of rollback of state does not appear viable in a
developing country like India.
2 (b) “Abraham Maslow’s ‘ Hierarchy of Needs’ and
Frederick Herzberg’s “Two Factor Theory” have commonalities in the analysis of
human motivation .” Comment (15 marks) (Administrative Behaviour)
Herzberg’s theory is consistent with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs while Maslow
talks of needs or motives, Herzberg concentrate on the goal or incentives which
satiate these needs. These are several examples in work settings. Money and
fringe benefits satiate physiological and security needs. Motivators such as
increased responsibility, challenging work and growth and development satiate
the esteem and self actualization need. Maslow's and Herzberg's theories is that
they are content theories; both build on the same assumption that all
individuals' posses the same set of needs .Both theories accept that individual
differences may exist, in the way a person moves up the hierarchy or what
motivates someone may differ from person to person.
Both Maslow’s and Herzberg’s theories point out that money cannot be the only
motivator for an individual to work. Compared to earlier theories, emphasize the
meaning of recognition and responsibility, these motives can be found both on
level four of Maslow’s hierarchy and within the motivating factors of Herzberg’s
model. Herzberg was focussing particularly on work motivation while Maslow’s
approach tried to describe overall human motivation.
c) Civil Society supplements and complements the
State. However, its capacity and role depend upon the will of the State. Comment
(15 marks) (Accountability and Control)
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