(Papers) UPSC Pre Topic Wise Papers : Geography

 



(Papers) UPSC Pre Topic Wise Papers : Geography



1. In  the  South  Atlantic  and  South-Eastern  Pacific regions  in  tropical  latitudes,  cyclone  does  not originate. What is the  reason?
(a) Sea  surface  temperatures  are  low
(b) Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone seldom occurs
(c) Coriolis  force is too weak
(d) Absence  of land in those  regions
Ans: A
Exp: In the South Atlantic and the eastern South Pacific,sea surface temperatures tend to run a shade cooler than  ideal  for  tropical  cyclone  formation  even  in
the southern summer resulting in the lack of centers of  rotation  (vortex)  in  that  area.

2. Which one of the following pairs of States of India indicates  the  easternmost  and  westernmost  State?
(a) Assam  and  Rajasthan
(b) Arunachal  Pradesh  and  Rajasthan
(c) Assam  and  Gujarat
(d) Arunachal  Pradesh  and  Gujarat
Ans: D
Exp: Kibithu  in  Anjaw  district  in  Arunachal  Pradesh is  the  easternmost  point  of  Indian  mainland (28.01744°N/97.40238°E)  and  the  West  of  Ghuar Mota  in  the  Kutch  region  of  Gujarat  is  the westernmost  point  of India  (23.67°N/  68.52°E).

3. What explains the eastward flow of the equatorial counter-current?
(a) The Earth’s  rotation  on its axis
(b) Convergence  of the  two  equatorial  currents
(c) Difference in  salinity  of water
(d) Occurrence of the belt of calm near the equator
Ans: A

4. Among  the  following,  which  were  frequently mentioned  in  the  news  for  the  outbreak  of  Ebola virus recently?
(a) Syria and  Jordan
(b) Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia
(c) Philippines and Papua New Guinea
(d) Jamaica, Haiti and Surinam

Ans: B
Exp: The  current  outbreak  of  Ebola  began  in  Guinea in  December  2013  and  then  spread  to  Liberiaand  Sierra  Leaone.

5. The  area  known  as  ‘Golan  Heights’  sometimes appears  in  the  news  in  the  context  of  the  events related to
(a) Central Asia
(b) Middle East
(c) South-East Asia
(d) Central Africa
Ans: B
Exp: Golan  Heights, also  called Golan  Plateau,overlooking  the  Jordan  River valley,  was  part of  extreme  southwestern Syria until  1967,  when it  came  under  Israeli military  occupation,  and  in December  1981,  Israel unilaterally  annexed  the part  of  the  Golan.

6. Consider the following rivers:
1. Vamsadhara 2. Indravati
3. Pranahita 4. Pennar
Which  of the above  are tributaries  of Godavari?
(a) 1,  2  and  3
(b) 2,  3  and  4
(c) 1,  2  and  4
(d) 2 and 3 only
Ans: D
Exp: The  Vamsadhara  River  originates  in  the Kalahandi district  of  Odisha  and  runs  for  a distance  of  about  254  kilometers,  where  it  joins the Bay  of  Bengal  at  Kalingapatnam, Andhra Pradesh.  It  is  not  a  tributary of  Godavari. Indravati  River is  a tributary of  the Godavari River,  in  central India.  It  originates  from the Eastern  Ghats of  Dandakaranya  range in Kalahandi district  and  flows  in  a  westerly direction;  enters  Jagdalpur  in Chhattisgarh state. It  further  traverses  in  the  westerly direction  and thereafter  in  southern  direction  before  finally meeting  Godavari  River  at  the  border of Maharashtra,  Chhattisgarh  and Telangana. Pranhita  River  flows  on  the  edge  of  Gadchiroli district  in  Maharashtra and  Adilabad  district  in Andhra  Pradesh.  The  name  Pranhita  is  derived from  the  nature  of  combined  flow  of  the  rivers 

7. Consider the following statements:

1. The winds which blow between 30°N and 60°Slatitudes  through-out  the  year  are  known  as westerlies.

2. The moist air masses that cause winter rains inNorth-Western  region  of  India  are  part  ofwesterlies.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1  
(b) Only 2
(c) Both  1  and  2 
(d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: B
Exp: In statement 1 it is the winds which blow between 30°N  and  60°S  latitudes  through-out  the  year are  known  as  westerlies.  This  zone  also  includes trade  winds. 

8. In a particular region in India, the local people trainthe  roots of living trees into  robust bridges acrossthe  streams.  As  the  time  passes,  these  bridgesbecome stronger. These unique ‘living root bridges’are  found in
(a) Meghalaya 
(b) Himachal  Pradesh
(c) Jharkhand 
(d) Tamil Nadu
Ans: A
Exp: The  living  root  bridges  of  Cherrapunji, Laitkynsew,  and  Nongriat,  in  the  present-day Meghalaya  state  of  northeast  India.  It  is  a  form of  tree  shaping,  which  creates  these  suspension bridges, they  are   handmade from the  aerial  roots of living  banyan fig trees,  such  as Ficus  elastica. The pliable tree roots are trained to grow through betel  tree  trunks  which  are  placed  across  the gap,  until  the  figs’  roots  take  root  on  the  other side.  Sticks,  stones,  and  other  inclusions  are placed  with  the  growing  bridge.  This  process can  take  up  to  15  years  to  complete. 

9. Tides  occur  in  the  oceans  and  seas  due  to  which among the following?
1. Gravitational force of the Sun
2. Gravitational force of the Moon
3. Centrifugal  force  of the  Earth
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  given
below:
(a) Only 1 
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only 
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: D
Exp: The tide-raising forces at the earth’s surface result from  a  combination  of  basic  forces:  (1)  the force of  gravitation  exerted  by  the  moon  (and  sun) upon  the  earth;  and  (2)  centrifugal  forces produced  by  the  revolutions  of  the  earth  and moon  (and  earth  and  sun)  around  their  common center-of-gravity  (mass)  or  barycenter.

10. Consider the following States:
1. Arunachal  Pradesh
2. Himachal  Pradesh
3. Mizoram
In  which  of  the  above  States  do  ‘Tropical  Wet
Evergreen  Forests’  occur?
(a) Only 1 
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only 
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: C
Exp: In  India, evergreen forests are found on the eastern and  western  slopes  of  the  Western  Ghats  in  such states  as  Tamil  Nadu,  Karnataka,  Kerala  and Maharashtra.  And  also found  in  Assam,  Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya,  Nagaland,  Tripura,  West Bengal  and  Andaman  and  Nicobar  Islands. 

11. Which one  of the following countries of South-West Asia does not open out to the Mediterranean Sea?
(a) Syria 
(b) Jordan
(c) Lebanon 
(d) Israel
Ans: B
Exp: Jordan  has  Israel  on  its  west  and  Syria  on  its North. Henceforth  out  of  all these  countries Jordan does  not  open  out  to  the  Mediterranean  Sea.

12. In  India,  in  which  one  of  the  following  types  of forests  is  teak  a  dominant  tree  species?
(a) Tropical moist deciduous forest
(b) Tropical rain forest
(c) Tropical thorn scrub forest
(d) Temperate  forest  with  grasslands
Ans: A
Exp: The  main  species  found  in  these forests  are  teak, sal,  padauk, laurel, white  chuglam,  badam,  dhup, chikrosi,  kokko,  haldu,  rosewood,  mahua, bijasal,  lendi,  semul,  irul,  dhaman,  amla,  kusum, tendu,  paula,  jamun,  bamboo,  etc

13. “Each day is more or less the same, the morning isclear  and  bright  with  a  sea  breeze;  as  the  Sunclimbs high in the sky, heat mounts up, dark cloudsform, then  rain comes with thunder and lightning.But  rain is  soon over.”
Which of the following regions is described in the above  passage?
(a) Savannah 
(b) Equatorial
(c) Monsoon 
(d) Mediterranean
Ans: B
Exp: Equatorial  –  Most  regions  along  the  equator have  very  hot  and  humid  climates.  Rainfall  can be  excessive  and  at  certain  times  of  the  year thunderstorm  can  occur  on  a  daily  basis.  Annual rainfall  is  normally  is  excess  of  2000  mm  with heavy  showers  on  most  afternoons.  This  pattern of  rainfall is  due to  wind  patterns,  which  creates ideal  conditions  (warm,  moist,  unstable  air)  for the  formation  of  storm  clouds.

14. The  Substitution  of  steel  for  wooden  ploughs  inagricultural production is an example of 
(a) Labour-augmenting technological progress
(b) Capital-augmenting technological progress
(c) Capital-reducing technological progress
(d) None  of  the  above
Ans: B
Exp: Capital  augmenting  technological  progress  results in  the  more  productive  use  of  the  existing  capital.

2014 :

1. The most important strategy for the conservation ofbiodiversity together with traditional human life isthe establishment of
(a) Biosphere  reserves 
(b) Botanical gardens 
(e) National parks 
(d) Wildlife sanctuaries
Ans: A

2. If you travel through the Himalayas, you are likely to  see  which  of  the  following  plants  naturally growing there?
1. Oak  
2. Rhododendron 
3. Sandalwood
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only  
(b) Only 3
(c) 1 and 3 only  
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: A

3. Which  of the  following  have coral  reefs? 
1. Andaman  and  Nicobar  Islands  
2. Gulf  of Kachchh 
3. Gulf of Mannar 
4. Sunderbans 
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  given below:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only 
(b) 2 and 4 only 
(c) 1 and 3 only  
(d) 1,  2, 3 and  4
Ans: A

4. The  seasonal  reversal  of  winds  is  the  typicalcharacteristic  of
(a) Equatorial climate 
(b) Mediterranean climate 
(c) Monsoon climate 
(d) All  of the above climates
Ans: C

5. Consider the following rivers: 
1. Barak  2. Lohit 
3. Subansiri 
Which of the above flows / flow through Arunachal Pradesh?
(a) Only 1 
(b) 2 and 3 only 
(c) 1 and 3 only  
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: B

6. Consider the following pairs :
3.Kolleru Lake Confluence of Musi and Krishna
2.Keoladeo Ghana National Park Confluence of Beas and Chambal
1.Harike Wetlands Confluence of Beas and Sutluj/Sutlej Wetlands Confluence of rivers Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?
(a) Only 1 
(b) 2 and 3 only 
(c) 1 and 3 only  
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: A

7. With reference to a conservation organization calledWetlands  International’,  which  of  the  followingstatements  is/are  correct?
1. It is an intergovernmental organization formed by the countries which are signatories to Ramsar Convention. 
2. It works at the field level to develop and mobilize knowledge, and use the practical experience to advocate  for  better  policies.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  given below:
(a) Only 1 
(b) Only 2
(c) Both  1  and  2 
(d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: B


8. Consider the following pairs :
Hills Region
1. Cardamom Hills Coromandel Coast
2. Kaimur Hills Konkan  Coast
3. Mahadeo Hills Central India
4. Mikir Hills North-East  India
Which  of  the  above  pairs  are  correctly  matched?
(a) 1  and  2 (b) 2  and  3 
(c) 3  and  4  (d) 2  and  4
Ans: C


9. Consider the following pairs:
3. National Watershed Development Ministry of Rural Development
2.Desert Development Programme Ministry of Environment and Forests
1.Drought - Prone Area Programme Ministry of Agriculture
Programme / Project Ministry
Project  for  Rainfed  Areas 
Which  of  the  above  pairs
(a) 1 and 2 only  
(b) Only 3
(c) 1,  2  and  3  
(d) None
Ans: D


10. Consider the following towns of India :
1. Bhadrachalam  2. Chanderi 
3. Kancheepuram  4. Kamal 
Which of the above are famous for the production of traditional  sarees /  fabric?
(a) 1 and 2 only  
(b) 2 and 3 only 
(c) 1,  2  and  3 
(d) 1,  3  and  4
Ans: B

11. Consider the following pairs:
National Highway Cities  connected 
1. NH  4 : Chennai and Hyderabad
2. NH  6 : Mumbai and Kolkata 
3. NH  15 : Ahmedabad and Jodhpur
Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?
(a) 1 and 2 only  
(b) Only 3
(c) 1,  2  and  3  
(d) None
Ans: D


12. Which  one  of  the  following  pairs  of  islands  is separated  from  each  other  by  the  ‘Ten  Degree Channel’?
(a) Andaman  and  Nicobar 
(b) Nicobar  and  Sumatra 
(c) Maldives  and  Lakshadweep 
(d) Sumatra  and  Java
Ans: A

13. With  reference to  ‘Changpa’  community  of  India, consider the following statement:
1. They live mainly in the State of Uttarakhand. 
2. They rear the Pashmina goats  that yield a fine wool.
3. They  are  kept  in  the  category  of  Scheduled Tribes. 
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1 
(b) 2 and 3 only 
(c) Only 3 
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: B

14. Turkey is located  between
(a) Black  Sea  and  Caspian  Sea 
(b) Black  Sea  and  Mediterranean  Sea 
(c) Gulf  of  Suez  and Mediterranean  Sea 
(d) Gulf  of Aqaba  and  Dead  Sea
Ans: B

15. What is the correct sequence of occurrence of the following cities in South-East Asia as one proceeds from  south to  north?
1. Bangkok  2. Hanoi 
3. Jakarta  4. Singapore 
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  code  given below:
(a) 4-2-1-3  
(b) 3-2-4-1 
(c) 3-4-1-2  
(d) 4-3-2-1
Ans: C

2013 :

1. Consider the following pairs  National  Park River  flowing through  the Park
1. Corbett  National  Park : Ganga
2. Kaziranga National  Park : Manas
3. Silent Valley National Park : Kaveri
Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?
(a) 1  and  2 
(b) Only 3
(c) 1  and  3 
(d) None
Ans: D


2. Which  one  of  the  following  pairs  is  correctly matched?
Geographical  Feature     Region
(a) Abyssinian Plateau : Arabia
(b) Atlas Mountains : North - Western Africa
(c) Guiana Highlands : South - Western Africa
(d) Okavango Basin : Patagonia
Ans: B

3. With reference to the usefulness of the by-products of sugar industry, which of the following statements is  /  are  correct?
1. Bagasse  can  be  used  as  biomass  fuel  for  the generation  of  energy.
2. Molasses can be used as one of the feedstocks for  the  production  of  synthetic  chemical fertilizers.
3. Molasses  can  be  used  for  the  production  of ethanol.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  codes  given below:
(a) Only 1 
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only 
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: C

4. Variations in the length of daytime and night time from  season  to  season  are  due  to
(a) The earth’s  rotation  on its axis
(b) The  earth’s  revolution  round  the  sun  in  an elliptical manner
(c) Latitudinal position of the place
(d) Revolution of the earth  on a tilted axis
Ans: D

5. The  Narmada  river  flows to the west, while most other large peninsular rivers flow to the east. Why?
1. It  occupies a linear  rift valley.
2. It flows between the Vindhyas and the Satpuras.
3. The land slopes to the west from Central India.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  codes  given below:
(a) Only 1 
(b) 2  and  3
(c) 1  and  3 
(d) None
Ans: A

6. On the  planet earth, most of the  freshwater exists as  ice  caps  and  glaciers.  Out  of  the  remaining freshwater, the largest proportion
(a) is found in atmosphere as moisture and clouds
(b) is  found in  freshwater lakes  and  rivers
(c) exists  as  groundwater
(d) exists as soil moisture
Ans: C

7. Consider the following pairs:
1. Nokrek Bio-sphere Reserve : Garo  Hills
2. Logtak  (Loktak)  Lake  :  Barail  Range
3. Namdapha National Park : Dafla Hills
Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?
(a) Only 1 
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1,  2  and  3 
(d) None
Ans: A

8. Consider the following:
1. Electromagnetic radiation
2. Geothermal energy
3. Gravitational force
4. Plate  movements
5. Rotation  of the  earth
6. Revolution of the earth
Which  of  the  above  are  responsible  for  bringing dynamic  changes  on  the  surface  of  the  earth?
(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
(b) 1, 3, 5 and 6 only
(c) 2, 4, 5 and 6 only
(d) 1, 2, 3, 4,  5 and 6
Ans: C

9. Contour  bunding is a method of  soil conservation used in
(a) desert margins, liable to strong wind action
(b) low flat plains, close to stream courses, liable toflooding
(c) scrublands, liable to  spread  of weed  growth
(d) None  of  the  above
Ans: D

10. Which  one  among  the  following  industries  is  the maximum consumer  of  water in  India?
(a) Engineering
(b) Paper  and  pulp
(c) Textiles
(d) Thermal  power
Ans: D

11. The  most  important  fishing  grounds  of  the  world are  found in the  regions where
(a) warm  and  cold  atmospheric  currents  meet
(b) rivers  drain  out  large  amounts  of  freshwaterinto the  sea
(c) warm  and  cold  oceanic  currents  meet
(d) continental shelf is undulating
Ans: C

12. Which of the following is/are unique characteristic/ characteristics  of  equatorial  forests?
1. Presence  of tall, closely  set trees with crowns forming a continuous canopy
2. Coexistence  of  a  large  number  of  species
3. Presence  of  numerous  varieties  of  epiphytes
(a) Only 1
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: D

13. The annual range of temperature in the interior of the continents is high as compared to coastal areas. What  is  /  are  the  reason  /  reasons?
1. Thermal  difference  between  land  and  water.
2. Variation  in  altitude  between  continents  and oceans.
3. Presence  of  strong winds in the interior
4. Heavy  rains  in  the  interior  as  compared  to coasts.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  codes  given below:
(a) Only 1 
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only 
(d) 1,  2, 3 and  4
Ans: A

14. Which of the  following is /  are the characteristic/characteristics  of  Indian  coal?
1. High ash  content
2. Low sulphur content
3. Low  ash  fusion  temperature
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  codes  given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only 
(b) Only 2
(c) 1 and 3 only 
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: A

15. Which of the following statements regarding laterite soils  of  India  are  correct?
1. They are  generally  red in colour.
2. They are  rich in  nitrogen and  potash.
3. They are well-developed in Rajasthan and UP.
4. Tapioca  and  cashew  nuts  grow  well  on  these soils.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  codes  given below:
(a) 1,  2  and  3 
(b) 2,  3  and  4
(c) 1  and  4 
(d) 2 and 3 only
Ans: C

16. Consider the following statements:
1. Natural  gas  occurs  in  the  Gondwana  beds.
2. Mica  occurs in  abundance in  Kodarma.
3. Dharwars  are  famous  for  petroleum.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1  and  2 
(b) Only 2
(c) 2  and  3 
(d) None
Ans: B

17. Consider the following crops
1. Cotton 2. Groundnut
3. Rice 4. Wheat
Which  of  these  are  Kharif  crops?
(a) 1  and  4 
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1,  2  and  3 
(d) 2,  3  and  4
Ans: C

18. Consider the following crops
1. Cotton 2. Groundnut
3. Rice 4. Wheat
Which  of  these  are  Kharif  crops?
(a) 1  and  4 
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1,  2  and  3 
(d) 2,  3  and  4
Ans: C

19. “Climate is extreme, rainfall  is scanty and the people used to be nomadic herders.” The above statement best describes which of the  following  regions? 
(a) African  Savannah
(b) Central Asian  Steppe
(c) North American  Prairie
(d) Siberian Tundra
Ans: B


20. During a thunderstorm, the thunder in the skies is produced  by the
1. meeting of cumulonimbus clouds in the sky
2. lightning that separates the nimbus clouds
3. violent  upward  movement  of  air  and  water particles
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  codes  given below:
(a) Only 1
(b) 2  and  3
(c) 1  and  3
(d) None  of the  above  produces the  thunder
Ans: D

21. Consider the following pairs :
1. Limboo (Limbu) : Sikkim
2. Karbi :  Himachal  Pradesh
3. Dongaria : Odisha
4. Bonda : Tamil Nadu
Which  of  the  above  pairs  are  correctly  matched?
(a) 1 and 3 only 
(b) 2 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only 
(d) 1,  2, 3 and  4
Ans: A

2012 :

1.  Which of the  following is the chief characteristic of ‘mixed farming’?
(a) Cultivation of both cash crops and  food crops
(b) Cultivation  of two  or more  crops in the  same field
(c) Rearing  of  animals  and  cultivation  of  crops together
(d) None  of  the  above.
Ans: C

2. A  particular  State  in  India  has  the    following characteristics:
1. It is located on the same latitude which passes through northern Rajasthan.
2. It has over 80% of its area under forest cover.
3. Over  12%  of  the  forest  over  constitutes Protected  Area  Network  in  this  State.
Which one among the following States has all the above  characteristics?
(a) Arunachal  Pradesh
(b) Assam
(c) Himachal  Pradesh
(d) Uttarakhand
Ans: A


3. Consider the following crops of India :
1. Cow  pea 2. Green  gram
3. Pigeon  pea
Which  of  the  above  is/are  used  as  pulse  ,  fodder and  green  manure?
(a) 1 and 2 only 
(b) Only 2
(c) 1 and 3 only 
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: D


4. Consider the following factors:
1. Rotation  of the Earth
2. Air  pressure  and  wind
3. Density  of  ocean  water
4. Revolution of the Earth
Which  of  the  above  factors  influence  the  ocean currents?
(a) 1 and 2 only 
(b) 1, 2 and 3 only
(c) 1  and  4 
(d) 2,  3  and  4
Ans: B


5. Consider the following crops of India:
1. Groundnut 2. Sesamum
3. Pearl millet 
Which of the above is/are predominantly rained crop/ crops?
(a) 1 and 2 only 
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) Only 3 
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: D

6. When you travel in Himalayas,you will see the foll.:
1. Deep  gorges
2. U-turn  river  courses
3. Parallel mountain ranges
4. steep gradients causing land-sliding
Which of the above can be said to be the evidences for the Himalayas being young fold mountains?
(a) 1 and 2 only 
(b) 1, 2 and 4 only
(c) 3 and 4 only 
(d) 1,  2, 3 and  4
Ans: D


7. Normally the temp. Decreases with the increase inheight  from  the  earth’s  surface,  because
1. the  atmosphere  can  be  heated  upwards  only from  the  Earth’s  surface
2. there is more moisture in the upper atmosphere
3. the  air is less  dense in the  upper  atmosphere
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  codes  given below:
(a) Only 1 
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only 
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: A


8. The  acidification  of  oceans is increasing . why isthis  phenomenon  a  cause  of  concern  ?
1. The  growth  and  survival  of  calcareous phytoplankton will be adversely affected
2. The growth and survival of coral reefs will be adversely  affected
3. The  survival  of  some  animals  that  have phytoplankton larvae will be adversely affected
4. The cloud seeding and formation of clouds will be  adversely  affected
Which  of  the  statements  are  correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only 
(b) Only 2
(c) 1 and 3 only 
(d) 1,  2, 3 and  4
Ans: D


9. A  person  stood  alone  in  a  desert   on  a  dark  nightand wanted to reach his village which was situated5km  east  of the  point where  he  was  standing .Hehad no instruments to find the direction but he locatedthe polestar, the most convenient way now to reachhis village is to walk in the
(a) facing the polestar
(b) opposite to the polestar
(c) keeping the polestar to his left
(d) keeping the polestar to his right
Ans: C

10. Consider the following statements:
1. The  duration  of  the  monsoon  decreases  from southern  India to northern  India.
2. The amount  of  annual  rainfall in the  northern plains  of  India  decreases  from  east  to  west.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1 
(b) Only 2
(c) Both  1  and  2 
(d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: C


11. Which  one  of  the  following  is  the  characteristic climate of the Tropical Savannah Region?
(a) Rainfall throughout the year
(b) Rainfall in winter only
(c) An  extremely  short  dry  season
(d) A  definite  dry  and  wet  season
Ans: D

12. What is the difference between the antelopes Oryx  and Chiru?
(a) Oryx  is  adapted  to  live  in  hot  and  arid  areas whereas Chiru is adapted to live in steppes and semi-desert areas of  cold high mountains
(b) Oryx is  poached  for its antlers whereas Chiru is  poached  for its musk
(c) Oryx exists in western India only whereas Chiru exists in north east  India only.
(d) None  of  the  statements  (a),  (b)  and  (c)  given above  is  correct.
Ans: A

2011 :

1. Among  the  following  States,  which  one  has  themost suitable climatic conditions for the cultivationof a large variety of orchids with minimum cost ofproduction,  and  can  develop  an  export  orientedindustry in this field?
(a) Andhra  Pradesh 
(b) Arunachal  Pradesh
(c) Madhya  Pradesh 
(d) Uttar  Pradesh
Ans: B

2. In  which  one  among  the  following  categories  ofprotected areas in India are local people not allowedto  collect  and  use the  biomass?
(a) Biosphere  Reserves
(b) National  Parks
(c) Wetlands  declared  under Ramsar Convention
(d) Wildlife Sanctuaries
Ans: B

3. Two  important  rivers  -  one  with  its  source  inJharkhand  (and  known  by  a  different  name  inOdisha),  and  another,  with  its  source  in  Odisha  -merge  at  a  place  only  a  short  distance  from  thecoast of Bay of Bengal before flowing into the sea.This is an important site of wildlife and biodiversity and a  protected  area. Which  one  of the  following could be this?
(a) Bhitarkanika 
(b) Chandipur-on-sea
(c) Gopalpur-on-sea 
(d) Simlipal
Ans: A

4. India is  regarded as a country with  ‘Demographic Dividend’. This is due to
(a) Its high population in the age group below 15 years
(b) Its  high  population in the  age  group  of  15-64 years
(c) Its high population in the age group above 65 years
(d) Its high total population

5. La Nina is  suspected to  have  caused  recent  floods in Australia. How is La Nina different from El Nino?
1. La  Nina  is  characterised  by  unusually  cold ocean temperature in  equatorial  Indian Ocean whereas El Nino is characterised by unusually warm  ocean  temperature  in  the  equatorial Pacific  Ocean.
2. El  Nino  has  adverse  effect  on  south-west monsoon of India, but La Nina has no effect on monsoon climate.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1 
(b) Only 2
(c) Both  1  and  2 
(d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: D

6. With  reference  to  micro-irrigation,  which  of  the following  statements is/are correct?
1. Fertilizer/nutrient loss can be reduced.
2. It  is  the  only  means  of  irrigation  in  dry  land farming.
3. In  some areas  of  farming,  receding  of  ground water  table  can  be  checked.
Select  the  correct  answer  using  the  codes  given below:
(a) Only 1 
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only 
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: C


7. The  2004  Tsunami  made  people  realize  that mangroves  can  serve  as  a  reliable  safety  hedge against  coastal  calamities.  How  do  mangroves function  as  a  safety  hedge?
(a) The  mangrove  swamps  separate  the  human settlements  from  the  sea  by  a  wide  zone  in which people neither live nor venture out
(b) The mangroves provide both food and medicines which  people  are in  need  of  after  any  natural disaster
(c) The mangrove trees are tall with dense canopies and  serve  as  art  excellent  shelter  during  a cyclone or tsunami
(d) The  mangrove  trees  do  not  get  uprooted  by storms and tides because of their extensive roots
Ans: D


8. Salinization  occurs  when  the  irrigation  water accumulated in the soil evaporates, leaving behind salts  and  minerals.  What  are  the  effects  of salinization on the irrigated land?
(a) It  greatly increases the crop  production
(b) It makes  some  soils impermeable
(c) It  raises  the  water  table
(d) It  fills the air  spaces in the  soil with water
Ans: B

9. Westerlies in southern hemisphere are stronger andpersistent than in  northern hemisphere. Why?
1. Southern  hemisphere  has  less  landmass  as compared to  northern  hemisphere.
2. Coriolis force is higher in southern hemisphere as  compared to  northern  hemisphere
Which of-the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1 
(b) Only 2
(c) Both  1  and  2 
(d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: A


11. Between India and east Asia, the navi-gation-time and  distance  can  be  greatly  reduced  by  which  ofthe following ?
1. Deepening  the  Malacca  straits  between Malaysia and  Indonesia.
2. Opening  a  new  canal  across  the  kra  isthmus between  the  gulf  of  Siam  and Andaman  sea.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1 
(b) Only 2
(c) Both  1  and  2 
(d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: A


12. If  a  tropical  rain  forest  is  removed,  it  does  not regenerate  quickly  as  compared  to  a  tropical deciduous  forest.  This  is  because  ?
(a) The soil of rain forest is deficient in nutrients.
(b) Propagules  of  the  trees  in  a  rain  forest  have poor viability.
(c) The  rain  forest  species  are  slow-growing.
(d) Exotic species invade the fertile soil of rain forest.
Ans: A


13. The  Himalayan  Range  is  very    rich  in  species diversity.  Which  one  among  the  following  is  the most appropriate  reason  for this   phenomenon ?
(a) It  has  a  high  rainfall  that  supports  luxuriant vegetative   growth.
(b) It is a confluence of different bio-geographical zones.
(c) Exotic  and  invasive  species  have  not  been invasive  species  have  not  been  introduced  in this region.
(d) It  has  less  human  interference.
Ans: B


14. A layer in the earth’s  atmosphere called ionospherefacilities  radio communication. Why?
1. Why  presence  of  ozone  causes  the  reflection of  radio  waves  to  earth.
2. Radio  waves  have  a  very  long  wavelength.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1 
(b) Only 2
(c) Both  1  and  2 
(d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: D


15. The lower Gangetic plain is cahrac-terised  by humidclimate with high temperature throughout the year.Which  one  among the  following  pairs  of  crops ismost suitable for this region?
(a) Paddy  and  cotton 
(b) Wheat and jute
(c) Paddy and jute 
(d) Wheat  and  cotton
Ans: C


16. What  could  be  the  main  reason/reasons  for  the formation  of African  and Eurasian  desert  belt?
1. It  is  located  in  the  sub-tropical  high  pressure cells.
2. It is under the influence of warm ocean currents.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct in this  context?
(a) Only 1 
(b) 2 only
(c) Both  1  and  2 
(d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: B


17. The jet aircrafts fly very easily and smoothly  in thelower stratosphere. What could be the appropriateexplanation?
1. There  are  no  clouds  or  water  vapour  in  the lower  stratosphere.
2. There  are  no  vertical  winds  in  the  lower stratosphere.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct in this context?
(a) Only 1 
(b) Only 2
(c) Both  1  and  2 
(d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: B


18. Consider the following statements:
1. Biodiversity  is  normally  greater  in  the  lower latitudes as compared to the higher latitudes.
2. Along  the  mountain  gradients,  biodiversity  is normally  greater  in  the  lower  altitudes  as compared to the higher altitudes.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1 
(b) Only 2
(c) Both  1  and  2 
(d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: C


19. The  Brahmaputra,  Irrawaddy  and  Mekong  rivers originate  in  Tibet  narrow  and  parallel   mountainranges  in  their  upper  reaches.  Of  these  rivers,Brahmaputra  makes  a  “U”  turn  in  its  course   to flow into  India. This “U” turn is due to?
(a) Uplift of folded Himalayan series.’
(b) Syntaxial   bending   of  geologically  young Himalayas.
(c) Geo-tectonic disturbance in the tertiary folded mountain chains.
(d) Both  (a)  and  (b)  above
Ans: B

20. A state in  India has the  following characteristics:
1. Its  northern  part is arid  and  semi-arid.
2. Its  central  part  produces  cotton.
3. Cultivation  of cash crops is predominant  over food  crops.
Which  one  of  the  following  states  has  all  of  the
above  characteristics?
(a) Andhra  Pradesh 
(b) Gujarat
(c) Karnataka 
(d) Tamil Nadu
Ans: B


21. Southeast Asia has captivated the attention of globalcommunity over space and time as a geostrategically  significant region. Which among the followingis the most convincing explanation  for this  globalperspective?
(a) It was the hot theatre during the second world war.
(b) Its location between the Asian powers of china and  India.
(c) It  was  the  arena  of  superpower  confrontation during the cold war period.
(d) Its  location  between  the  pacific  and  Indian oceans and its pre-eminent maritime character.
Ans: D


2010 :


1. A  geographic  area  with  an  altitude  of  400 metershas following characteristics:If this geographic area were to have a natural forest,which one of the following would it most likely be?
(a) Moist temperate coniferous  forest
(b) Montane subtropical forest
(c) Temperate  forest
(d) Tropical rain forest
Ans: D


2. A  new  type  of  El  Nino  called  El  Nino  Modokiappeared in the news. In this context, consider thefollowing statements:
1. Normal  El  Nino  forms  in  the  Central  Pacific ocean whereas El-Nino Modoki forms in Eastern Pacific  ocean.
2. Normal EI Nino results in diminished hurricanes in the Atlantic ocean but El Nino Modoki results in a greater number of hurricanes with greater frequency. Which of the statements given above is/are  correct?
(a) Only 1 
(b) Only 2
(c) Both  1  and  2 
(d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: B

3. With  reference  to  soil  conservation,  consider  the following practices:
1. Crop rotation 2. Sand  fences
3. Terracing 4. Wind breaks
Which  of  the  above  are  considered  appropriate methods for soil conservation in India?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only 
(b) 2 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only 
(d) 1,  2, 3 and  4
Ans: D

4. Following are the characteristics of an area in India:
1. Hot and humid climate
2. Annual rainfall 200 cm
3. Hill slopes up to an altitude of 1100 metres
4. Annual  range  of  temperature  15°C to  30°C Which one among the following crops are you most likely to  find in the area  described above?
(a) Mustard 
(b) Cotton
(c) Pepper 
(d) Virginia tobacco
Ans: C

5. In India, which type of forest among the following occupies  the  largest  area?
(a) Montane  Wet  Temperate  Forest
(b) Sub-tropical Dry Evergreen  Forest
(c) Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest
(d) Tropical Wet  Evergreen  Forest
Ans: C


6. Consider the following statements:
1. On the planet Earth, the  fresh water available for  use  amounts to  about less than  1%  of the total water  found.
2. Of  the  total  fresh  water  found  on  the  planet Earth 95 % is bound up in  polar ice caps and glaciers. Which of the statements given above is/are  correct?
(a) Only 1 
(b) Only 2
(c) Both  1  and  2 
(d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: A

7. Which  one  of  the  following  reflects  back  more sunlight  as  compared to  other three? 
(a) Sand  desert
(b) Paddy crop land
(c) Land  covered  with  fresh  snow
(d) Prairie land
Ans: C

8. A  geographic  region  has  the  following  distinctcharacteristics:
1. Warm  and  dry  climate
2. Mild and wet winter
3. Evergreen  oak  trees
The  above  features  are the  distinct  characteristics of which one of the following regions?
(a) Mediterranean
(b) Eastern China
(c) Central Asia
(d) Atlantic  coast  of  North America
Ans: A

9. What  causes  wind  to  deflect  toward  left  in  theSouthern hemisphere?
(a) Temperature
(b) Magnetic field
(c) Rotation  of the  earth
(d) Pressure
Ans: C

10. From  the  point  of  view  of  evolution  of  livingorganisms, which one of the following is the correct sequence of evolution?
(a) Otter  –  Tortoise  –  Shark
(b) Shark  –  Tortoise  –  Otter
(c) Tortoise  –  Shark  –  Otter
(d) Shark  –  Otter  –  Trotoise
Ans: B

11. What are the possible limitations of India in mitigatingthe global warming at present and in the immediate future?
1. Appropriate  alternate  technologies  are  not sufficiently available
2. India cannot invest huge funds in research and development
3. Many developed countries have already set up their polluting industries in India
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1  and  2 
(b) Only 2
(c) 1  and  3 
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: A

12. Consider the  following which can be  found in the ambient atmosphere:
1. Soot 2. Sulphur hexafluoride
3. Water  vapour
Which of the above contribute to the warming up of  the  atmosphere?
(a) 1  and  2 
(b) Only 3
(c) 2  and  3 
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: D


13. India is a party to the Ramsar Convention and hasdeclared  many  areas  as  Ramsar  Sites.  Which  ofthe  following  statements  best describes  as to  howwe should maintain these sites in the context of thisConvention?
(a) Keep  all  the  sites  completely  inaccessible  to man so that they will not be exploited 
(b) Conserve  all  the  sites  through  ecosystem approach and permit tourism and recreation only 
(c) Conserve  all  the  sites  through  ecosystem approach for a period without any exploitation, with  specific  criteria  and  specific  period  for each  site,  and  then  allow  sustainable  use  of them  by  future  generations
(d) Conserve  all  the  sites  through  ecosystem approach  and  allow  their  simultaneous sustainable use
Ans: D

14. As  per  UN-Habitat’s  Global  Report  on  Human Settlements 2009, which one among the following regions  has  shown  the  fastest  growth  rate  of urbanization in the last three  decades?
(a) Asia
(b) Europe
(c) Latin America and Caribbean
(d) North America
Ans: A

15. Which one of the following can one come across if one travels through the  strait  of Malacca?
(a) Bali 
(b) Brunei
(c) Java 
(d) Singapore
Ans: D

16. Consider the following statements:
1. Biodiversity hotspots are located only in tropical regions.
2. India has four biodiversity hotspots i.e., Eastern Himalayas, Western Himalayas, Western Ghats and Andaman  and  Nicobar  Islands.
Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?
(a) Only 1 
(b) Only 2
(c) Both  1  and  2 
(d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: D

17. Consider the following statements: 
1
. The boundaries of a National Park are defined by legislation
2. A Biosphere Reserve is declared to conserve a few  specific  species  of  flora  and  fauna
3. In  a  Wildlife  Sanctuary,  limited  biotic interference is permitted
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1 
(b) 2  and  3
(c) 1  and  3 
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: C

18. Consider the following pairs:Protected  area Well-known  for
1. Bhiterkanika, Orissa - Salt Water Crocodile
2. Desert  National - Great Indian Park,  Rajasthan Bustard
3. Eravikulam, Kerala - Hoolak Gibbon 
Which  of  the  pairs  given  above  is/are  correctly matched?
(a) Only 1 
(b) 1  and  2
(c) Only 2 
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: B

19. Rovers  that  pass  through  Himachal  Pradesh  are
(a) Beas  and Chenab  only
(b) Beas  and Ravi  only
(c) Chenab, Ravi and Satluj only
(d) Beas, Chenab, Ravi, Satluj and Yamuna
Ans: D

20. With reference to the river Luni, which one of the following statements is correct?
(a) It  flows into Gulf of Khambhat
(b) It  flows into Gulf of Kuchchh
(c) It flows into Pakistan and merges with a tributary of  Indus
(d) It  is  lost  in  the  marshy  land  of  the  Rann  of Kuchchh
Ans: D

21. Which  one  of the  following  pairs is  not  correctly matched?
Dam/Lake River
(a) Govind Sagar Satluj
(b) Kolleru Lake Krishna
(c) Ukai Reservoir Tapi
(d) Wular  Lake Jhelum
Ans: B

22. If  there  were  no  Himalayan  ranges,  what  would have been the most likely geographical impact on India?
1. Much of the country would experience the cold waves  from  Siberia.
2. Indo-gangetic  plain  would  be  devoid  of  such extensive alluvial soils.
3. The pattern of monsoon would be different from what  it  is  at  present.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1 
(b) 1  and  3
(c) 2  and  3 
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: D

23. The  latitudes  that  pass  through  Sikkim   also  pass through
(a) Rajasthan
(b) Punjab
(c) Himachal  Pradesh
(d) Jammu  &  Kashmir
Ans: A

24. Though coffee and. tea both are cultivated on hill  slopes,  there  is  some  difference  between  them regarding their cultivation. In this context, consider the following statements:
1. Coffee plant requires a hot and humid climate of tropical areas whereas tea can be cultivated in both tropical and subtropical areas.
2. Coffee,  is  propagated  by  seeds  but  tea  is propagated by stem cuttings only. Which of the statements  given  above  is/are  correct?
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 only
(c) Both  1  and  2 
(d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: A

25. With  reference  to  the  mineral  resources  of  India,consider the following pairs: 
Mineral 90  %  Natural  sources  in
1. Copper Jharkhand
2. Nickel Orissa
3. Tungsten Kerala
Which  of the  pairs  given  above  is  /  are  correctly matched?
(a) 1  and  2 
(b) Only 2
(c) 1  and  3 
(d) 1,  2  and  3
Ans: B

26. Sustainable  development  is  described  as  the development  that  meets  the  needs  of  the  present without  compromising  the  ability  of  future generations  to  meet  their  own  needs.  In  this perspective,  inherently  the  concept  of  sustainable development  is  intertwined  with  which  of  the following concepts?
(a) Social justice and empowerment
(b) Inclusive Growth
(c) Globalization
(d) Carrying capacity
Ans: D

27. Tamil Nadu is a leading producer of mill-made  cotton yarn in the  country. What  could  be  the  reason?
1. Black cotton soil is the predominant type of soil in the  state
2. Rich pool of skilled labour is available
Which  of  the  above  is/are  the  correct  reasons?
(a) Only 1 
(b) Only 2
(c) Both  1  and  2 
(d) Neither  1  nor  2
Ans: B

28. When you travel in certain parts of India, you willnotice  red  soil.  What  is  the  main  reason  for  this colour?
(a) Abundance of magnesium
(b) Accumulated humus
(c) Presence  of  ferric  oxides
(d) Abundance  of  phosphates
Ans: C

29. Which one of the following is the appropriate reasonfor  considering  the  Gondwana  rocks  as  mostimportant  of  rock  systems  of  India?
(a) More than 90% of limestone reserves of India are  found in them
(b) More  than  90%  of  India’s  coal  reserves  are found in them
(c) More than 90% of fertile black cotton soils are spread  over  them
(d) None of the reasons given above is appropriate in this context
Ans: B

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