UPSC Mains Exam Syllabus - Hindi Optional
(Answers must be written in Hindi)
1. History of Hindi Language and Nagari Lipi.
- Grammatical and applied forms of Apbhransh, Awahatta & Arambhik Hindi.
- Development of Braj and Awadhi as literary language during medieval
- Early form of Khari-boli in Siddha-Nath Sahitya, Khusero, Sant Sahitaya,
Rahim etc. and Dakhni Hindi.
- Development of Khari-boli and Nagari Lipi during 19th Century.
- Standardisation of Hindi Bhasha & Nagari Lipi.
- Development of Hindi as national Language during freedom movement.
- The development of Hindi as a National Language of Union of India.
- Scientific & Technical development of Hindi Language.
- Prominent dialects of Hindi and their inter- relationship.
- Salient features of Nagari Lipi and the efforts for its reform & Standard
form of Hindi.
- Grammatical structure of Standard Hindi.
2. History of Hindi Literature.
I. The relevance and importance of Hindi literature and tradition of writing
History of Hindi Literature.
II. Literary trends of the following four periods of history of Hindi
A. Adikal-Sidh, Nath and Raso Sahitya. Prominent poets-Chandvardai, Khusaro,
B. Bhaktikal-Sant Kavyadhara, Sufi Kavyadhara, Krishna Bhaktidhara and Ram
Bhaktidhara. Prominent Poets-Kabir, Jayasi, Sur & Tulsi.
C. Ritikal-Ritikavya, Ritibaddhakavya & Riti Mukta Kavya. Prominent Poets-Keshav,
Bihari, Padmakar and Ghananand.
D. Adhunik Kal
- a. Renaissance, the development of Prose, Bharatendu Mandal.
- b. Prominent Writers : Bharatendu, Bal Krishna Bhatt & Pratap Narain Mishra.
- c. Prominent trends of modern Hindi Poetry : Chhayavad, Pragativad, Proyogvad,
Nai Kavita, Navgeet and Contemporary poetry and Janvadi Kavita.
Prominent Poets : Maithili Sharan Gupta, Prasad, Nirala, Mahadevi, Dinkar,
Agyeya, Muktibodh, Nagarjun.
III. Katha Sahitya
- Upanyas & Realism
- The origin and development of Hindi Novels.
- Prominent Novelists : Premchand, Jainendra, Yashpal, Renu and Bhism Sahani.
- The origin and development of Hindi short story.
- Prominent short Story Writers : Premchand, Prasad, Agyeya, Mohan Rakesh &
IV. Drama & Theatre
- The origin & Development of Hindi Drama.
- Prominent Dramatists : Bharatendu, Prasad, Jagdish Chandra Mathur, Ram Kumar
Verma, Mohan Rakesh.
- The development of Hindi Theatre.
- The origin and development of Hindi criticism : Saiddhantik, Vyavharik,
Pragativadi, Manovishleshanvadi & Nai Alochana.
- Prominent critics : Ramchandra Shukla, Hajari Prasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas
Sharma & Nagendra.
VI. The other forms of Hindi prose-Lalit Nibandh, Rekhachitra, Sansmaran,
(Answers must be written in Hindi)
This paper will require first hand reading of prescribed texts and will test
the critical ability of the candidates.
- Kabir : Kabir Granthawali, Ed, Shyam Sundar Das (First hundred Sakhis.)
- Surdas : Bhramar Gitsar, Ed. Ramchandra Shukla (First hundred Padas)
- Tulsidas : Ramchrit Manas (Sundar Kand) Kavitawali (Uttar Kand).
- Jayasi : Padmawat Ed. Shyam Sundar Das (Sinhal Dwip Khand & Nagmativiyog
- Bihari : Bihari Ratnakar Ed. Jagnnath Prasad Ratnakar (First 100 Dohas)
- Maithili : Bharat Bharati Sharan Gupta
- Prasad : Kamayani (Chinta and Sharddha Sarg)
- Nirala : Rag-Virag, Ed. Ram Vilas Sharma (Ram Ki Shakti Puja & Kukurmutta).
- Dinkar : Kurushetra
- Agyeya : Angan Ke Par Dwar (Asadhya Vina)
- Muktiboth: Brahma Rakshas
- Nagarjun : Badal Ko Ghirte Dekha Hai, Akal Ke Bad, Harijan Gatha.
- Bharatendu : Bharat Durdasha
- Mohan Rakesh : Ashad Ka Ek Din
- Ramchandra Shukla : Chintamani (Part I) (Kavita Kya Hai] Shraddha Aur
- Dr. Satyendra : Nibandh Nilaya-Bal Krishna Bhatt, Premchand, Gulab Rai,
Hajari Prasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma, Agyeya, Kuber Nath Rai.
Premchand : Godan, Premchand ki Sarvashreshth
a Kahaniyan, Ed. Amrit Rai/ Manjusha - Prem Chand ki Sarvashreshtha Kahaniyan,
Ed. Amrit Rai.
- Prasad : Skandgupta
- Yashpal : Divya
- Phaniswar Nath Renu : Maila Anchal
- Mannu Bhandari : Mahabhoj
- Rajendra Yadav : Ek Dunia Samanantar (All Stories)
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