Photovoltaics is the technological process of conversion of light into electrical energy with the help of semiconductor technology. Photovoltaics is most commonly used in solar cells to convert sunlight into electrical energy. Sunlight is a renewable energy source. Photovoltaics has potential to produce affordable and sustainable electricity which can further help in mitigating climate change caused by global warming and CO2 generation. There are debates on classifying photovoltaics as green energy source as production and installation of photovoltaics causes emission of greenhouse gases but scientists are trying to minimize it.
Effective and cheap processes of recycling of the photovoltaic panels is also being explored. According to a study, the cost of solar panels has been significantly reduced by approximately four times between 2004 and 2011. In 2019, energy produced by photovoltaics was approximately 2% of the global energy demand according to a study conducted by Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Germany. It is the third most used renewable energy source after hydro and wind powers in terms of global capacity.