UPSC Mains Exam Syllabus - Civil Engineering Optional
PAPER – I:
1. Engineering Mechanics, Strength of
Materials and Structural Analysis:
1.1 Engineering Mechanics:
Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Vectors,
Concept of Force, Concept of particle and
rigid body. Concurrent, Non Concurrent
and parallel forces in a plane, moment of
force, free body diagram, conditions of
equilibrium, Principle of virtual work,
equivalent force system.
First and Second Moment of area, Mass
moment of Inertia.
Kinematics and Kinetics:
Kinematics in Cartesian Co-ordinates,
motion under uniform and nonuniform acceleration,
motion under gravity. Kinetics
of particle: Momentum and Energy principles,
collision of elastic bodies, rotation
of rigid bodies.
1.2 Strength of Materials:
Simple Stress and Strain, Elastic constants,
axially loaded compression members,
Shear force and bending moment, theory
of simple bending, Shear Stress distribution
across cross sections, Beams of uniform
Deflection of beams: Macaulay’s method,
Mohr’s Moment area method, Conjugate
beam method, unit load method. Torsion
of Shafts, Elastic stability of columns,
Euler’s Rankine’s and Secant formulae.
1.3 Structural Analysis:
Castiglianio’s theorems I and II, unit load
method of consistent deformation applied
to beams and pin jointed trusses. Slopedeflection,
Rolling loads and Influences lines: Influences
lines for Shear Force and Bending
moment at a section of beam. Criteria for
maximum shear force and bending Moment
in beams traversed by a system of
moving loads. Influences lines for simply
supported plane pin jointed trusses.
Arches: Three hinged, two hinged and
fixed arches, rib shortening and temperature
Matrix methods of analysis: Force method
and displacement method of analysis of
indeterminate beams and rigid frames.
Plastic Analysis of beams and frames:
Theory of plastic bending, plastic analysis,
statical method, Mechanism method.
Unsymmetrical bending: Moment of inertia,
product of inertia, position of Neutral
Axis and Principle axes, calculation of
2. Design of Structures: Steel, Concrete
and Masonry Structures:
2.1 Structural Steel Design:
Structural Steel: Factors of safety and load
factors. Riveted, bolted and welded joints
and connections. Design of tension and
compression member, beams of built up
section, riveted and welded plate girders,
gantry girders, stancheons with battens
2.2 Design of Concrete and Masonry
Concept of mix design. Reinforced Concrete:
Working Stress and Limit State
method of design–Recommendations of
I.S. codes Design of one way and two way
slabs, stair-case slabs, simple and continuous
beams of rectangular, T and L sections.
Compression members under direct
load with or without eccentricity, Cantilever
and Counter fort type retaining walls.
Water tanks: Design requirements for Rectangular
and circular tanks resting on
Prestressed concrete: Methods and systems
of prestressing, anchorages, Analysis
and design of sections for flexure based
on working stress, loss of prestress.
Design of brick masonry as per I.S. Codes
3. Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow
and Hydraulic Machines:
3.1 Fluid Mechanics:
Fluid properties and their role in fluid motion,
fluid statics including forces acting on
plane and curved surfaces.
Kinematics and Dynamics of Fluid flow:
Velocity and accelerations, stream lines,
equation of continuity, irrotational and rotational
flow, velocity potential and stream
Continuity, momentum and energy equation,
Navier-Stokes equation, Euler’s equation
of motion, application to fluid flow problems,
pipe flow, sluice gates, weirs.
3.2 Dimensional Analysis and Similitude:
Buckingham’s Pi-theorem, dimensionless
3.3 Laminar Flow:
Laminar flow between parallel, stationary
and moving plates, flow through tube.
3.4 Boundary layer:
Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on
a flat plate, laminar sub layer, smooth and
rough boundaries, drag and lift.
Turbulent flow through pipes: Characteristics
of turbulent flow, velocity distribution
and variation of pipe friction factor, hydraulic
grade line and total energy line.
3.5 Open channel flow:
Uniform and non-uniform flows, momentum
and energy correction factors, specific
energy and specific force, critical depth,
rapidly varied flow, hydraulic jump, gradually
varied flow, classification of surface
profiles, control section, step method of integration
of varied flow equation.
3.6 Hydraulic Machines and Hydropower:
Hydraulic turbines, types classification,
Choice of turbines, performance parameters,
controls, characteristics, specific
Principles of hydropower development.
4. Geotechnical Engineering:
Soil Type and structure – gradation and particle
size distribution – consistency limits.
Water in soil – capillary and structural –
effective stress and pore water pressure –
permeability concept – field and laboratory
determination of permeability – Seepage
pressure – quick sand conditions –
Shear strength determination – Mohr Coulomb
Compaction of soil – Laboratory and field tests.
Compressibility and consolidation concept
– consolidation theory – consolidation
Earth pressure theory and analysis for retaining
walls, Application for sheet piles
and Braced excavation.
Bearing capacity of soil – approaches for
analysis – Field tests – settlement analysis
– stability of slope of earth walk.
Subsurface exploration of soils – methods
Foundation – Type and selection criteria
for foundation of structures – Design criteria
for foundation – Analysis of distribution
of stress for footings and pile – pile group
action-pile load test.
Ground improvement techniques.
PAPER - II:
1. Construction Technology, Equipment,
Planning and Management:
1.1 Construction Technology:
Physical properties of construction materials
with respect to their use in construction
- Stones, Bricks and Tiles; Lime, Cement,
different types of Mortars and Concrete.
Specific use of ferro cement, fibre reinforced
C.C, High strength concrete.
Timber, properties and defects - common
Use and selection of materials for specific
use like Low Cost Housing, Mass Housing,
High Rise Buildings.
Masonry principles using Brick, stone,
Blocks – construction detailing and strength
Types of plastering, pointing, flooring, roofing
and construction features.
Common repairs in buildings.
Principles of functional planning of building
for residents and specific use - Building
Basic principles of detailed and approximate
estimating - specification writing and
rate analysis – principles of valuation of
Machinery for earthwork, concreting and
their specific uses – Factors affecting selection
of equipments – operating cost of
1.3 Construction Planning and Management:
Construction activity – schedules- organization
for construction industry – Quality
Use of Basic principles of network – analysis
in form of CPM and PERT – their use in
construction monitoring, Cost optimization
and resource allocation.
Basic principles of Economic analysis and
Project profitability – Basic principles of
Boot approach to financial planning –
simple toll fixation criterions.
2. Surveying and Transportation Engineering
Common methods and instruments for distance
and angle measurement for CE work
– their use in plane table, traverse survey,
leveling work, triangulation, contouring and
Basic principles of photogrammetry and
2.2 Railway Engineering:
Permanent way – components, types and
their functions – Functions and Design constituents
of turn and crossings – Necessity
of geometric design of track – Design of
station and yards.
2.3 Highway Engineering:
Principles of Highway alignments – classification
and geometrical design elements
and standards for Roads.
Pavement structure for flexible and rigid
pavements - Design principles and methodology
Typical construction methods and standards
of materials for stabilized soil, WBM,
Bituminous works and CC roads.
Surface and sub-surface drainage arrangements
for roads - culvert structures.
Pavement distresses and strengthening by
Traffic surveys and their applications in traffic
planning - Typical design features for
channelized, intersection, rotary etc – signal
designs – standard Traffic signs and
3. Hydrology, Water Resources and Engineering:
Hydrological cycle, precipitation, evaporation,
transpiration, infiltration, overland
flow, hydrograph, flood frequency analysis,
flood routing through a reservoir, channel
flow routing-Muskingam method.
3.2 Ground water flow:
Specific yield, storage coefficient, coefficient
of permeability, confined and unconfined
equifers, aquifers, aquitards, radial
flow into a well under confined and unconfined
3.3 Water Resources Engineering:
Ground and surface water resource, single
and multipurpose projects, storage capacity
of reservoirs, reservoir losses, reservoir
3.4 Irrigation Engineering:
(i) Water requirements of crops: consumptive
use, duty and delta, irrigation
methods and their efficiencies.
(ii) Canals: Distribution systems for canal
irrigation, canal capacity, canal losses,
alignment of main and distributory canals,
most efficient section, lined canals,
their design, regime theory, critical
shear stress, bed load.
(iii) Water logging: causes and control,
(iv) Canal structures: Design of, head regulators,
canal falls, aqueducts, metering
flumes and canal outlets.
(v) Diversion headwork: Principles and
design of weirs of permeable and impermeable
theory, energy dissipation.
(vi) Storage works: Types of dams, design,
principles of rigid gravity, stability
(vii) Spillways: Spillway types, energy dissipation.
(viii)River training: Objectives of river training,
methods of river training.
4. Environmental Engineering:
4.1 Water Supply:
Predicting demand for water, impurities of
water and their significance, physical,
chemical and bacteriological analysis,
waterborne diseases, standards for potable
4.2 Intake of water:
Water treatment: principles of coagulation,
flocculation and sedimentation; slow-;
rapid-, pressure-, filters; chlorination, softening,
removal of taste, odour and salinity.
4.3 Sewerage systems:
Domestic and industrial wastes, storm sewage–
separate and combined systems, flow
through sewers, design of sewers.
4.4 Sewage characterization:
BOD, COD, solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen
and TOC. Standards of disposal in
normal watercourse and on land.
4.5 Sewage treatment:
Working principles, units, chambers, sedimentation
tanks, trickling filters, oxidation
ponds, activated sludge process, septic
tank, disposal of sludge, recycling of wastewater.
4.6 Solid waste:
Collection and disposal in rural and urban
contexts, management of long-term ill effects.
5. Environmental pollution:
Sustainable development. Radioactive
wastes and disposal. Environmental impact
assessment for thermal power plants,
mines, river valley projects. Air pollution.
Pollution control acts.