(Papers) UPSC Pre Topic Wise Papers : Environment

 



(Papers) UPSC Pre Topic Wise Papers : Environment



 2017 :

1. Which of the following practices can help in waterconservation in agriculture ?
1. Reduced or  zero tillage of the land
2. Applying gypsum before irrigating the field
3. Allowing crop residue to remain in the field
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow :
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: D

2. Biological  Oxygen  Demand  (BOD)  is  a  standardcriterion for
(a) Measuring oxygen levels in blood
(b) Computing oxygen levels in forest ecosystems
(c) Pollution assay in aquatic ecosystems
(d) Assessing oxygen levels in high altitude regions
Ans: C
Exp:
• Biochemical  Oxygen  Demand  is  an  importantwater  quality  parameter which  provides  an indexto  assess  the  effect  discharged  wastewater  will have  on  the  receiving  environment.
• The higher the BOD value, the greater the amountof  organic  matter  or  “food”  available  foroxygen  consuming  bacteria.

3. In India, if a species of tortoise is declared protectedunder Schedule  I of the Wildlife  (Protection) Act,1972, what does it imply?
(a) It  enjoys  the  same  level  of  protection  as  thetiger.
(b) It no longer exists in the wild, a few individualsare  under  captive  protection;  and  how  it  isimpossible to prevent its extinction.
(c) It is endemic to  a  particular  region  of  India.
(d) Both  (b)  and  (c)  stated  above  are  correct  inthis context.
Ans: A

4. Recently there was a proposal to translocate someof the lions from their natural habitat in Gujarat towhich one of the following sites?
(a) Corbett  National  Park
(b) Kuno Palpur Wildlife Sanctuary
(c) Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary
(d) Sariska  National  Park
Ans: B
Exp: An  environment  ministry’s  expert  committee  hasapproved  Kuno  Palpur  in  Madhya  Pradesh  a the  second  home  for  Asiatic  lions  found only  in Gir  national  park.

5. The  term  ‘Domestic  Content  Requirement’  issometimes  seen  in  the  news  with  reference  to
(a) Developing  solar  power  production  in  ourcountry.
(b) Granting  licenses  to  foreign  T.V.  channels  inour country.
(c) Exporting our food products to other countries.
(d) Permitting foreign educational institutions to setup their campuses in  our  country.
Ans: A
Exp: The  policy  of  Domestic  Content  Requirement  is with  intent  to  promote  the  local  manufacturing of  the  components  of  solar  generation equipment which  includes  the  cells  and  modules.
• With  an  objective  to  establish  India  as  a  global leader in  solar  energy  , the  Ministry  of  New  andRenewable  Energy  Launched  its  National SolarPolicy  in  2010  named  as  Jawaharlal  NehruNational  Solar  Mission  (JNNSM).  Phase  1  ofthe  National  policy  was  composed  of  2  parts.
• Batch  1  of  policy  implementation:  India  requireddevelopers  of  solar  photovoltaic  projectsemploying  crystalline  silicon  technology  to  usesolar  modules  manufacture  in  India
• Batch  2  India  expanded  this  domestic  sourcingrequirement  to  crystalline  silicon  solar  cells  aswell.

6. With, reference to ‘Global Climate Change Alliance’which  of the  following  statements is/are  correct?
1. It is an initiative of the European Union.
2. It  provides  technical  and  financial  support  totargeted developing countries to integrate climatechange  into  their  development  policies  andbudgets.
3. It is coordinated by World Resources  Institute(WRI)  and  World  Business  Council  forSustainable Development  (WBCSD).
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow :
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: A
Exp: The  Global  Climate  Change  Alliance  (GCCA)  isan  initiative  of  the  European  Union.  Its  overallobjective  is  to  build  a  new  alliance  on climatechange  between  the  European  Union  and  thepoor  developing  countries  that  are  most  affectedand  that  have  the  least  capacity  to  deal  withclimate  change.  The  GCCA  does  not  intend  toset  up  a  new  fund  or  governance  structure,  butis  working  through  the  European  Commission’sestablished  channels  for  political  dialogue  andcooperation  at  national  and  international  level.The  GCCA+  aim  is  to  boost  the  efficiency  of  itsresponse  to  the  needs  of  vulnerable  countriesand  groups.  Using  ambitious  and  innovativeapproaches,  it  will  achieve  its  goals by  buildingon  its  two  mutually  reinforcing  pillars:
• Under  the  first  pillar,  the  GCCA+  serves  as  aplatform  for  dialogue  and  exchange  ofexperience  between  the  EU  and  developingcountries,  focusing  on  climate  policy  andbringing  renewed  attention  to  the  issue  ofinternational  climate  finance.  The  results  feedinto  negotiations  for  a  new  climate  deal  underthe  United  Nations  Framework  Convention  onClimate  Change  (UNFCCC).
• Under  the  second  pillar,  the  GCCA+  acts  as  asource  of  technical  and  financial  support  forthe  world’s  most  climate-vulnerable  countries,
whose populations  need climate finance the most.Extra  efforts  will  be  made  to  strengthen  thestrategically important issues of ecosystems-basedadaptation,  migration  and  gender  equality.

7. According to  the Wildlife  (Protection) Act,  1972,which of the following animals cannot be hunted byany person except under some provisions providedby law?
1. Gharial
2. Indian wild ass
3. Wild buffalo
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow:
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1,  2  and    3
Ans: D
Exp: The  Government  of  India  subsequently  accordedthe  highest  level  of  protection  to  Gharial  bybringing  it  under  Schedule  I  of  the  Wild LifeProtection  Act,  1972.  In  1976,  Project  Crocodilewas initiated with support from the United NationsDevelopment  Programme  and  Food  andAgriculture  Organization.The  Indian wild ass is a  subspecies of the onagernative  to  Southern  Asia.  As  of  2016,  it  is  listedas  Near  Threatened  by  IUCN.Wild  Buffalo  is  also  listed  under  the  Schedule  Iof  the  Wildlife  Protection  Act,  1972

8. Consider the following statements :
1. Climate  and  Clean  Air  Coalition  (CCAC)  toReduce  Short  Lived  Climate  Pollutants  is  aunique initiative of G20 group of countries;
2. The CCAC  focuses on methane,  black carbonand hydrofluorocarbons.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both  1  and  2 (d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: B
Exp: The  Climate  and  Clean  Air  Coalition  to  ReduceShort-Lived  Climate  Pollutants  (CCA (C)was launched by the United Nations Environment
Programme  (UNEP)  and  six  countries—Bangladesh,  Canada,  Ghana,  Mexico,  Sweden,and  the  United  States—on  16  February  2012.It focuses  on O3, CH4, Black Carbon,  and HFCs

9. Consider  the  following  statements  in  respect  ofTrade  Related  Analysis  of  Fauna  and  Flora  inCommerce  (TRAFFIC):
1. TRAFFIC  is  a  bureau  under  United  NationsEnvironment  Programme  (UNEP).
2. The  Mission  of  TRAFFIC  is  to  ensure  thattrade in wild plants and animals is not a threatto the  conservation  of  nature.
Which  of  the  above  statements  is/are  correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both  1  and  2 (d) Neither  1  nor  2

Ans: B
Exp: TRAFFIC has an enviable reputation as a reliableand  impartial  organisation,  a  leader  in  the  fieldof  conservation  as  it  relates  to  wildlife trade.
TRAFFIC  was  established  in  1976  and  hasdeveloped  into  a  global  network,  research-drivenand  action-oriented,  committed  to  deliveringinnovative  and  practical  conservation  solutionsbased  on  the  latest  information.TRAFFIC  also  works  in  close  co-operation  withthe Secretariat of the Convention on InternationalTrade  in  Endangered  Species  of  Wild  Fauna  andFlora  (CITES).TRAFFIC, the  wildlife  trade  monitoring  network,works  to  ensure  that  trade  in  wild  plants  andanimals  is  not  a  threat  to  the  conservation  of nature.

10. Due to some  reasons, if there is a huge  fall in the population of species of butterflies, what could be its likely consequence/consequences?
1. Pollination  of  some plants could  be adversely affected.
2. There could be a drastic increase in the fungal infections of some cultivated plants.
3. It could lead to a fall in the population of some species  of  wasps,  spiders  and  birds.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: C
Exp: Pollination  is  affected  adversely  and  the predators  of  butterflies  are  also  affected,  do  not have  impact  on  fungal  infection.

11. It is possible to  produce algae  based biofuels,  but what  is/are  the  likely  limitation(s)  of  developing countries in promoting this industry?
1. Production of algae based biofuels is possible in seas  only and not  on continents.
2. Setting  up  and  engineering  the  algae  based biofuel  production  requires  high  level  of expertise/technology  until  the  construction  iscompleted.
3. Economically viable production necessitates the setting  up  of  large  scale  facilities  which  may raise ecological and  social concerns.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: B
Exp: Algae  can  be  grown  using  land  and  water  notsuitable for  plant  and food  production.  The  algalbiofuel  technology  includes  selection  of  specificspecies  for  production  and  extraction  ofvaluable  co-products.  The  algaes  arebioengineered  for  achieving  advancephotosynthetic  efficiencies  through  continueddevelopment  of  production  system.To  make  the  industry  commercially  viable,researchers  have  pursued  biotech varieties,which  could  be  particularly  dangerous  ifreleased  into  nature.  Some  algae  biodieselproposals  involve  aquaculture-style  operations
in  open  ocean  waters,  which  could  have  harmfulecological  effects,  especially  if  biotech  algae  isused.
Water  and  nutrient  use  would  also  be  extreme,making  any  serious  scaling  up  of  algae  biofuelsquite  unsustainable.

12. In the  context  of  mitigating the impending  globalwarming due to anthropogenic emission of carbondioxide, which of the following can be thepotentialsites  for  carbon  sequestration?
1. Abandoned  and  Uneconomic  coal  seams
2. Depleted  oil and  gas  reservoirs
3. Subterranean deep saline  formations
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow:
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: D
Exp: Capturing CO2 from the major stationary sourcesand  its  storage  into  deep  geological  formationsis  considered  as  a  potential  mitigation  option.
Geological  storage  of  CO2  can  be  undertakenin  a  variety  of  geological  settings in  sedimentarybasins.
The  options  for  CO2  are  as  follows:
• Depleted  oil  and  gas  reservoirs
• Use  of  CO2  in  FOR
• Deep  unmineable  coal  seams/enhanced  coalbedmethane  (ECBM)  recovery
• Oceans
• Deep  unused  saline  water-saturatedformations
• Other  geological  media  are  basalts,  shales,and  cavities
• Subterranean  deep  saline  formations

13. The  term  ‘M-STrIPES’  is  sometimes  seen  in  thenews in the  context  of
(a) Captive breeding of Wild Fauna
(b) Maintenance  of  Tiger  Reserves
(c) Indigenous Satellite Navigation System
(d) Security of National Highways
Ans: B
Exp: The full form of M-STrIPES is Monitoring Systemfor  Tigers’-Intensive  Protection  and  EcologicalStatus. It’s a software monitoring system launchedby  the  Indian  Government  in  2010  in  some  tigerreserves.  The  aim  is  to  reduce  vulnerability  ofTigers.  The  system  would  enable  field  managersto  assist intensity  and  spatial  coverage  of  patrolsin a geographic information  system (GIS) domain

UPSC Mains General Studies Study Kit (GS I + GS II + GS III + GS IV)

Printed Study Material for IAS (UPSC) : General Studies PRE Cum MAINS

2016 :

1. On which of the following can you find the Bureauof  Energy  Efficiency  Star  Label?
1. Ceiling fans
2. Electric  geysers
3. Tubular fluorescent lamps
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow:
(a)  1  and  2  only
(b) 3 only
(c)  2  and  3  only
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: D
Exp: It  is  invoked  for  equipment/appliances  Room  AirConditioner,  Ceiling  Fan,  Colour  Television,Computer,  Direct  Cool  Refrigerator,  DistributionTransformer,  Domestic  Gas  Stove,  Frost  FreeRefrigerator,  General  Purpose  Industrial  Motor,Monoset  Pump,  OpenwellSubmersible  Pump  Set,Stationary  Type  Water  Heater,  Submersible  PumpSet,  Tfl,  Ballast,  Solid  State  Inverter,  OfficeAutomation  Products,  Diesel  Engine  DrivenMono-setpumps  For  Agricultural  Purposes,Diesel  Generator  Set,  Led  Lamps,  Inverter  Ac.

2. In  the  cities  of  our  country,  which  among  thefollowing atmospheric gases are normally consideredin calculating the value of Air Quality Index?
1. Carbon dioxide
2. Carbon monoxide
3.  Nitrogen dioxide
4.  Sulphur Dioxide
5. Methane
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b)   2,  3  and  4 Only
(c)    1,  4  and  5  Only
(d)   1,  2,  3,  4 and  5
Ans: B
Exp: The  Air  quality  index  in  India  was  recentlydeveloped by the IIT Kanpur. The  Index considerseight  pollutants — PM10  (particulate  matter  10),PM2.5(particulate  matter  2.5),  NO2  (Nitrogendioxide),  SO2  (Sulphur  dioxide),  CO  (Carbonmonoxide),  O3  (Ozone),  NH3  (Ammoniac)  an Pb(Lead)).

3. Which  of  the  following  is/are  the  advantage/advantages of practicing drip irrigation?
1. Reduction in weed
2. Reduction in soil salinity
3. Reduction in soil erosion
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow.
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) None of the above is an advantage of practicingdrip irrigation
Ans: C
Exp: It  has  no  role  in  reduction  in  soil  salinity.

4. Consider the following statements:
1. The International Solar Alliance was launchedat  the  United  Nations  Climate  ChangeConference in  2015.
2. The Alliance includes all the member countriesof the United Nations.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both  1  and  2
(d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: A
Exp: India  and  France  launched  an  International Solar  Alliance  to  boost  solar  energy  in developing  countries.  The initiative was launched at  the  UN  Climate  Change  Conference  in  Paris on  30  November  by  Indian  Prime  MinisterNarendera  Modi  and  French  President  FrancoisHollande.  The  alliance  includes  around  120countries  that  support  the  “Declaration  on  theoccasion  to  launch  the  international  solaralliance  of  countries  dedicated  to  the  promotionof  solar  energy.”

5. Consider the following statements:
1. The Sustainable Development Goals were first proposed in 1972 by a global think tank called the  ‘Club  of Rome’.
2. The Sustainable Development Goals have to be achieved by 2030.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both  1  and  2
(d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: B
Exp: The  Sustainable  Development  Goals  (SDGs),officially  known  as  Transforming  our  world:  the2030  Agenda  for  Sustainable  Development,  are an intergovernmental set of aspiration Goals with169  targets.  The  Goals  are  contained  inparagraph  54  United  Nations  Resolution  A/RES/
70/1  of  25  September  2015.  The  history  of  theSDGs  can  be  traced  to  1972  when  governmentsmet  under  the  auspices  of  the  United  NationsHuman  and  Environment Conference, to  considerthe  rights  of  the  human  family  to  a  healthy  andproductive  environment.  and  not  the  Club  ofRome  which  is  a  global  think  tank  that  dealswith  a  variety  of  international  political  issues.Founded  in  1968  at  Accademia  dei  Lincei  inRome,  Italy,  It  raised  considerable  publicattention  in  1972  with  its  report  The  Limits  to
Growth.  The  club  states  that  its  mission  is  “toact  as  a  global  catalyst  for  change  through  theidentification  and  analysis  of  the  crucialproblems  facing  humanity.

6. What  is/are  the  importance/importances  of  the‘United  Nations  Convention  to  CombatDesertification?
1. It  aims  to  promote  effective  action  throughinnovative national programmes and supportiveinter-national partnerships.
2. It has a special/particular focus on South Asiaand  North  Africa  regions,  and  its  secretariatfacilitates  the  allocation  of  major  portion  of
financial  resources to these  regions.
3. It  is  committed  to  bottom-up  approach,encouraging the participation of local people incombating the desertification.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: C
Exp: The  convention  aims  to  promote  effective  actionthrough  innovative  national  programmes  andsupportive  international  partnerships.  committedto  a  bottom-up  approach,  encouraging  theparticipation  of  local  people  in  combatingdesertification  and  land  degradation.

7. With  reference to the Agreement at the UNFCCCMeeting in  Paris in  2015, which  of the  followingstatements  is/are  correct?
1. The Agreement was signed by all the membercountries of the UN and it will go into effect in2017.
2. The  Agreement  aims  to  limit  the  greenhousegas emissions so that the rise in average globaltemperature by the end of this century does notexceed 20C or even 1.50C above pre-industriallevels.
3. Developed  countries  acknowledged  theirhistorical responsibility in global warming andcommitted to donate S 1000 billion a year from
2020 to help developing countries to cope withclimate  change.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow.
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: B
Exp: Parties  to  the  U.N.  Framework  Convention  on Climate  Change  (UNFCCC)  reached  a  landmark agreement  on  December  12  in  Paris,  charting  a fundamentally  new  course  in  the  two-decadeold  global  climate  effort.  An  historic  agreementto  combat  climate  change  and  unleash  actionsand  investment  towards  a  low  carbon,  resilientand sustainable future was agreed by 195 nations
in  Paris.  The  universal  agreement’s  main  aim  isto  keep  a  global  temperature  rise  this  centurywell  below  2  degrees Celsius  and to  drive  efforts
to  limit  the  temperature  increase  even  further  to1.5  degrees  Celsius  above  pre-industrial  levels.UNFCCC  Conference  of  the  Parties,  or  COP  21
agreed  to  extend  the  current  goal  of  mobilizing$100  billion  a  year  in  support  by  2020  through2025,  with  a  new,  higher  goal  to  be  set  for  theperiod  after  2025.  Option  (1)  is  separatelycorrect  but  wrong  with  option  (3)

8. With reference to ‘Agenda 21’, sometimes seen inthe news, consider the following statements:
1. It  is  a  global  action  plan  for  sustainabledevelopment.
2. It originated in the World Summit on SustainableDevelopment held in Johannesburg in 2002
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both  1  and  2
(d)   Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: A
Exp: It was initiated in  Earth  Summit  (UN Conferenceon  Environment  and  Development)  held  in  Riode  Janeiro,  Brazil,  in  1992.

9. What is  ‘Greenhouse  Gas  Protocol?
(a) It  is  an  international  accounting  tool  forgovernment and business leaders to understand,quantify and manage greenhouse gas emissions
(b) It is an initiative of the United Nations to offerfinancial incentives to developing countries toreduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adopteco-friendly technologies
(c) It  is  an  inter-governments  agreement  ratifiedby  all  the  member  countries  of  the  UnitedNations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions tospecified levels  by the year 2022
(d) It  is  one  of  the  multilateral  REDD-initiativeshosted  by the World Bank
Ans: A
Exp: The  Greenhouse  Gas  Protocol  (GHGP)  providesaccounting  and  reporting  standards,  sectorguidance,  calculation  tools,  and  trainings  for business  and  government.  It  establishes  acomprehensive,  global,  standardized  frameworkfor  measuring  and  managing  emissions  from private  and  public  sector  operations,  valuechains,  products,  cities,  and  policies.

10. The  term  Intended  Nationally  DeterminedContribution is sometimes seen in the news in thecontext of:
(a) Pledge  made  by  the  European  countries  torehabilitate  refuges  from  the  war-affectedMiddle East.
(b) Plain of nation outlined by the countries of theworld to  combat climate  changes.
(c) Capital contributed by the member countries inthe  establishment  of  Asian  InfrastructureInvestment  Bank.
(d) Plain of action outlined by the countries of theregarding Sustainable Developments Goals.
Ans: B
Exp: INDCs  are  the  primary  means  for  governmentsto communicate internationally the steps they willtake  to  address  climate  change  in  their  own
countries.  INDCs  will  reflect  each  country’sambition  for  reducing  emissions,  taking  intoaccount  its  domestic  circumstances  and
capabilities  for  achieving  sustainabledevelopment  goals.

11. Which of  following  statements is/are correct?Proper design and effective implementation of UNREDD+ Programme can significantly contribute to
1. Protection of biodiversity
2. Resilience  of  forest  ecosystems
3. Poverty reduction
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 Only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: A

12. With reference to an initiative called ‘The Economicsof Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB)’, which ofthe  following  statements is/are  correct?
1. It is initiative hosted by UNEP, IMF and WorldEconomic Forum.
2. It is a global initiative that focuses on drawingattention to the economic benefits of biodiversity.
3. It presents an approach that can help decisionmakers recognize, demonstrate and capture thevalue of ecosystems and biodiversity.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  given below
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 Only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: C
Exp: The  Economics  of  Ecosystems  and  Biodiversity(TEEB) is an initiative hosted by the United NationsEnvironment  Programme  (UNEP).
13. With  reference to  ‘Red  Sanders’,  sometimes  seenin the news, consider the following statements:
1. It  is  a  tree  species  found  in  a  part  of  SouthIndia.
2. It  is  one  of  the  most  important  trees  in  thetropical  rain  forest areas  of  South  India.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 Only
(c) Both  1  and  2
(d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: A
Exp: It  is  a  species  of  thorny  deciduous  region.14. ‘Net  metering’  is  sometimes  seen  in  the  news  inthe context of promoting the
(a) production  and  use  of  solar  energy  by  thehouseholds/consumers
(b) use  of  piped  natural  gas  in  the  kitchens  ofhouseholds
(c) installation of CNG kits in motor- cars
(d) installation of water meters in urban households
Ans: A
Exp: Net  metering  is  a  billing  mechanism  that  creditssolar  energy  system  owners  for  the  electricitythey  add  to  the  grid.

15. Which  of  the  following  best  describe  the  aim  of‘Green India Mission’ of the Government of India?
1. Incorporating  environment  benefits  and  costsinto  the  Union  and  State  Budgets  therebyimplementing the ‘green accounting’.
2. Launching  the  second  green  revolution  toenhance agriculture output so as to ensure foodsecurity to  one and all in the  future.
3. Restoring  and  enhancing  forest  cover  andresponding to climate change by a combinationof adaptation and mitigation measures.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  given below
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 Only
(c) 3 Only
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: C
Exp: The  objectives  are:
• To  increase  forest/tree  cover  to  the  extent  of  5million hectares (mha) and improve quality of forest/tree  cover  on  another  5  mha  of  forest/nonforestlands;
• To improve/enhance eco-system services like carbonsequestration  and  storage  (in  forests  and  otherecosystems), hydrological services and biodiversity;along with  provisioning  services like  fuel,  fodder,and timber and non-timber forest produces (NTFPs);and
• To increase forest based livelihood income of about3 million households.

16. Consider the following pairs:Terms  sometimes  seen in the  news Their  origin
1. Annex-I Countries :  Cartagena  Protocol
2. Certified  Emissions  Reductions  :  NagoyaProtocol
3. Clean  Development  Mechanism  :  KyotoProtocol
Which  of  the  pairs  given  above  is/are  correctlymatched?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: C
Exp: All the terms  are associated with Kyoto Protocol.Certified  Emission  Reductions  (CERs)  are  a  typeof  emissions  unit  (or  carbon  credits)  issued  bythe  Clean  Development  Mechanism  (CDM)Executive Board for emission reductions achievedby  CDM  projects  and  verified  by  a  DOE
(Designated  Operational  Entity)  under  the  rulesof  the  Kyoto  Protocol.Annex  I  parties  are  industrialized  countriesbelonging  to  the  Organization  for  EconomicCooperation  and  Development  (OECD)  andcountries  designated  as  Economies  in  Transitionunder  the  Framework  Convention  on  ClimateChange  (FCCC),  that  pledged  to  reduce  theirgreenhouse  gas  emissions  to  1990  levels  by  theyear  2000.
17. Why  does  the  Government  of  India  promote  theuse  of  ‘Neem-coated  Urea’  in  agriculture?
(a) Release  of  Neem  oil  in  the  soil  increasesnitrogen fixation by the soil microorganisms
(b) Neem coating slows down the rate of dissolutionof urea in the  soil
(c) Nitrous oxide, which is a greenhouse gas, is notat all  released into atmosphere by crop  fields
(d) It is a combination of a weedicide and a fertilizerfor particular crops
Ans: B
Exp: When  ordinary  urea  is  applied,  it  gets  convertedto  ammonium  carbamate.  Some  of  this  getsconverted  to  ammonia  gas  in  what  is  called
ammonia volatilisation. The rest of the ammoniumcarbamate  undergoes  chemical  transfor-mationand  nitrates  are  formed.  Some  of  these  are
absorbed  by  the  plants.  The  rest  are  eitherleached  into  the  underground  water  or  aredenitrified  to  gaseous  nitrogen  and  nitrous  oxide
under  anaerobic  conditions  (absence  of  oxygen).Neem  has  properties  that  check  nitrogen  loss  ateach  stage.  It  slows  down  the  process  of  nitrateformation  and  hence  excess  nitrate  is  notavailable  for  denitrification

2015 :

1. Which of the following National Parks is unique inbeing a swamp with floating vegetation that supportsa rich biodiversity?
(a) Bhitarkanika National Park
(b) Keibul Lamjao National Park
(c) Keoladeo  Ghana National  Park
(d) Sultanpur National Park
Ans: B
Exp: The Keibul  Lamjao  National  Park is  a nationalpark in  the Bishnupur  district of  the  stateof Manipur.  Keibul  Lamjao  National  is  world’sonly  floating  national  park. The  park  isa swamp with  floating  mass  of  vegetation  (calledphumdis),  at  the  south-eastern  side  of  the  LoktakLake,  which  has  been  declared  a Ramsar  site. Itwas  initially  declared  as  a Sanctuary in  1966,  butsubsequently  declared  as  National  Park  in  1977.

2. What can be the impact of excessive/inappropriateuse of nitrogenous fertilizers in agriculture?
1. Proliferation of nitrogen-fixing microorganismsin soil can occur.
2. Increase in the  acidity  of  soil  can take  place.
3. Leaching  of  nitrate  to  the  ground-water  canoccur.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow:
(a) 1 and 3 only (b) Only 2
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: C
Exp: Excess  nitrogen  leads  to  proliferation  of  nitrogenfixing  bacteria  thus  causing  eutrophication  (inin the soil due to excessive application of Nitrogen,it  is  increasingly  converted  to  nitrate  by  bacterialaction,  a  process  that  releases  hydrogen  ions  andhelps  acidify  the  soil.  The  buildup  of  nitrateenhances  emissions  of  nitrous  oxides  from  thesoil and also encourages leaching of highly watersoluble  nitrate  into  streams  or  groundwater.

3. With  reference  to  the  International  Union  forConservation  of  Nature  and  Natural  Resources(IUCN) and the Convention on International Tradein  Endangered  Species  of  Wild  Fauna  and  Flora(CITES), which of the  following statements is/arecorrect?
1. IUCN  is  an  organ  of  the  United  Nations  andCITES is  an  international  agreement  betweengovernments.
2. IUCN  runs thousands of  field projects aroundthe world to better manage natural environments.
3. CITES is legally binding on the States that havejoined it, but this Convention does not take theplace of  national laws

.Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow:
(a) Only 1 (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: B
Exp: IUCN  is  not  an  organ  of  the  United  Nations  buthas observer and consultative status at the UnitedNations.  CITES  (the  Convention  on  InternationalTrade  in  Endangered  Species  of  Wild  Fauna  andFlora)  is  an  international  agreement  betweengovernments.

4. With reference to ‘fly ash’ produced by the powerplants  using  coal  as  fuel,  which  of  the  followingstatements  is/are  correct?
1. Fly ash can be used in the production of bricksfor building construction.
2. Fly ash can be used as a replacement for someof  the  Portland  cement  contents  of  concrete.
3. Fly ash is made up of silicon dioxide and calciumoxide  only,  and  does  not  contain  any  toxicelements.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow:
(a) 1  and  2 (b) Only 2
(c) 1  and  3 (d) Only 3
Ans: A
Exp: Fly  ash  may  contain  (apart  from  silicon  dioxideand  calcium  oxide)  some  toxic  elements  such  asarsenic,  load,  mercury  etc.

5. With  reference  to  ‘dugong’,  a  mammal  found  inIndia,  which  of  the  following  statements  is/arecorrect?
1. It is a herbivorous marine animal.
2. It is  found  along the, entire coast  of  India.
3. It is given legal protection under Schedule I ofthe Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow:
(a) 1  and  2 (b) Only 2
(c) 1  and  3 (d) Only 3
Ans: C
Exp: The  dugong  (Dugong  dugon)  is  a  herbivorousmarine  mammal,  often  called  the  “sea  cow”  forits  habit  of  grazing  on  seagrass  meadows. Thehabitats  of  Dugong  in  India  include  major  reefregions  of  Gulf  of  Mannar,  Palk  Bay,  Andamanand  Nicobar  Islands  and  Gulf  of  Kachchh  (notthe  entire  coast).  It  has  been  protected  at  serialno.-7  of  part-I  (Mammal)  of  schedule  I  [Rareand  endangered  species  which  are  totallyprotected]  of  Wild  Life  (Protection)  Act,  1972.

6. Which one of the following is the national aquaticanimal of India?
(a) Saltwater crocodile
(b) Olive ridley turtle
(c) Gangetic dolphin
(d) Gharial
Ans: C
Exp: The  Gangetic  Dolphin  was  included  in  ScheduleI  of  the  Wildlife  (Protection)  Act,  1972.  In  1982,the dolphin population in the Ganga was estimatedto  be  between  5,000  and  6,000.  But,  by  2010,  ithad  dwindled  to  less  than  2,000.  In  2009,  thegovernment  notified  the  Gangetic  Dolphin  as  thenational  aquatic  animal  to  channel  attention  andresources  towards  conserving  the  species.  Thedolphins  are  an  indicator  species  for  the  riverecosystem  and  are  considered  the  mascot  of  ahealthy  aquatic  environment.

7. Which one of the following regions of Indian has acombination  of  mangrove  forest,  evergreen  forestand  deciduous  forest?
(a) North  Coastal Andhra  Pradesh
(b) South-West Bengal
(c) Southern Saurashtra
(d) Andaman  and  Nicober  Islands
Ans: D
Exp: The  South  Andaman  forests  have  a  profuse  growthof  epiphytic  vegetation,  mostly  ferns  and  orchids.The  Middle  Andamans  harbours  mostly  moistdeciduous forests. North Andamans is characterisedby  the  wet  evergreen  type,  with  plenty  of  woodyclimbers.  This  atypical forest coverage  of Andaman&  Nicobar  is  made-up  of  twelve  types  namely  (1)Giant  evergreen  forest  (2)  Andamans  tropicalevergreen  forest  (3)  Southern  hilltop  tropicalevergreen  forest  (4)  Cane  brakes  (5)  Wet  bamboobrakes  (6)  Andamans  semi-evergreen  forest  (7)Andamans  moist  deciduous  forest  (8)  Andamanssecondary  moist  deciduous forest  (9)  Littoral forest(10)  Mangrove  forest  (11)  Brackish  water  mixedforest  (12)  Submontane  hill  valley  swamp  forest.

8. Which one the following is associated with the issueof  control  and  phasing  out  of  the  use  of  ozonedepleting substances?

(a) Bretton Woods  Conference
(b) Montreal Protocol
(c) Kyoto Protocol
(d) Nagoya  Protocol
Ans: B
Exp: The  Montreal  Protocol  is  widely  considered  as  themost  successful  environment  protection  agreement.The  Protocol  sets  out  a  mandatory  timetable  forthe  phase  out  of  ozone  depleting  substances.  Thistimetable  has  been  reviewed  regularly,  with  phaseThe  Montreal  Protocol  sets  binding  progressivephase out  obligations for developed and  developingcountries  for  all  the  major  ozone  depletingsubstances,  including  CFCs,  halons  and  lessdamaging  transitional  chemicals  such  as  HCFCs.

9. What is Rio+20 Conference, often mentioned in thenews?
(a) It  is  the  United  Nations  Conference  onSustainable Development
(b) It is a Ministerial Meeting of the World TradeOrganization
(c) It  is  a  Conference  of  the  Inter-governmentalPanel  on Climate Change
(d) It is a Conference of the Member Countries ofthe Convention on Biological Diversity
Ans: A
Exp: Rio+203    is  the  short  name  for  the  UnitedNations  Conference  on  Sustainable  Developmentwhich  took  place  in  Rio  de  Janeiro,  Brazil  inJune  2012  –  twenty  years  after  the  landmark1992  Earth  Summit  in  Rio.At  the  Rio+20  Conference,  world  leaders,  alongwith  thousands  of  participants  from  the  privatesector,  NGOs  and  other  groups,  came  togetherto  shape  how  we  can  reduce  poverty,  advancesocial equity and ensure environmental protectionon  an  ever  more  crowded  planet.The  official  discussions  focussed  on  two  mainthemes: how to build a green economy to  achievesustainable  development  and  lift  people  out  ofpoverty;  and  how  to  improve  internationalcoordination  for  sustainable  development.AT  Rio+20,  more  than  $513  billion  was  pledgedto  build  a  sustainable future.  It  signaled  a  majorstep  forward  in  achieving  the  future  we  want.

10. Which of the statements regarding ‘Green ClimateFund’ is/are  correct?
1. It is intended to assist the developing countriesin adaption and mitigation practices to counterclimate  change.
2. It is founded under the aegis of UNEP, OECD,Asian  Development Bank  and World Bank.

Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  given below:
(a) Only 1 (b) Only 2
(c) Both  1  and  2 (d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: A
Exp: The  Green  Climate  Fund  (GCF)  is  a  fund  withinthe  framework  of  the  UNFCCC  founded  as  amechanism to redistribute money from the developedto  the  developing  world,  in  order  to  assist  thedeveloping  countries  in  adaptation  and  mitigationpractices  to  counter  climate  change.  The  GCF  isbased in the  new  Songdo  district  of  Incheon,  SouthKorea.  It  is  governed  by  a  Board  of  24  membersand  initially  supported  by  an  Interim  Secretariat.

11. Which  one  of the  following  National  Parks  has  aclimate  that  varies  from  tropical  to  subtropical,temperate  and  arctic?
(a) Khangchendzonga National Park
(b) Nandadevi National Park
(c) Neora Valley  National  Park
(d) Namdapha  National  Park
Ans: D
Exp: The  climate  of  Khangchendzonga  and  NandadeviNational Parks  varies from temperate to  arctic  andthat  of  Neora  National  Park  is subtropical.  OnlyNamdapha National Park  has  a  climate that  variesfrom  tropical  to  subtropical,  temperate  and  arctic.

12. ‘BioCarbon Fund  Initiative  for  Sustainable ForestLandscapes’  is  managed  by  the
(a) Asian Development Bank
(b) International Monetary Fund
(c) United Nations Environment Programme
(d) World Bank
Ans: D
Exp: Three  nations  are  funding  a  major  newBioCarbon  Fund  initiative  to  support  forestlandscapes.  The  funding  pledge  was  announcedduring  an  event  at  the  United  Nations’  climatesummit  in  Warsaw,  known  as  COP19.Norway,  the  United  Kingdom,  and  the  UnitedStates  together  committed  $280  million  –  up  to$135  million  from  Norway,  $120  million  fromthe U.K,  and  $25 million from the U.S.  –  as  partof  their  efforts  to  slow  climate  change.The initiative  will  be  managed  by  the  BioCarbonFund,  a  public-private  program  housed  withinthe  World  Bank  that  mobilizes  finance  foractivities  that  sequester  or  conserve  carbonemissions  in  forest  and  agricultural  systems.

13. With  reference  to  ‘Forest  Carbon  PartnershipFacility’, which of the  following statements is/arecorrect?
1. It  is  a  global  partnership  of  governments,businesses, civil society and indigenous peoples.
2. It provides financial aid to universities, individualscientists and institutions involved in scientificforestry  research  to  develop  eco-friendly  andclimate adaptation technologies for sustainableforest  management.
3. It  assists  the  countries  in  their  ‘REDD+(Reducing  Emissions  from  Deforestation  andForest Degradation+)’ efforts by providing themwith financial and technical assistance.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow:
(a) Only 1 (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: C
Exp: The  Forest  Carbon  Partnership  Facility   is  a  globalpartnership  of  governments,  businesses,  civil  society,and  Indigenous  Peoples  focused  on  reducingemissions  from  deforestation  and  forest  degradation,forest  carbon  stock  conservation,  the  sustainablemanagement  of  forests,  and  the  enhancement  offorest  carbon  stocks  in  developing  countries(activities  commonly  referred  to  as  REDD+).

14. With  reference  to  an  organization  known  as‘BirdLife  International’,  which  of  the  following statements  is/are  correct?
1. It  is  a  Global  Partnership  of  ConservationOrganizations.
2. The concept of ‘biodiversity hotspots’ originatedfrom this organization.
3. It  identifies  the  sites  known/referred  to  as‘Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas’.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow:
(a) Only 1
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: C
Exp: BirdLife  international  is  a  global  partnership  ofconservation organisations that  strives to conservebirds,  their  habitats  and  global  biodiversity,working  with  people  towards  sustainability  in  theuse  of  natural  resources.  It  is  the  World’s  largestpartnership  of  conservation  organisations,  withover  120  partner  organisations  120  partnerorganisations.An  Important  Bird  and  Biodiversity  Area  (IBA)  is
an  area  recognized  as  being  globally  importanthabitat  for  the  conservation  of  birds  populations.Currently there  are  about  10,000  IBAs worldwide.The  program  was  developed  and  sites  areidentified  by  BirdLife  International.  These  sitesare  small  enough  to  be  entirely  conserved  anddiffer  in  their  character,  habitat  or  ornithologicalimportance  from  the  surrounding  habitat.A  biodiversity  hotspot  is  a  biogeographic  region
with  a  significant  reservoir  of  biodiversity  that  isunder  threat  from  humans.  Norman  Myers  wroteabout  the  concept  in  two  articles  in  “TheEnvironmentalist”  (1988),  &  1990revised  afterthorough  analysis  by  Myers  and  others  in“Hotspots:  Earth’s  Biologically  Richest  and  Most
Endangered  Terrestrial  Ecoregions”

15. Which one of the following is the best descriptionof  the  term  ‘ecosystem’?
(a) A community of organisms interacting with oneanother
(b) That  part  of  the  Earth  which  is  inhabited  byliving organisms
(c) A  community  of  organisms  together  with  theenvironment in which they live
(d) The  flora  and  fauna  of  a  geographical  area
Ans: C
Exp: A  community  of  organisms  together  with  theenvironment in which they live16. Which one of the following best describes the mainobjective of  ‘Seed Village Concept’?

(a) Encouraging the farmers to use their own farmseeds and discouraging them to  buy the  seedsfrom  others
(b) Involving the farmers for training in quality seedproduction and thereby to make available qualityseeds  to  others  at  appropriate  time  andaffordable  cost
(c) Earmarking  some  villages  exclusively  for  theproduction of certified seeds
(d) Identifying  the  entrepreneurs  in  villages  andproviding them technology  and  finance to  setup  seed  companies
Ans: B
Exp: A  village,  wherein  trained  group  of  farmers  areinvolved in  production  ‘of  seeds  of  various  cropsand  cater  to  the  needs  of  themselves,  fellowfarmers  of  the  village  and  farmers  ofneighbouring  villages  in  appropriate  time  andat  affordable  cost  is  called  “a  seed  village”.

2014 :

1. With reference to Bombay Natural History Society(BNHS), consider the following statements:
1. It  is  an  autonomous  organization  under  theMinistry of Environment and Forests.
2. It  strives  to  conserve  nature  through  actionbased research, education and public awareness.
3. It  organizes  and  conducts  nature  trails  andcamps  for the  general  public.Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 only (b) Only 2
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: C

2. Other than poaching, what are the possible reasonsfor the  decline in the  population  of Ganges RiverDolphins?
1. Construction  of  dams  and  barrages  on  rivers 
2. Increase in the population of crocodiles in rivers 
3. Getting trapped in fishing nets accidentally 
4. Use of synthetic fertilizers and other agriculturalchemicals in crop-fields in the vicinity of rivers
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow:
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 and 3 only 
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only (d) 1,  2, 3 and  4
Ans: C

3. If you walk through countryside, you are likely tosee some birds stalking alongside the cattle to seizethe  insects,  disturbed  by  their  movement  through grasses.
Which of the following is/are such bird/birds? 
1. Painted Stork
2. Common Myna 
3. Black-necked  Crane 
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow:
(a) 1  and  2  (b) Only 2
(c) 2  and  3  (d) Only 3
Ans: B

4. The most important strategy for the conservation ofbiodiversity together with traditional human life isthe establishment of
(a) Biosphere  reserves
(b) Botanical gardens 
(e) National parks 
(d) Wildlife sanctuaries
Ans: A

5. Consider the following international agreements:
1. The  International  Treaty  on  Plant  GeneticResources  for  Food  and Agriculture 
2. The  United  Nations  Convention  to  CombatDesertification 
3. The World Heritage Convention Which  of  the  above  has  /  have  a  bearing  on  thebiodiversity?
(a) 1 and 2 only  (b) Only 3
(c) 1 and 3 only  (d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: D

6. The most important strategy for the conservation ofbiodiversity together with traditional human life isthe establishment of
(a) Biosphere  reserves
(b) Botanical gardens 
(c) National parks 
(d) Wildlife sanctuaries
Ans: A

7. Consider the following statements:
1. Animal Welfare Board  of  India is  establishedunder the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. 
2. National  Tiger  Conservation  Authority  is  astatutory body. 
3. National Ganga River Basin Authority is chairedby the Prime Minister. 
Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?
(a) Only 1 (b) 2 and 3 only 
(c)  only 2 (d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: B

8. With  reference  to  ‘Global  Environment  Facility’,which  of the  following  statements is/are  correct?
(a) It  serves  as  financial  mechanism  for‘Convention on Biological Diversity’ and ‘UnitedNations  Framework  Convention  on  ClimateChange’
(b) It  undertakes  scientific  research  onenvironmental issues at global level 
(c) It  is  an  agency  under  OECD  to  facilitate  thetransfer  of  technology  and  funds  tounderdeveloped countries with specific aim toprotect their environment.
(d) Both  (a)  and  (b)
Ans: A

9. Consider the following statements regarding ‘EarthHour’:
1. It is  an initiative  of  UNEP  and  UNESCO. 
2. It  is  a  movement  in  which  the  participantsswitch off the lights  for one hour on a certainday  every  year. 

3. It is a movement to  raise the awareness aboutthe  climate  change  and  the  need  to  save  theplanet. 
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 only  (b)  Only 2
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: C

10. If a wetland of international importance is broughtunder the ‘Montreux Record’, what does it imply?
(a) Changes in ecological character have occurred,are occurring or are likely to occur in the wetlandas  a  result  of  human  interference.
(b) The  country  in  which  the  wetland  is  locatedshould enact a law to prohibit any human activitywithin  five  kilo  metres  from  the  edge  of  thewetland
(c) The  survival  of  the  wetland  depends  on  thecultural  practices  and  traditions  of  certaincommunities living in its vicinity and therefore
the  cultural  diversity  therein  should  not  bedestroyed 
(d) It is  given the  status  of  ‘World Heritage Site’
Ans: A

11. Brominated  flame  retardants  are  used  in  manyhousehold products like mattresses and upholstery.Why  is  there  some  concern  about  their  use?
1. They are highly resistant to degradation in theenvironment. 

2. They  are  able  to  accumulate  in  humans  andanimals.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow:
(a) Only 1 (b) Only 2
(c) Both  1  and  2 (d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: C

14. Which of the following adds/add carbon dioxide tothe  carbon  cycle  on  the  planet  Earth?
1. Volcanic action
2. Respiration 
3. Photosynthesis 
4. Decay  of  organic  matter
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow:
(a) 1 and 3 only (b) Only 2
(c) 1, 2 and 4 only  (d) 1,  2, 3 and  4
Ans: C

15. Lichens, which are capable of initiating ecologicalsuecession  even  on  a  bare  rock,  are  actually  asymbiotic association of
(a) Algae  and  bacteria
(b) Algae and fungi
(c) Bacteria and  fungi
(d) Fungi and mosses
Ans: B

16. Which of the following are some important pollutantsreleased by steel industry in  India?
1. Oxides of sulphur
2. Oxides of nitrogen
3. Carbon monoxide
4. Carbon dioxide
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow:
(a) 1, 3 and 4 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 4 only (d) 1,  2, 3 and  4
Ans: D

17. In  India, the  problem of  soil erosion is associatedwith which of the following?
1. Terrace cultivation 
2. Deforestation 
3. Tropical climate’ 
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow:
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) Only 2
(c) 1 and 3 only  (d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: B

18. Which one of the following is the correct sequenceof  a  food  chain?
(a) Diatoms-Crustaceans-Herrings 
(b) Crustaceans-Diatoms-Herrings 
(c) Diatoms-Herrings-Crustaceans 
(d) Crustaceans-Herrings-Diatoms
Ans: A

19. With reference to ‘Eco-Sensitive Zones’, which ofthe  following  statements is/are  correct?
1. Eco-Sensitive  Zones  are  the  areas  that  aredeclared  under  the  Wildlife  (Protection)  Act,1972.
2. The purpose of the declaration of Eco-SensitiveZones is to prohibit all kinds of human activities,in those zones  except agriculture.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  givenbelow:
(a) Only 1 (b) Only 2
(c) Both  1  and  2 (d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: D

2013 :

1. Under the Scheduled Tribes and Other TraditionalForest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act,2006, who shall be the authority to initiate the processfor determining the nature and extent of individualor community  forest rights or both?
(a) State  Forest  Department
(b) District Collector/Deputy Commissioner
(c) Tahsildar/Block  Development  Officer/MandalRevenue  Officer
(d) Gram  Sabha
Ans: D

2. Acid rain is caused by the pollution of environmentby
(a) Carbon dioxide and nitrogen
(b) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide
(c) Ozone and carbon dioxide
(d) Nitrous oxide and sulphur dioxide
Ans: D

3. With  reference  to  food  chains  in  ecosystems,consider the following statements:
1. A  food  chain  illustrates  the  order  in  which  achain  of  organisms  feed  upon  each  other.
2. Food chains are found within the populations ofa  species.
3. A  food  chain  illustrates  the  numbers  of  eachorganism  which  are  eaten  by  others.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1 (b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1,  2  and  3 (d) None
Ans: A

4. In  which  of  the  following  States  is  lion-tailedmacaque  found in its natural habitat?
1. Tamil Nadu 2. Kerala
3. Karnataka 4. Andhra  Pradesh
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  codes  given below:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only (b)  Only 2
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only  (d) 1,  2, 3 and  4
Ans: A

5. Which  one  of  the  following  terms  describes  notonly the physical  space  occupied by an organism,but  also  its  functional  role  in  the  community  oforganisms?
(a) Ecotone (b) Ecological niche
(c) Habitat (d) Home  range
Ans: B

6. Photochemical  smog is a  resultant  of the  reactionamong:
(a) NO2,  O3  and  peroxyacetyl  nitrate  in  thepresence of sunlight
(b) CO, O2 and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the presenceof sunlight
(c) CO,  CO2  and  NO2  at  low  temperature
(d) High concentration of NO2, O3 and CO in theevening
Ans: A

7. Consider the following 
1. Star tortoise  2. Monitor lizard 
3. Pygmy  hog  4. Spider monkey 
Which of the above  found in  India?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only  (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 4 only  (d) 1,  2, 3 and  4
Ans: A

8. Which of the following can be found as pollutantsin the drinking water in  some  parts of  India?
1. Arsenic 2. Sorbitol
3. Fluoride 4. Formaldehyde
5. Uranium
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  codes  givenbelow:
(a) 1 and 3 only (b) 2, 4 and 5 only
(c) 1, 3 and 5 only (d) 1, 2,  3, 4 and 5
Ans: C

9. In the grasslands, trees  do  not  replace the  grassesas  a  part  of  an  ecological  succession  because  of:
(a) Insects  and  fungi
(b) Limited sunlight and paucity of nutrients
(c) Water limits and fire
(d) None  of  the  above
Ans: C

10. Which one of the following is the correct sequenceof  ecosystems  in  the  order  of  decreasingproductivity?
(a) Oceans, lakes,  grasslands,  mangroves
(b) Mangroves,  oceans,  grasslands, lakes
(c) Mangroves,  grasslands, lakes,  oceans
(d) Oceans,  mangroves, lakes,  grasslands
Ans: C

11. Consider the following fauna of India:
1. Gharial 2. Leatherback  turtle
3. Swamp  deer
Which  of  the  above  is/are  endangered?
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) Only 3
(c) 1,  2  and  3 (d) None
Ans: C

12. Which of the following leaf modifications occurs/occur in  desert  areas to inhibit water loss?
1. Hard  and  waxy  leaves 
2. Tiny leaves  or  no leaves 
3. Thorns instead  of leaves

Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  codes  given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only  (b) Only 2
(c) 1 and 3 only  (d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: D

13. With  reference  to  the  food  chains  in  ecosystems,which  of the  following  kinds  of  organism is /  areknown as decomposer organism/organisms?
1. Virus 2. Fungi
3. Bacteria
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  codes  givenbelow:
(a) Only 1 (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: B

2012 :

1. How does National Biodiversity Authority  (NBA)help in protecting the Indian agriculture?
1. NBA  checks  the  biopiracy  and  protects  theindigenous and traditional genetic resources.
2. NBA  directly  monitors  and  supervises  thescientific  research  on  genetic  modification  ofcrop plants.
3. Application  for  Intellectual  Property  Rightsrelated  to  genetic/biological  resources  cannotbe  made  without the  approval  of  NBA.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1 (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: C

2. If national water mission is properly and completelyimplemented how will it impact the country?
1. Part of the water needs of urban areas will bemet  through  recycling  of  waste  water.
2. The  water  requirements  of  coastal  cities  withinadequate alternative sources of water will bemet by adopting appropriate technologies thatallow  for  the  use  of  ocean  water.
3. All the rivers of Himalayan origin will be linkedto the  rivers of peninsular  India
4. The expenses incurred by  farmers  for diggingbore wells and for installing motors and pumpsets  to  draw  groundwater  will  be  completelyreimbursed by the Government

Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  codes  given below:
(a) Only 1 (b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 3 and 4 only (d) 1,  2, 3 and  4
Ans: B

3. Consider the following statements:Chlorofluorocarbons,  known  as  ozone  depletingsubstances  are  used
1. In the production of  plastic  foams
2. in the production of tubeless tyres
3. In cleaning certain electronic components 
4. As  pressurizing agents in  aerosol cans
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only (b) Only 4
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only  (d) 1,  2, 3 and  4
Ans: D

4. Government of India encourages the cultivation of‘sea  buckthorn’.  What  is  the  importance  of  thisplant?
1. It  helps  in  controlling  soil  erosion  and  inpreventing desertification.
2. It is a  rich  source  of  biodiesel.
3. It  has  nutritional  value and is well-adapted tolive in cold areas of high altitudes.
4. Its timber is  of  great  commercial  value.
Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?
(a) Only 1 (b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1,  2, 3 and  4
Ans: C

5. With  reference to  the  wetlands  of  India,  considerthe following statements:
1. The country’s total geographical area under thecategory of wetlands is recorded more in Gujratas  Compared  to  other  states
2. In India, the total geographical area of coastalwetlands is larger than that of inland wetlands
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1 (b) Only 2
(c) Both  1  and  2 (d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: C

6. The increasing amount of carbon dioxide in the airis slowly raising the temperature of the atmosphere,because  it  absorbs
(a) The water vapour of the air and retains its heat
(b) The  UV  part  of the  solar  radiation
(c) All the solar radiations
(d) The infrared  part  of the  solar  radiation
Ans: D

7. Other  than  resistance  to  pests,  what  are  theprospects  for  which  genetically  engineered  plantshave  been  created?
1. To enable them to withstand drought
2. To increase the nutritive value of the produce
3. To enable them to grow and do photosynthesis
in  spaceships  and  space  stations
4. To increase their shelf life
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  codes  givenbelow
(a)  1  and  2  only (b) 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 2 and 4 only (d) 1,  2, 3 and  4
Ans: C

8. Consider the following protected areas:
1. Bandipur 2. Bhitarkanika
3. Manas 4. Sunderbans
Which  of the  above  are  declared Tiger Reserves?
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 1, 3 and 4 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only (d) 1,  2, 3 and  4
Ans: B

9. In  which  one  among  the  following  categories  ofprotected areas in India are local people not allowedto  collect  and  use the  biomass?
(a) Biosphere  reserves
(b) National parks
(c) Wetlands  declared  under Ramsar  convention
(d) Wildlife sanctuaries
Ans: B

10. Which  one  of  the  following  groups  of  animalsbelongs  to  the  category  of  endangered  species?
(a) Great  Indian  bustard,  Musk  Deer,  Red  PandaAsiatic Wild Ass
(b) Kashmir Stag, Cheetah, Blue Bull, GIB
(c) Snow Leopard, Swamp Deer, Rhesus Monkey,Saras  (Crane)
(d) Lion  Tailed  Macaque,  Blue  Bull,  HanumanLangur, Cheetah
Ans: A

11. The Millenium Ecosystem Assessment describes thefollowing major categories  of ecosystem servicesprovisioning, supporting, regulating, preserving andcultural. Which one of the following is supportingservice?
(a) Production  of  food  and  water
(b) Control of climate and disease
(c) Nutrient Cycling and crop pollinator
(d) Maintenance of diversity
Ans: C

12. Which  of  the  following  can  be  threats  to  thebiodiversity of a geographical area?
1. Global warming
2. Fragmentation of habitat
3. Invasion of alien species
4. Promotion of vegetarianism
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  codes  givenbelow:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 4 only
(d) 1,  2, 3 and  4
Ans: A

13. Consider the following:
1. Black  necked  crane
2. Cheetah
3. Flying squirrel
4. Snow leopard
Which of the above are  naturally  found in  India?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 1, 3 and 4 only
(c) 2 and 4 only
(d) 1,  2, 3 and  4
Ans: B

14. Consider the following agricultural practices:
1. Contour bunding 2. Relay cropping
3. Zero tillage
In the context  of  global  climate change, which  ofthe above helps/help in carbon sequestration/ storagein the soil?
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) Only 3
(c) 1,  2  and  3 (d) None  of  them
Ans: B

15. What would happen if phytoplankton of an ocean iscompletely  destroyed  for  some  reason?
1. The ocean as a carbon sink would be adverselyaffected.
2. The food chains in the ocean would be adverselyaffected.
3. The  density  of  ocean  water  would  drasticallydecrease.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  codes  givenbelow:
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) Only 2
(c) Only 3 (d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: A

2011 :

1. Biodiversity forms the basis for human existence inthe following ways:
1. Soil formation
2. Prevention of soil erosion
3. Recycling  of  waste
4. Pollination of crops
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  codes  givenbelow:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only (b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1 and 4 only (d) 1,  2, 3 and  4
Ans: D

2. The formation of ozone hole in the Antarctic regionhas  been  a  cause  of  concern.  What  could  be  thereason  for the  formation  of this  hole?
(a) Presence of prominent tropo-spheric turbulence;and inflow of chlorofluorocarbons
(b) Presence  of  prominent  polar  front  andstratospheric’  clouds;  and  inflow  ofchlorofluorocarbons
(c) Absence of polar front and stratospheric clouds;and inflow of methane and chlorofluorocarbons
(d) Increased  temperature  at  polar  region  due  toglobal warming
Ans: B

3. Regarding  “carbon,  credits”,  which  one  of  thefollowing statements is not correct?
(a) The  carbon  credit  system  was  ratified  inconjunction with the Kyoto Protocol
(b) Carbon  credits  are  awarded  to  countries  orgroups  that  have  reduced  greenhouse  gasesbelow their emission quota
(c) The goal of the carbon credit system is to limitthe increase of carbon dioxide emission
(d) Carbon credits are- traded at a price fixed fromtime to time by the United Nations EnvironmentProgramme
Ans: B

4. There  is  a  concern:  over  the  increase  in  harmfulalgal blooms in the seawaters of India. What couldbe the  causative  factors  for this  phenomenon?
1. Discharge  of  nutrients  from the  estuaries.
2. Run-off  from the land during the monsoon.
3. Upwelling in the seas.
Select  the  correct  answer  from  the  codes  given
below:
(a) Only 1 (b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: D

5. A sandy and saline area is the natural habitat of anIndian animal species. The animal has no predatorsin  that  area  but  its  existence  is  threatened  due  tothe  destruction  of  its  habitat.  Which  one  of  thefollowing could be that animal?
(a) Indian wild buffalo
(b) Indian wild ass
(c) Indian wild boar
(d) Indian gazelle
Ans: B

6. The “Red Data Books” published by the InternationalUnion  for  Conservation  of  Nature  and  NaturalResources  (IUCN)  contain lists  of:
1. Endemic  plant  and  animal  species  present  inthe biodiversity hotspots,
2. Threatened  plant  and animal  species.
3. Protected  sites  for  conservation  of  nature  andnatural  resources in  various countries.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  codes  givenbelow:
(a) 1  and  3 (b) Only 2
(c) 2  and  3 (d) Only 3
Ans: B

7. Three of the following criteria have contributed tothe  recognition  of  Western  Ghats-Sri  Lanka  andIndo-Burma regions as hotspots of biodiversity:
1. Species  richness
2. Vegetation density
3. Endemism
4. Ethno-botanical importance
5. Threat perception
6. Adaptation  of  flora  and  fauna  to  warm  andhumid conditions
Which three of the above are correct criteria in thiscontext?
(a) 1,  2  and  6 (b) 2,  4  and  6
(c) 1,  3  and  5 (d) 3,  4  and  6
Ans: C

8. Human  activities  in  the  recent  past  have  Causedthe increased concentration of carbon dioxide in theatmosphere,  but  a lot  of it  does  not  remain in thelower  atmosphere  because  of:
1. its  escape  into  the  outer  stratosphere.
2. the  photosynthesis  by  phyto-plankton  in  theoceans.
3. the trapping  of  air in the  polar ice caps.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1  and  2 (b) Only 2
(c) 2  and  3 (d) Only 3
Ans: C

9. In  the  context  of  ecosystem  productivity,  marineupwelling zones are important as they increase themarine productivity by bringing the:
1. decomposer  microorganisms to the  surface.
2. nutrients  to the  surface.
3. bottom-dwelling organisms to- the surface.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1  and  2 (b) Only 2
(c) 2  and  3 (d) Only 3
Ans: B

10. With  reference  to  India,  consider  the  followingCentral Acts:
1. Import and Export (Control) Act, 1947
2. Mining and Mineral Development (Regulation)Act, 1957
3. Customs Act, 1962
4. Indian Forest Act, 1927
Which of the above Acts have relevance to/bearingon the biodiversity conservation in the country?
(a) 1 and 3 only (b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1,  2, 3 and  4 (d) None of the above Acts
Ans: C

2010 :

1. Some  species  of  plants  are insectivorous. Why?
(a) Their growth in shady and dark places does notallow them to undertake sufficient photosynthesisand thus they depend  on insects  for nutrition
(b) They are adapted to grow in nitrogen deficientsoils and thus depend on insects  for sufficientnitrogenous nutrition
(c) They  cannot  synthesize  certain  vitaminsthemselves and depend on the insects digestedby them
(d) They have remained in that particular stage ofevolution  as  living  fossils,  a  link  betweenautotrophs and heterotrophs
Ans: B
2. Consider the following statements:
1. The Taxus tree naturally found in the Himalayas
2. The Taxus tree is listed in the Red Data Book
3. A  drug  called  “taxol” is  obtained  from Taxustree  is  effective  against  Parkinson’s  disease
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1  and  2 (b) Only 2
(c) 2  and  3 (d) Only 3
Ans: B

3. A pesticide which is a chlorinated hydrocarbon issprayed  on  a  food  crop.  The  food  chain  is:  Foodcrop – Rat – Snake – Hawk. In this food chain, thehighest  concentration  of  the  pesticide  wouldaccumulate in which one of the following?
(a) Food crop (b) Rat
(c) Snake (d) Hawk
Ans: D

4. King Cobra is the  only  snake that  makes its  ownnest. Why  does  it  make  its  nest?
(a) It  is  a  snake-eater  and  the  nest  helps  attractother  snakes
(b) It  is  a  viviparous  snake  and  needs  a  nest  togive birth to its offspring
(c) It is an oviparous snake and lays its eggs in thenest and guards the nest until they are hatched
(d) It is a large, cold blooded animal and needs anest to  hibernate in the cold  season
Ans: C

5. Excessive release of the pollutant carbon monoxide(CO) into the air may produce a condition in whichoxygen supply in the human body decrease. Whatcauses this condition?
(a) When  inhaled  into  the  human  body,  CO  isconverted into CO2
(b) The  inhaled  CO  has  much  higher  affinity  forhaemoglobin as compared to oxygen
(c) The inhaled CO destroys the chemical structureof haemoglobin
(d) The inhaled CO adversely affects the respiratorycentre in the  brain
Ans: B

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