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# (Download) UPSC IAS Mains Exam Paper - 2017 : Civil Engineering

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## (Download) UPSC IAS Mains Exam Paper - 2017 : Civil Engineering

## CIVIL ENGINEERING

(Paper 1)

**Time Allowed : Three Hours**

**Maximum Marks : 250**

**QUESTION PAPER SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS**

**Please read each of the following instructions carefully before attempting
questions.**

There are **EIGHT** questions divided in Two Sections and printed both in
**HINDI **and in **ENGLISH**.

Candidate has to attempt **FIVE** questions in all. Question Nos.

1 and 5 are compulsory and out of the remaining, any **THREE** are to be
attempted choosing at least **ONE** from each Section.

The number of marks carried by a question/part is indicated against it.

Answers must be written in the medium authorized in the Admission Certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this Question-cum-Answer (OCA) Booklet in the space provided. No marks will be given for answers written in a medium other than the authorized one.

Wherever any assumptions are made for answering a question, they must be clearly indicated.

Diagrams/Figures, wherever required, shall be drawn in the space provided for answering the question itself.

Unless otherwise mentioned, symbols and notations carry their usual standard meanings. Attempts of questions shall be counted in sequential order. Unless struck off, attempt of a question shall be counted even if attempted partly. Any page or portion of the page left blank in the Questioncum-Answer Booklet must be clearly struck off.

**SECTION "A"**

**1.(a)** A vertical isosceles triangular gate with its vertex up has a base
width of 2 m and a height of 1.5 m. If the vertex of gate is 1 m below the free
water surface, find the total pressure force and the position of centre of
pressure.

(b) What are the advantages of High Strength Friction Grip bolts ? How the
load is transferred in High Strength Friction Grip bolts ? Explain with
sketches.

(c) An undisturbed soil at a borrow pit has a water content 12 per Cent, void
ratio 0.55 and specific gravity of solids 2.62. The soil from the borrow pit is
to be used for the construction of an embankment. The specifications for the
embankment require a dry density of 17.5 kN/m^{3} with a water content
of 18-5 per cent. Calculate the quantity of water in litres which is required to
be added to the borrow pit soil per m^{3} of finished embankment.

(d) A lever is loaded as shown in the above figure.

(i) Calculate the moment of force at Point A.

(ii) Calculate the amount of horizontal force to be applied at B to produce the
same amount of moment of force as calculated above.

(iii) Calculate smallest amount of force to be applied at B, to produce the same
amount of moment of force as calculated in part (1).

(iv) Calculate the distance of point on lever, where 1:20 kN vertical force to
be applied to produce same amount of moment of force as calculated in part (i).

Calculate bending moment and shear force and plot their variation for the frame shown in the above figure.

**2.(a) **A 0.3 m diameter pipe carries water at a velocity of 24.4 m/s. At
points A and B, the pressures were measured 361 kPa and 288 kPa respectively.
The elevations of points

A and B were as 30.5m and 33.5m respectively. Find the loss of head between A
and B.

2.(b) A light weight building stands over a 10 m thick stratum of sand. Beneath
the sand stratum a clay layer of 5 m thick exists. The clay layer is underlain
by a rock stratum. The water table lies at a depth of 1-0 m below ground surface
and the sand above the water table is saturated with capillary rise. The sand
has a void ratio of 0.75 and sp. g. 2.65. During dry season, water is pumped out
from the sand stratum till the water table is lowered by 4.0 m and sand above
water table becomes dry. Calculate the number of days when the building settles
by 25 mm. Ignore settlement during pumping operation. Take properties of clay :
Void ratio = 0-60, Sp. gr. = 2.70, Liquid limit = 40%, Coefficient of
consolidation = 6x10^{-3} cm^{2}/s.

2. (c) Details of a dog-legged stair for a building is shown in the above
figure. The floor to floor height is 30 m. The live load may be taken as 2.5 kN/m
thickness of the stair slab is 150 Tim. The rise and tread are 150 mm and 250 mm
respectively. Design and detail the typical flight. Use M-25 of concrete and
Fe-500 grade of steel. Use limit state method.

**3. (a)** In a consolidated drained triaxial test (CD test) a specimen of
saturated sand failed under a deviator stress of 220 kPa when the cell pressure
was 100 kPa. Determine the shear strength parameters, the shear strength and the
maximum shear stress.

(b) An oil of dynamic viscosity 1-5 poise and relative density 0-9 flows through
a 3 cm diameter vertical pipe. Two pressure gauges are fixed 20 m apart. The
gauge A fixed at the top records 200 kPa and gauge B fixed at the bottom records
500 kPa. Find the direction of flow and the rate of flow.

(c) Calculate the vertical displacement of joint B of plane truss given in the
above figure by unit load method. All members of truss have constant
cross-sectional area and sattle material (Constalit A & E).

**4. (a)** The above figure shows a two-layered backfill behind a 9.0 m high
retaining wall with a smooth vertical back. Draw the total active earth pressure
distribution diagram and find the point of application of the resultant earth
pressure.

(b) Two moving loads, 300 kN cach and spaced 40 m apart, cross a 20-0 m long simply supported girder from left to right as shown above. Calculate the absolute maximum bending moment due to these moving loads.

(c) A square hollow section is connected to the flange of ISMB 600 as shown in the above figure. The bracket is subjected to symmetrical vertical and horizontal load of each 50 kN. The size of SHS is 150x150x6 mm. Find the weld size required for the connection.

**SECTION "B"**

**5. (a)** A 1:50 scale spill-way model has discharge of 1:25 m/s. What is the
corresponding prototype discharge ? If a flood phenomenon takes 12 hours to
occur in the prototype, how long should it take in the model ?

(b) The design mix proportion of Cement: Fine agg. : Coarse agg. : Water for a
concrete mix of grade M-25 at Saturated Surface Dry (SSD) condition is l: 1:2:24
: (0-4 (by weight). Find out the revised mix proportion due to change of
material characteristics (Fine and Coarse agg.) for raining day before casting
at site.

Given : (i) Sp. gravity of Fine and Coarse agg. = 2.6 and 2.65 respectively.

(ii) Surface moisture (%) on Fine and Coarse agg. = 2.5 and 1.5 respectively.

How the durability factor is taken up during concrete mix design as per I.S.
code?

(c) A foundation trench is to be excavated for a large project in a site. The
soil investigation report shows the following details :

It is observed that an open excavation is stable up to 5.75 m depth with the existing water table. The excavation is to be made up to 8-5 m depth for which water table is to be lowered. What are the initial and final depths of water table ?

(d) Two bars of 50 mm dia are connected as shown in the above figure. Find
the maximum load P that can be applied. E = 2x10^{-5} MPa.

(e) Calculate the maximum shear stress in a hollow circular shaft having 300 mm
external diameter and 150 mm internal diameter. This shaft is subjected to a
twisting moment of 4 kN-m. If modultus of Rigidity G = 82 GN/m, calculate the
twist for a length of 20 times the external diameter of shaft.

**6. (a)** Three beam members are connected at the joint B as shown in the above
figure. Joint B is subjected to a clockwise moment of 100 KN-m. Calculate the
moment at A, C and D by Moment Distribution Method. All beam elements have
constant cross-sectional area and materials. (Constant I and E)

(b)

(c) A horizontal rectangular channel 4 m wide carries a discharge of 16 m/s. Determine whether a jump may occur at an initial depth of 0:5 m or not. Determine the sequent depth to this initial depth. Also find the energy loss in this jump.

**7. (a)** A Pelton wheel turbine develops 5520 KW power under a head of 240 m at
an overall efficiency of 80%. The turbine is running at a speed of 200 r.p,m.
Find the unit discharge, unit power and unit speed assuming peripheral
coefficient as 0:46. If the head on the same turbine falls during summer season
to 150 m, find the discharge, power and speed for this head.

(b) An anchored sheetpile founded in a cohesive soil is to retain a sandy
backfill as shown in the above figure. Calculate the depth of embedment of the
sheet pile and the pull in the anchor.

(c) Calculate maximum bending stress and shear stress at the fixed end of a cantilever beam as shown in the above figure. Also sketch the variations of bending stress and shear stress at fixed end. Beam has a uniform thickness of 50 mm. Beam has a depth of 200 mm at free end and 300 mm at fixed end.

**8. (a) **A cantilever retaining wall is to be constructed to retain earth
embankment 3.1 m high above ground level. The unit weight of earth is 19 kN/m'
and its angle of repose is 35o. Dimensions of the wall are shown in the above
figure and the wall is safe against all stability check. Design the stem of the
wall using M-25 and Fe500. Detail the reinforcement in stein also. Use Limit
State Method. Given :

(b) Air flows over a flat plate 1 m long at a velocity of 6 m/sec. Determine

(i) the boundary layer thickness at the end of the plate,

(ii) shear stress at the middle of the plate,

(iii) total drag per unit length on both sides of the plate. Take mass density
of air p = 1.226 kg/m^{3} and kinematic viscosity of air V = 0-15x10^{-4}
m^{2}/sec.

(c)

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## UPSC Mains General Studies Study Kit

## CIVIL ENGINEERING

(Paper 1)

**Time Allowed : Three Hours**

**Maximum Marks : 250**

**QUESTION PAPER SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS**

**Please read each of the following instructions carefully before attempting
questions.**

There are **EIGHT** questions divided in Two Sections and printed both in
**HINDI **and in **ENGLISH**.

Candidate has to attempt **FIVE** questions in all. Question Nos.

1 and 5 are compulsory and out of the remaining, any **THREE** are to be
attempted choosing at least **ONE** from each Section.

The number of marks carried by a question/part is indicated against it.

Answers must be written in the medium authorized in the Admission Certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this Question-cum-Answer (OCA) Booklet in the space provided. No marks will be given for answers written in a medium other than the authorized one.

Wherever any assumptions are made for answering a question, they must be clearly indicated.

Diagrams/Figures, wherever required, shall be drawn in the space provided for answering the question itself.

Unless otherwise mentioned, symbols and notations carry their usual standard meanings. Attempts of questions shall be counted in sequential order. Unless struck off, attempt of a question shall be counted even if attempted partly. Any page or portion of the page left blank in the Questioncum-Answer Booklet must be clearly struck off.

**SECTION "A"**

**1. (a)** The following table gives the activities in a construction
project and other relevant information :

Activity | Duration |

1-2 | 20 |

1-3 | 25 |

2-3 | 10 |

2-4 | 12 |

3-4 | 6 |

4-5 | 10 |

(i) Draw the network of the project,

(ii) Find the critical path,

(iii) Find free float, total float and independent float for each activity.

(b) What do you mean by cement mortar? Explain the theory of proportioning of
cement mortar and also explain the relation between solidity and strength of
cement mortar.

(c) (i) Explain remote sensing method of surveying. List the various uses of IRS
data.

(ii) Explain the principles of triangulation. Write the factors to be considered
for the selection of baseline for triangulation.

(d) What are the requirements for an ideal rail section? Explain, with a neat
sketch, standard flat-footed broad-gauge rail section of 60 kg type. Mark
approximate dimensions of each part.

(e) (i) Discuss the importance of drainage in highways. Describe the surface and
subsurface drainage arrangements for a national highway in coastal area.

(ii) List the factors affecting the design of a rotary intersection.

**2. (a) Differentiate between the following:**

(i) CPM and PERT

(ii) Float and Slack

(iii) Direct cost and Indirect cost

(iv) Total float and Independent float

(b) Explain the objects of plastering and pointing. Discuss the various types
of pointing with the help of neat sketches.

(c) List down the factors which affect the selection of a construction
equipment. How will you determine the economic life of an equipment? Explain
with the help of a suitable example.

**3. (a)** Explain the term 'specification' with reference to civil
construction. What are the various objectives of specification? Prepare a
detailed specification of reinforced cement concrete.

(b) Describe the characteristics of contours. The areas within contour lines at
the site of a reservoir and the face of a proposed dam are as follows :

Countour (in m) | Area (in m^{2}) |

441 | 270 |

444 | 10440 |

447 | 75600 |

450 | 144000 |

453 | 270000 |

456 | 414500 |

459 | 460800 |

462 | 586800 |

465 | 639900 |

Assuming 441 m as the bottom level of the reservoir and 465 m as the water level, find the volume of water in the reservoir in cubic metres.

(c) (i) List the advantages and disadvantages of concrete sleepers. Mention
the requirements of an ideal sleeper.

(ii) Why are signals used in railway tracks? Draw the neat sketch of a semaphore
signal and write the names of the different parts.

(d) (i) What are the objects of geometric design of highway? What are the
different elements which need consideration while designing a highway?

(ii) While aligning a highway in a built-up area, it was necessary to provide a
horizontal circular curve of radius 325 m. Design the following geometric
features :

(1) Superelevation

(2) Extra widening of pavement

(3) Length of transition curve Data available are :

Design speed = 65 kmph Length of wheelbase of the largest truck = 6 m Pavement
width = 10:5 m

**4. (a)** (i) Describe in brief the various methods of proportioning
concrete.

(ii) Differentiate between plain cement concrete and reinforced cement concrete.
Why is reinforcement necessary? Discuss.

(b) A straight tunnel is to run between two points A and B, whose net coordinates are given in the table below :

POINT | Independent Coordinates | |

N | E | |

A | 0 | 0 |

B | 3014 | 256 |

C | 1764 | 1398 |

It is desired to sink a shaft at D, the middle point of AB, but it is impossible to measure along AB directly, so D is to be fixed from c, a third known point. Calculate

(i) the net coordinates of D;

(ii) the length and bearing of CD;

(iii) the angle ACD, given that the whole circle bearing of AC is 38°24.

(c) Enumerate the different resistances which a locomotive has to overcome before hauling a train. A BG track locomotive having four pairs of driving wheels runs on a straight level track at a speed of 86 kmph. The maximum axle load is 285 tonnes.

(i) Find the maximum permissible train load that can be pulled by the
locomotive.

(ii) Also calculate the reduction in speed if the train climbs a gradient of 1
in 200.

(iii) If the train climbs a 1 in 200 gradient with a 3o curve, what would be the
reduced speed of the train? Given, the coefficient of friction is 0-166.

(d) What are the points to be kept in mind while executing the work of mechanically stabilized soil highway? An NH passes through a rolling terrain having a horizontal curve of radius 600 m. Design the length of the transition curve and compute the shift using the following data :

(i) Design speed, v = 80 kmph

(ii) Normal pavement width, w = 7 m

(iii) Number of lanes, n = 2

(iv) Wheelbase width, 1 - 6 m

(v) Allowable rate of superelevation = 1 in 150 (vi) Allowable rate of change of
centrifugal acceleration, C = 0.507

**SECTION-"B"**

**5. (a)** (i) Explain the mechanism of release of water into unconfined
and confined aquifers. List the assumptions made in the derivation of flow
equation in an aquifer.

(ii) A well with radius of 0-3 m is drilled in an unconfined aquifer. Initial
water table is 30 m above the bed. Estimate the amount of water that can be
pumped if the maximum drawdown is restricted to 8 m.

ASSUME :

Hydraulic conductivity = 25 m/day

Radius of influence = 300 m

(b) (i) Define permanent wilting point and field capacity. How is it useful
in deciding the frequency of irrigation?

(ii) Determine the frequency of irrigation using the following data :

Consumptive use = 28 mm/day

Root zone depth = 80 min Irrigation efficiency = 650

Available soil moisture = 50%

Also find the depth of water to be applied.

(c) What is meant by 'design period' and 'population forecast? Describe the
'incremental increase' method of future population forecast of a city, stating
its advantages.

(d) It is required to supply water to a population of 80000 at a per capita
demand of 150 L per day. Chlorine usage in the treatment is 5 kg/day. The
residual chlorine after 10 minutes contact is 0:20 mg/L. Calculate the chloring
demand of the water.

(e) (i) Explain the impacts of improper disposal of solid wastes on human health
and environment in general.

(ii) Discuss the composition of municipal solid waste (MSW).

**6. (a)** (i) Define hydrograph. With a neat sketch, explain any two
methods of base-flow separation from a hydrograph.

(ii) Explain step by step how reservoir capacity is decided using a mass inflow
cury,

(iii) Distinguish between single-purpose reservoir and multi-purpose reservoir.
Explain two important methods of allocation of water in a multi-purpose
reservoir.

(b) (i) Determine the design discharge of a canal with the following data:

Crop | Base Period (Days) | Area (Hectares) | Duty (Hectares / Cumec) |

Sugarcane | 320 | 850 | 580 |

Overlap sugarcane in hot weather | 90 | 120 | 580 |

Wheat (Rabi) | 120 | 600 | 1600 |

Bajri (Monsoon) | 120 | 500 | 2000 |

Vegetables (Hot Weather) | 120 | 360 | 600 |

Time factor of the canal = 15/20

Capacity factor = 0-75

(ii) Explain the modes of failure in gravity dam and earthen dam.

(iii) Write a note on reservoir sedimentation.

(c) (i) Explain the function of a spillway. What are the advantages of an
ogee spillway? Explain with a neat sketch.

(ii) Compute the discharge over an ogee spillway with the following data :

C = 2.4

Head = 2m

Length = 100 m

Crest is 8 m above the bottom

(iii) Write a note on stilling basin and river training works.

**7. (a) The classification of the surface on which the rain falls in a city
is as follows:**

% of total surface area | Type of surface | Coffiecient of runoff |

20% | Rooftop | 0.90 |

20% | Pavement | 0.85 |

10% | Paved Yard | 0.80 |

15% | Macedam Road | 0.40 |

35% | Lawns | 0.10 |

Determine the coefficient of runoff of the area. If the total area of the city is 40 ha and the maximum rain intensity is taken as 6 cm/hr, what is the runoff for the city?

(b) (i) Discuss the significance of BOD / COD ratio in the treatment of
wastewater.

(i) Calculate 2-day 37 °C BOD of a sewage Sample, whose 5-day 20 °C BOD is 150
rng/L, Assume k_{d} at 20 °C as 0:1.

(c) (i) What are the various stages in the sludge digestion process? Also
discuss the factors affecting sludge digestion and their control.

(ii) Design an oxidation pond for treating sewage from a hot climatic
residential colony with 6000 persons contributing sewage 150 L per capita per
day. The 5-day BOD of sewage is 250 rmg/L,

**8. (a)** (i) Define flood routing. Distinguish between hydraulic routing
and hydrologic routing.

(ii) Briefly explain the basic concepts used in storage outflow routing and
Muskingum routing.

(iii) Write a brief note on kinematic flood routing.

(b) (i) Explain Lacey's regime theory. Define regime channel, initial regime
and final regime.

(ii) Explain the steps involved to design a channel using Lacey's theory.|

(iii) Compare Lacey's theory and Kennedy theory.

(c) (i) How do mining activities affect the environment? Discuss the
environmental impact of mining in detail.

(ii) What are the various pollutants causing pollution of air? Discuss the
sources and their effects on human health and environment in general.