UPSC Mains Exam Syllabus - (Animal Husbandry and Veterinary
PAPER – I:
1. Animal Nutrition:
1.1 Partitioning of food energy within the
animal. Direct and indirect calorimetry.
Carbon – nitrogen balance and comparative
slaughter methods. Systems for expressing
energy value of foods in ruminants,
pigs and poultry. Energy requirements
for maintenance, growth, pregnancy,
lactation, egg, wool, and meat production.
1.2 Latest advances in protein nutrition.
Energy protein interrelationships. Evaluation
of protein quality. Use of NPN compounds
in ruminant diets. Protein requirements
for maintenance, growth, pregnancy,
lactation, egg, wool and meat production.
1.3 Major and trace minerals - Their
sources, physiological functions and deficiency
symptoms. Toxic minerals. Mineral
interactions. Role of fat-soluble and water
– soluble vitamins in the body, their sources
and deficiency symptoms.
1.4 Feed additives – methane inhibitors,
probiotics, enzymes, antibiotics, hormones,
oligosaccharides, antioxidants, emulsifiers,
mould inhibitors, buffers etc. Use and abuse
of growth promoters like hormones and
antibiotics – latest concepts.
1.5 Conservation of fodders. Storage of
feeds and feed ingredients. Recent advances
in feed technology and feed processing.
Anti – nutritional and toxic factors
present in livestock feeds. Feed analysis
and quality control. Digestibility trials – direct,
indirect and indicator methods. Predicting
feed intake in grazing animals.
1.6 Advances in ruminant nutrition. Nutrient
requirements. Balanced rations. Feeding
of calves, pregnant, work animals and
breeding bulls. Strategies for feeding milch
animals during different stages of lactation
cycle. Effect of feeding on milk composition.
Feeding of goats for meat and milk
production. Feeding of sheep for meat and
1.7 Swine Nutrition. Nutrient requirements.
Creep, starter, grower and finisher rations.
Feeding of pigs for lean meat production.
Low cost rations for swine.
1.8 Poultry nutrition. Special features of
poultry nutrition. Nutrient requirements for
meat and egg production. Formulation of
rations for different classes of layers and
2. Animal Physiology:
2.1 Physiology of blood and its circulation,
respiration; excretion. Endocrine glands in
health and disease.
2.2 Blood constituents - Properties and
functions-blood cell formation-Haemoglobin
synthesis and chemistry-plasma proteins
production, classification and properties,
coagulation of blood;Haemorrhagic
Blood volume-Plasma expanders-Buffer
systems in blood. Biochemical tests and
their significance in disease diagnosis.
2.3 Circulation - Physiology of heart, cardiac
cycle, heart sounds, heart beat, electrocardiograms.
Work and efficiency of
heart-effect of ions on heart function-metabolism
of cardiac muscle, nervous and chemical regulation of heart, effect of temperature
and stress on heart, blood pressure
and hypertension, osmotic regulation,
arterial pulse, vasomotor regulation of circulation,
shock. Coronary and pulmonary
circulation, Blood-Brain barrier- Cerebrospinal
fluid- circulation in birds.
2.4 Respiration - Mechanism of respiration,
Transport and exchange of gases –
neural control of respiration-chemo-receptors-
hypoxia-respiration in birds.
2.5 Excretion-Structure and function of kidney-
formation of urine-methods of studying
renal function-renal regulation of acidbase
balance: physiological constituents
of urine-renal failure-passive venous congestion-
Urinary secretion in chicken-Sweat
glands and their function. Bio-chemical test
for urinary dysfunction.
2.6 Endocrine glands - Functional disorders
their symptoms and diagnosis. Synthesis
of hormones, mechanism and control
of secretion- hormonal receptors-classification
2.7 Growth and Animal Production- Prenatal
and postnatal growth, maturation,
growth curves, measures of growth, factors
affecting growth, conformation, body
composition, meat quality.
2.8 Physiology of Milk Production, Reproduction
and Digestion- Current status of
hormonal control of mammary development,
milk secretion and milk ejection, Male
and Female reproductive organs, their
components and functions. Digestive organs
and their functions.
2.9 Environmental Physiology- Physiological
relations and their regulation; mechanisms
of adaptation, environmental factors
and regulatory mechanisms involved in
animal behaviour, climatology – various
parameters and their importance. Animal
ecology. Physiology of behaviour. Effect
of stress on health and production.
3. Animal Reproduction:
Semen quality- Preservation and Artificial
Insemination- Components of semen, composition
of spermatozoa, chemical and
physical properties of ejaculated semen,
factors affecting semen in vivo and in vitro.
Factors affecting semen production and
quality, preservation, composition of
diluents, sperm concentration, transport of
diluted semen. Deep freezing techniques
in cows, sheep, goats, swine and poultry. Detection of oestrus and time of insemination
for better conception. Anoestrus and
4. Livestock Production and Management:
4.1 Commercial Dairy Farming- Comparison
of dairy farming in India with advanced
countries. Dairying under mixed farming
and as specialized farming, economic
dairy farming. Starting of a dairy farm, Capital
and land requirement, organization of
the dairy farm. Opportunities in dairy farming,
factors determining the efficiency of
dairy animal. Herd recording, budgeting,
cost of milk production, pricing policy; Personnel
Management. Developing Practical and Economic rations for dairy cattle;
supply of greens throughout the year, feed
and fodder requirements of Dairy Farm.
Feeding regimes for young stock and bulls,
heifers and breeding animals; new trends
in feeding young and adult stock; Feeding
4.2 Commercial meat, egg and wool production-
Development of practical and economic
rations for sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits
and poultry. Supply of greens, fodder,
feeding regimes for young and mature
stock. New trends in enhancing production
and management. Capital and land
requirements and socio-economic concept.
4.3 Feeding and management of animals
under drought, flood and other natural calamities.
5. Genetics and Animal Breeding:
History of animal genetics. Mitosis and
Meiosis: Mendelian inheritance; deviations
to Mendelian genetics; Expression of
genes; Linkage and crossing over; Sex
determination, sex influenced and sex limited
characters; Blood groups and polymorphism;
Chromosome aberrations; Cytoplasmic
inheritance. Gene and its structure;
DNA as a genetic material; Genetic
code and protein synthesis; Recombinant
DNA technology. Mutations, types of mutations,
methods for detecting mutations
and mutation rate. Trans-genesis.
5.1 Population Genetics applied to Animal
Breeding- Quantitative Vs. qualitative traits;
Hardy Weinberg Law; Population Vs. individual;
Gene and genotypic frequency;
Forces changing gene frequency; Random
drift and small populations; Theory of path
coefficient; Inbreeding, methods of estimating
inbreeding coefficient, systems of inbreeding,
Effective population size; Breeding
value, estimation of breeding value,
dominance and epistatic deviation; Partitioning
of variation; Genotype X environment
correlation and genotype X environment
interaction; role of multiple measurements;
Resemblance between relatives.
5.2 Breeding Systems- Breeds of livestsock
and Poultry. Heritability, repeatability and
genetic and phenotypic correlations, their
methods of estimation and precision of estimates;
Aids to selection and their relative
merits; Individual, pedigree, family and
within family selection; Progeny testing;
Methods of selection; Construction of selection
indices and their uses; Comparative
evaluation of genetic gains through
various selection methods; Indirect selection
and correlated response; Inbreeding,
out breeding, upgrading, cross-breeding
and synthesis of breeds; Crossing of inbred
lines for commercial production; Selection
for general and specific combining
ability; Breeding for threshold characters.
Basic philosophy, objectives, concept and
principles of extension. Different Methods
adopted to educate farmers under rural
conditions. Generation of technology, its
transfer and feedback. Problems and constraints
in transfer of technology. Animal
husbandry programmes for rural development.
PAPER – II:
1. Anatomy, Pharmacology and Hygiene:
1.1 Histology and Histological Techniques: Paraffin embedding
technique of tissue processing and H.E. staining - Freezing microtomy-
Microscopy-Bright field microscope and electron microscope. Cytologystructure of
cell, organells and inclusions; cell division-cell types- Tissues and their
classification-embryonic and adult tissues- Comparative histology of
organs-Vascular. Nervous, digestive, respiratory, musculo- skeletal and
urogenital systems- Endocrine glands -Integuments-sense organs.
1.2 Embryology – Embryology of vertebrates with special reference to aves and
domestic mammals gametogenesis-fertilization- germ layers- foetal membranes and
placentation-types of placenta in domestic mammals-Teratology-twins and
twinningorganogenesis -germ layer derivatives- endodermal, mesodermal and
1.3 Bovine Anatomy- Regional Anatomy: Paranasal sinuses of OX- surface anatomy
of salivary glands. Regional anatomy of infraorbital, maxillary,
mandibuloalveolar, mental and cornual nerve block. Regional anatomy of
paravertebral nerves, pudendal nerve, median ulnar and radial
nerves-tibial,fibular and digital nerves-Cranial nerves-structures involved in
epidural anaesthesia-superficial lymph nodes- urface anatomy of visceral organs
of thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities-comparative features of locomotor
apparatus and their application in the biomechanics of mammalian body.
1.4 Anatomy of Fowl- Musculo-skeletal system- functional anatomy in relation to
respiration and flying, digestion and egg production.
1.5 Pharmacology and therapeutic drugs - Cellular level of pharmacodynamics and
pharmacokinetics. Drugs acting on fluids and electrolyte balance. Drugs acting
on Autonomic nervous system. Modern concepts of anaesthesia and dissociative
anaesthetics. Autacoids. Antimicrobials and principles of chemotherapy in
microbial infections. Use of hormones in therapeutics- chemotherapy of parasitic
infections. Drug and economic concerns in the Edible tissues of animals-
chemotherapy of Neoplastic diseases. Toxicity due to insecticides, plants,
metals, non-metals, zootoxins and mycotoxins.
1.6 Veterinary Hygiene with reference to water, air and habitation - Assessment
of pollution of water, air and soil- Importance of climate in animal health-
effect of environment on animal function and performance- relationship between
industrialization and animal agriculture- animal housing requirements for
specific categories of domestic animals viz. pregnant cows and sows, milking
cows, broiler birds- stress, strain and productivity in relation to animal
2. Animal Diseases:
2.1 Etiology, epidemiology pathogenesis, symptoms, postmortem lesions,
diagnosis, and control of infectious diseases of cattle, sheep and goat, horses,
pigs and poultry.
2.2 Etiology, epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production
diseases of cattle, horse, pig and poultry.
2.3 Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.
2.4 Diagnosis and treatment of non-specific conditions like impaction, Bloat,
Diarrhoea, Indigestion, dehydration, stroke, poisoning.
2.5 Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.
2.6 Principles and methods of immunization of animals against specific
diseasesherd immunity- disease free zones- ‘zero’ disease concept-
2.7 Anaesthesia- local, regional and general- preanesthetic medication. Symptoms
and surgical interference in fractures and dislocation. Hernia, choking abomasal
displacement- Caesarian operations. Rumenotomy- Castrations.
2.8 Disease investigation techniques.- Materials for laboratory investigation-
Establishment of Animal Health Centers- Disease free zone.
3. Veterinary Public Health:
3.1 Zoonoses. - Classification, definition, role of animals
and birds in prevalence and transmission of zoonotic diseases- occupational
3.2 Epidemiology- Principle, definition of epidemiological terms, application of
epidemiological measures in the study of diseases and disease control.
Epidemiological features of air, water and food borne infections. OIE
regulations, WTO, sanitary and phytosanitary measures.
3.3 Veterinary Jurisprudence- Rules and Regulations for improvement of animal
quality and prevention of animal diseases - State and central rules for
prevention of animal and animal product borne diseases- S P C A- Veterolegal
cases- Certificates - Materials and Methods of collection of samples for
4. Milk and Milk Products Technology:
4.1 Market Milk: Quality, testing and grading of raw milk.
Processing, packaging, storing, distribution, marketing, defects and their
control. Preparation of the following milks: Pasteurized, standardized, toned,
double toned, sterilized, homogenized, reconstituted, recombined and flavoured
milks. Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and their management, yoghurt,
Dahi, Lassi and Srikhand. Preparation of flavoured and sterilized milks. Legal
standards. Sanitation requirement for clean and safe milk and for the milk plant
4.2 Milk Products Technology: Selection of raw materials, processing,
storing , distributing and marketing milk products such as Cream, Butter, Ghee,
Khoa, Channa, Cheese, condensed, evaporated, dried milk and baby food, Ice cream
and Kulfi; by-products, whey products, butter milk, lactose and casein. Testing,
grading, judging milk products- BIS and Agmark specifications, legal
standards, quality control and nutritive properties. Packaging, processing
and operational control. Costing of dairy products.
5. Meat Hygiene and Technology:
5.1 Meat Hygiene.
5.1.1 Ante mortem care and management of food animals, stunning, slaughter and
dressing operations; abattoir requirements and designs; Meat inspection
procedures and judgment of carcass meat cuts- grading of carcass meat cuts-
duties and functions of Veterinarians in wholesome meat production.
5.1.2 Hygienic methods of handling production of meat- Spoilage of meat and
control measures- Post - slaughter physicochemical changes in meat and factors
that influence them- Quality improvement methods – Adulteration of meat and
detection - Regulatory provisions in Meat trade and Industry.
5.2 Meat Technology.
5.2.1 Physical and chemical characteristics of meat- Meat emulsions- Methods of
preservation of meat- Curing, canning, irradiation, packaging of meat and meat
products, processing and formulations.
5.3 By- products- Slaughter house by- products and their utilization- Edible and
inedible by products- Social and economic implications of proper utilization of
slaughter house by-products- Organ products for food and pharmaceuticals.
5.4 Poultry Products Technology- Chemical composition and nutritive value of
poultry meat, pre - slaughter care and management. Slaughtering techniques,
inspection, preservation of poultry meat and products. Legal and BIS
standards. Structure, composition and nutritive value of eggs. Microbial
spoilage. Preservation and maintenance. Marketing of poultry meat, eggs and
products. Value added meat products.
5.5 Rabbit/Fur Animal farming - Rabbit meat production. Disposal and utilization
of fur and wool and recycling of waste by products. Grading of wool.