UPSC Mains Exam Syllabus : Persian Optional
There will be two questions which must be answered in Persian. The remaining
questions must be answered either in Persian or in the medium of examination
opted by the candidate.
1. (a) Description of the origin and development of Persian language (to
be answered in Persian).
(b) Applied Grammar, Rhetorics, Prosody, Idioms and Phrases frequently used.
- Grammar : Ism and its kinds, Zamir-e- Muttasil and Munfasil,
Murakkabi-Tausifi, Murakkab-i-Izafi, Ismi-Ishara, Musharun Elaih, Fel and
its kinds, Tenses, Gardan, singular and plural, Jumleh and its kinds.
- Rhetorics : Tajnees, Ishteqaq, Luzumma- la-yalzum, seyaqatul Aadad, Qalb,
Tarsee, Esteaara, Maratun Nazir, Laff-o- Nashr, Iham, Husn-i-Taalil,
Aarefaneh, Talmih, Tansiqus Sifat.
- Prosody : Bahri-Muzara, Ramal, Mutaqarib, Tawil, Hazaj, Kamil.
1. Short essay in Persian-250 words (to be answered in Persian).
2. History of Persian Literature in Iran and India; Literary criticism and
styles; trends in classical and modern literature; sociocultural influences,
development of modern literary genres including drama, novel, short story.
There will be two compulsory questions– one each in textual portions of prose
and poetry which are to be answered in Persian. The remaining questions are to
answered either in Persian or in the medium of examination opted by the
candidate. This paper will require first hand reading of the texts prescribed
and will be designed to test the candidate’s critical ability.
1. Nizami Aroozi Samarqandi : Chahar Maqala :
2. Qabus.b, Washmgir : Qabus Nama :
- Dar Shinakhtan-e-Haqq-e-Pidarwa- Madar
- Dar Bishi Justan Az Sukhandani
- Dar Talib Ilmi Wa Faqih Wa Fuqaha
3. Sadi Shirazi : Gulistan :
4. Moh. Awfi : Jawameul Hikayat :
5. Ziauddin Burney : Tarikh-i-Firozshahi:
- Wasaya-i-Sultan Balban Be Farzand-e-Buzurg
6. Abul Fazl Ain-e-Akbari:
- Ain-e-Manzil Dar Yurisha
- Ain-e-Cheragh Afrozi
8. Mohd. Hijazi :
1. Firadausi : Shahnama :
2. Khayyam : Rubaaiyat (Radif Alif and Be)
3. Saadi Shirazi : Bustan: ‘Dar Adl-u-Tadbir-u-Rai’
4. Amir Khusrau: Majmua-i-Diwan-e- Khusrau. (Radif Dal)
5. Maulana Rum: Mathnawi Maanawi (First Half of Daftar Duwwum)
6. Hafiz : (Radif Alif and Dal)
7. Urfi Shirazi : Qasaaid :
- Iqbal-e-Karam Migazad Arbabi- Himam Ra.
- Har Sukhta Jane Ki Ba Kashmir Dar Ayad.
- Sabah-e-Idd Ke Dar Takiyagah-e- Naz-u-Naeem.
8. Ghalib : Ghazaaliyat (Radif Alif)
9. Bahar Mashhadi :
- Dar Barabad-e-Khuda
11. Nimayushij :
Note :- Textual portions of prose and poetry are to be explained in