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(GIST OF YOJANA) 1000 दिनों में सौ फीसदी ग्रामीण बिजलीकरण का सफर [July] -2018]


(GIST OF YOJANA) 1000 दिनों में सौ फीसदी ग्रामीण बिजलीकरण का सफर [July] -2018]


1000 दिनों में सौ फीसदी ग्रामीण बिजलीकरण का सफर

बिजली हम सब की बुनियादी जरूरत है। कल्पना कीजिए की 21 वीं सदी में हमें बिजली के बिना जीवन जीना पड़े। देश के प्रत्येक नागरिक को बिजली उपलब्ध कराना सरकार का लक्ष्य रहा है और इस संबंध में अनेक प्रयास किए गए हैं। 15 अगस्त 2015 को स्वतंत्रता दिवस के अवसर पर लाल किले की प्राचीर से अपने संबोधन में प्रधानमंत्री ने घोषणा की थी कि देश के शेष 18500 गैरबिजलीकृत गांवों को अगले 1000 दिनों में बिजलीकृत किया जाएगा। ऊर्जा मंत्रालय को एक निश्चित समय सीमा के भीतर इन सभी गैरबिजलीकृत गांवों में बिजली पहुंचाने का काम सौंपा गया। हालांकि यह काम चुनौतीपूर्ण था, इसलिए पहला कदम वस्तुस्थिति का जायजा लेना था। जैसा कि प्रबंधन में कहा जाता है, आप जिन चीजों का जायजा नहीं ले सकते हैं, उनका प्रबंधन भी नहीं कर सकते हैं। ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में सबसे पहली मान्यता प्राप्त प्रशासनिक इकाई एक जनगणना गांव होता है। और इसलिए सभी जनगणना गांवों में बिजली की उपलब्धता सुनिश्चित करना अर्थात सौ फीसदी बिजलीकरण करना है। यह जायजा लेना ही इस दिशा में बढ़ने वाला पहला कदम है। बिजली की आपूर्ति के साथ-साथ उसकी गुणवत्ता और विश्वसनीयता सुनिश्चित करना, खासकर ग्रामीण इलाकों में, लोगों की अपेक्षाओं पर खरे उतरने के लिए जरूरी है। इसलिए सरकार ने ग्रामीण इलाकों में बिजली वितरण के सभी पहलुओं को कवर करने वाली एक एकीकृत योजना का आरंभ किया जिसे दीनदयाल उपाध्याय ग्राम ज्योति योजना (डीडीयूजीजेवाई) नाम दिया गया।

दीनदयाल उपाध्याय ग्राम ज्योति योजना' (डीडीयूजीजेवाई )

इस योजना में निम्नलिखित कार्य निश्चित किए गए : (i) गैरबिजलीकृत गांवों का बिजलीकरण(ii) पहले से बिजलीकृत गांवों में गहन बिजलीकरण, ताकि घर-घर में बिजली पहुंचाई जा सके। (ii) बिजली आपूर्ति की गुणवत्ता और विश्वसनीयता में सुधार के लिए सबट्रांसमिशन और वितरण की आधारभूत संरचना को सुदृढ़ और संवर्द्धन करना, (iv) फीडर सपरेशन ताकि किसानों को पक्की तौर पर बिजली आपूर्ति की जा सके और (v) ऊर्जा ऑडिट और घाटे को कम करने के लिए फीडर, वितरण ट्रांसफॉर्मर और उपभोक्ताओं की मीटरिंग। ग्रामीण बिजलीकरण की पूर्व योजना को डीडीयूजीजेवाई में एक पृथक घटक के रूप में शामिल किया गया।
इस योजना का कुल व्यय 75 893 करोड़ रुपए है। इसमें केंद्र सरकार का सकल बजटीय समर्थन 63,027 करोड़ रुपए का | है। इस योजना के तहत स्वीकृत परियोजनाएं कार्यान्वयन के विभिन्न चरणों में हैं।

योजना और रणनीति

सभी शेष गैरबिजलीकृत गांवों के बिजलीकरण का कार्य मिशन मोड में किया गया। 2015-16 से तीन साल पूर्व बिजलीकरण की गति अपेक्षाकृत धीमी थी। (2012-13: 2587, 2013-14: 1197, 2014-15 : 1405) जिसका अर्थ यह था। कि गांवों के बिजलीकरण में 10 साल और लगेंगेइसलिए सभी हितधारकों के साथ विस्तृत विचार-विमर्श किया गया ताकि मौजूदा स्थिति को समझा जा सके। साथ ही, संसाधनों की उपलब्धता, कार्य की गति को तेज करने के लिए संभावित उपायों व्यवस्थाओं की निगरानी पर भी चर्चा की गई। इससे नए विचार, रणनीति और दृष्टिकोण प्राप्त हुए। इनमें निम्नलिखित शामिल हैं:

जनगणना 2011 कोड के साथ गांवों की उचित पहचान: सभी राज्यों से अनुरोध किया गया है । कि वे 2011 के जनगणना कोड के साथ शेष गैर-बिजलीकृत गांवों की पहचान करें ताकि व्यापक योजना बनाने हेतु नाम, भौगोलिक स्थान, जनसांख्यिकी इत्यादि का पता लगाया जा सके। इस कार्यक्रम से पहले आमतौर पर गांवों की संख्या के आधार पर प्रगति की निगरानी की जाती थी।

सुदूर दुर्गम गांवों के लिए सौर पीवी आधारित ऑफग्रिड समाधान: यह देखा गया था। कि इनमें से कई रबिजलीकृत गांव दूरदराज के इलाकों, बरौली पहाड़ियों पर या गहरे जंगलों में और वामपंथी अतिवादी इलाकों में स्थित हैं। इन गांवों तक पहुंचना भी मुश्किल था और बिजली के लिए जो इंफ्रास्ट्रक्चर जरूरी होता है, उसे वहां तक ले जाना और फिर लगाना, एक अलग किस्म की चुनौती था। इसलिए यह तय किया गया कि जिन गांवों में ग्रिड विस्तार करना अव्यावहारिक या बहुत महगा है, वहां सौर फोटोवोल्टिक आधारित समाधानों का उपयोग करके ऑफग्रिड मोड के माध्यम से बिजलीकरण किया जाएगा। उसी के अनुसार, डीडीयूजीजेवाई के तहत ऑफ-ग्रिड गांवों के लिए परियोजनाओं को मंजूरी दी गई मानक बोली प्रक्रिया के दस्तावेज तैयार किए गए और ई-निविदाएं मंगवाई गई

नए प्रकार से वित्तपोषण : कार्य तेज गति से हो, इसके लिए योजना के तहत राज्यों को धन भी उपलब्ध कराया जाना था। बजटीय समर्थन के अतिरिक्त वित्त मंत्रालय ने ऊर्जा वित्त निगम (पीएफसी) और ग्रामीण बिजलीकरण निगम (आरईसी) जैसे वित्तीय संस्थानों के माध्यम से बांड के रूप में, बाजार से धन जुटाने की अनुमति दी गई ताकि पर्याप्त धन उपलब्ध कराया जा सके। पिछले दो वित्तीय वर्षो में अतिरिक्त बजटीय संसाधन ( ईबीआर ) के रूप में 9,000 करोड़ रूपये जुटाए गए।

UPSC सामान्य अध्ययन प्रारंभिक एवं मुख्य परीक्षा (Combo) Study Kit

UPSC सामान्य अध्ययन (GS) प्रारंभिक परीक्षा (Pre) पेपर-1 स्टडी किट

(GIST OF YOJANA) सबका साथ, सबका विकास, सबका आवास [July] -2018]


(GIST OF YOJANA) सबका साथ, सबका विकास, सबका आवास [July] -2018]


सबका साथ, सबका विकास, सबका आवास

प्रधानमंत्री चुने जाने के महीना भर बाद यानी जुलाई 2014 में संसद के सयुंक्त सत्र को संबोधित करते हुए श्री नरेंद्र मोदी ने कहा था, ‘जब देश आजादी के 75 साल पूरे करेगा. तब तक हर परिवार के पास पानी के कनेक्शन के साथ पक्का मकान, शौचालय की सुविधा, 24 घंटे बिजली की सुविधा होगी।1 इस लक्ष्य को हासिल करने के लिए श्री मोदी ने प्रधानमंत्री आवास योजना (पीएमएवाई) या सबके लिए सस्ते घर मिशन की शुरुआत की। इस मिशन को दो भागों में बांटा गया- प्रधानमंत्री आवास योजना (ग्रामीण), जो ग्रामीण विकास मंत्रालय के दायरे में है और प्रधानमंत्री आवास योजना (शहरी) जो आवास और शहरी मामलों के मंत्रालय के तहत आता है।

पीएमएवाई (शहरी) के लिए जून 2015 में लक्ष्य की शुरुआत की गई- इसके तहत साल 2022 तक तकरीबन शहरी इलाकों में 1.2 करोड़ सस्ते घर बनाने की बात है। मौजूदा सरकार के चार साल के कार्यकाल में आवासीय और शहरी मामलों का मंत्रालय पहले ही 475 लाख से ज्यादा सस्ते घरों के निर्माण को मंजूरी दे चुका है और 8 लाख से भी ज्यादा घर बनाए जा चुके हैं और इसे संबंधित लाभार्थियों को सौंपा भी जा चुका है।

शहरीकरण नए अंदाज में

पीएमएवाई (शहरी) की सफलता को समझने के लिए शहरीकरण के मामले में भारत में हो रहे अहम बदलाव को समझना जरूरी है। देश के इतिहास में पहली बार केद्र की किसी सरकार ने शहरीकरण की अवधारणा को अपनाया है। आजादी के बाद भारत में अधिकांश समय में इस मुल्क को शहरीकरण के मामले में 'अनिच्छुक' के तौर पर पेश किया गया। इस अनिच्छा का मामला इस तथ्य पर आधारित था कि आमदनी और रोजगार दोनों मामलों में खेती अर्थव्यवस्था का मुख्य आधार था। आज जहां खेती में देश के कुल कार्यबल का 40 फीसदी से भी ज्यादा हिस्सा लगा हुआ है, वहीं भारत के ग्रॉस वैल्यू ऐडेड में खेती की हिस्सेदारी घटकर 16.4 फीसदी पर पहुंच गई है। दूसरी तरफ, सेवाओं की हिस्सेदारी में जबरदस्त बढ़ोतरी हुई है और आज यह आंकड़ा 55.2 फीसदी के स्तर पर पहुंच गया है।' सेवा क्षेत्र का ठिकाना अपनी प्रकृति के मुताबिक शहरी इलाकों में ही है।

भारत में जनसाख्यिकी सबंधी बदलाव को देखते हुए प्रधानमंत्री ने अपने कार्यकाल की शुरुआत से ही शहरीकरण को तवज्जो देना शुरू कर दिया। ‘शहरा और मानवीय बस्तियों को समावेशी, सुरक्षित, लचीला और टिकाऊ बनाएं' शीर्षक से सतत विकास लक्ष्यों (एसडीजी) के लक्ष्य 11 के तत्वों को भारत ने एसडीजी से पहले अपने विकास के एजेंडे में शामिल कर लिया और 2030 का विकास का एजेंडा औपचारिक तौर पर 2015 में संयुक्त राष्ट्र द्वारा अपनाया गया। इस सिलसिले में पीएमएवाई (शहरी) का मामला दिलचस्प है - सरकार ने जून 2015 में इस मिशन को शुरू किया, जबकि इस संबंध में अपने इरादों के बारे में जुलाई 2014 में ही एलान कर दिया। इसके आलावा, एसडीजी के तहत 2030 तक लक्ष्यों को हासिल करने की बात है, जबकि पीएमएवाई (शहरी) का इरादा 2022 तक ही हर भारतीय के लिए घर सुनिश्चित करना है। साल 2022 में भारत आजादी की 75 वीं वर्षगांठ मनाएगा।

सरकार की भूमिका को नए सिरे से पारिभाषित करना

'भारत में कभी भी अच्छे सुझावों और विचारों की कमी नहीं रही है। हमारे बौद्धिक वर्ग के साथ हमारे नौकरशाहों ने कई पेपर और सुझाव प्रकाशित किए हैं और इसमें ऐसा समाधान पेश किया गया है, जो हमारे शहरी परिदृश्य को बदल देगाहालांकि, अक्सर इस तरह के विचार शुरुआत में ही अटक जाते हैं। प्रधानमंत्री आवास योजना (शहरी) की सफलता प्रधानमंत्री की इस प्रतिबद्धता का गवाह है कि सरकार की सबसे अहम जिम्मेदारी सामान और सेवाओं को मुहैया कराना है। और सामान और सेवाएं दार्शनिक विचार-विमर्श के जरिए नहीं मुहैया कराए जा सकते - इस बाबत जमीनी स्तर पर सफलता के लिए योजनाओं पर अमल की जरूरत होती है और इसमें लगातार निगरानी और मूल्यांकन भी शामिल है।

UPSC सामान्य अध्ययन प्रारंभिक एवं मुख्य परीक्षा (Combo) Study Kit

UPSC सामान्य अध्ययन (GS) प्रारंभिक परीक्षा (Pre) पेपर-1 स्टडी किट

(Download) UPSC IES Exam Paper - 2018 "Mechanical Engineering Paper - 2"

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(Download) UPSC IES Exam Paper - 2018 "Mechanical Engineering Paper - II"


Exam Name: Engineering Services Exam (IES)

Paper : Mechanical Engineering Paper - II

Year: 2018

File Type: PDF

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

PAPER-2

Time Allowed : Three Hours

Maximum Marks : 300

QUESTION PAPER SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS

Please read each of the following instructions carefully before attempting questions

There are EIGHT questions divided in two Sections.

Candidate has to attempt FIVE questions in all.

Question Nos. 1 and 5 are compulsory and out of the remaining, any THREE are to be attempted choosing at least ONE from each Section.

The number of marks carried by a question/part is indicated against it.

Wherever any assumptions are made for answering a question, they must be clearly indicated.

Diagrams/Figures, wherever required, shall be drawn in the space provided for answering the question itself.

Unless otherwise mentioned, symbols and notations have their usual standard meanings.

Psychrometric Chart is given in Page No. 8.

Attempts of questions shall be counted in sequential order. Unless struck off, attempt of a question shall be counted even if attempted partly.

Any page or portion of the page left blank in the QCA Booklet must be clearly struck off.

Answers must be written in ENGLISH only.

SECTION-A

Q1. (A) (i) A flue pipe in a furnace system is rigidly attached to the furnace wall at P, as shown in the figure below. Compute the moments at points P1 and P2 when a force of 300 N is acting at the end of the pipe.

(ii) Consider a solid block of mass 'm' resting on a horizontal surface. When the mass is subjected to a horizontal force 'P' it will experience a frictional force resisting the motion. Draw and show the variation of frictional force F vs. applied force P even if it continues to shift from no motion (static friction) domain to motion domain (kinetic friction).

(B) Draw and show the bending moment diagram and shear force diagram of a beam of length 'L' subjected to a uniformly distributed loading for the following boundary conditions:

(i) Cantilever beam
(ii) Simply supported beam
(iii) Beam with both ends fixed
(iv) Beam with one end simply supported and a propped support at 1/4th L from the other end

(C) (i) Distinguish and differentiate between machine and mechanism. Define the term Inversion of a kinematic chain.

(ii) Discuss about the possible inversions (with figures) of a four bar chain.

(D) Derive the equation for the resultant unbalanced force at any instant of a reciprocating mass of a slider crank mechanism.

(E) In a pair of mating spur gears, the pitch-diameter of smaller gear is 120 mm. The pair is of standard gear involute having module as 8. If the transmission ratio between the gears is 4:3, then find out

(i) Number of teeth on gear,
(ii) Number of teeth on pinion,
(iii) Addendum,
(iv) Dedendum,
(v) Whole depth, and
(vi) Clearance.

Q2. (A) Compute the velocity and acceleration of the slider in the quick return mechanism shown in the figure below, if the crank rotates at 30 rpm.

(B) (i) Draw and show the variation of centrifugal force and controlling force of a governor.

(ii) Define Stability, Sensitivity, Isochronism governor. and Hunting in a

(C) The data for 2 sets of spur gears are given below :

Check for the occurrence of Interference. If it occurs, what is the pressure angle to correct it?

(D) (i) A single degree of freedom system is subjected to an external harmonic force F(t) = F, sin wit. Define magnification factor (MF) and plot it as a function of damping factor as it varies with respect to frequency ratio.

(ii) A machine part having a mass of 2.5 kg vibrates in a viscous medium. A harmonic exciting force of 30 N acts on the part and causes a resonant amplitude of 14 mm with a period of 0.22 seconds. Find the damping coefficient.

Q3. (A) (i) Define, discuss and differentiate :

(A) Centers of mass vs Centroid
(B) Mass Moment of Inertia vs Area moment of inertia
(C) Centroid of Lines, Areas and Volumes

(ii) Locate the centroid of a circular arc as shown in the figure below:

(B) Draw the Shear Force Diagram and Bending Moment Diagram of a simply supported beam carrying a uniformly varying load from zero at one end to 'w' per unit length at the other end. Compute the maximum B.M and its location.

(C) (i) Three children are standing on a 5 m x 5 m raft as shown in the figure below :

The weights of the children at points A, B and C are 375 N, 260 N and 400 N, respectively. Determine the magnitude and the point of the resultant of their weights.

(ii) In a two dimensional system acted by various forces as specified below :

  • forces are collinear

  • forces are concurrent at a point

  • forces are parallel to each other

  • general

Draw the free body diagram and equation defining them.

(D) Two shafts of the material and of same lengths are subjected to same torque. If the first is of a solid circular section and the second shaft is of hollow circular section, whose internal diameter is 2/3 of the outside diameter and the maximum shear stress developed in each shaft is the same, compare weights of the shafts.

Q4. (A) Differentiate between uniform pressure and uniform wear theory. What would you conclude, about the effect over friction radius, under following two conditions of operation of a clutch, considering uniform pressure theory and uniform wear theory in both the conditions.

(i) Outer Radius - 100 mm
Inner Radius – 90 mm

(ii) Outer Radius – 100 mm
Inner Radius - 25 mm

(B) Design a flywheel for a single cylinder four-stroke diesel engine, made of cast iron, whose allowable strength is 20 MN/m2. The engine is running at a speed of 1400 r.p.m. and producing 5 kW of power. Maximum peripheral speed of the flywheel may be up to 24 m/sec. Coefficient of fluctuation of energy may be taken as 2.2 and coefficient of speed fluctuation as 0.015. Density of cast iron may be taken as 7000 kg/m3. (The effect of overhang of the flywheel on the end may be neglected.)

(C) Three M20 bolts are used to connect a steel plate with a channel section structural member as shown in the figure. The material of the bolt is 50C4 with o, = 660 MPa and oy = 460 MPa. Determine the factor of safety, if the plate carries a load of 25,000 N at its end. Take area of M20 bolts as 245 mm2

Study Material for IAS (UPSC) General Studies Pre. Cum Mains

(GIST OF YOJANA) New-Age Skills – Generating Opportunities for Youth [JUNE-2018]


(GIST OF YOJANA) New-Age Skills – Generating Opportunities for Youth

[JUNE-2018]


New-Age Skills – Generating Opportunities for Youth

Swift technological advances in digitization and data analytics are reshaping human development, supercharging business performance, creating new wave of job opportunities and entrepreneurship for youth. Skilling youth in new tasks and jobs is an emerging strategy for realizing the full potential of our young workforce. With the nation’s average age of 29, skilling youth at scale with speed and standards is the key. Our country has significant disparity in demographic profile of our youth population. There is a higher median age in the range of 29-31 years in southern states. States like Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Bihar have a low median age of 20-22 years amounting to a rising working age population. Thus, the paradigms of skilling youth require different approaches for access and relevance.

Reaping Fruits of Demographic Dividend

With more youth joining the mainstream through education and skilling, it is projected that India will have a skilled labour surplus by 2030, mainly because of its vast supply of working age people and Government schemes and programmes to boost education and skill development. Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) have a significant role in meeting the/industry demand for skilled manpower. Ministry for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship has announced one ITI with industry-relevant skills in every block of the country by the end of 2018. Centre and State Governments are now working in tandem, leveraging their strengths for skilling youth so that even the last mile youth is able to capitalize on this opportunity. Schemes like Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY), Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Kendras (PMKK), Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) and National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme (NAPS) can only be realized to the full potential while working in partnerships. Of late, Power and Skill Development Ministries have joined hands to launch a skill development programme to speed up the implementation of the Saubhagya Yojana, which is the government’s flagship universal household electrification programme.

Study Material for IAS (UPSC) Pre 2018

(GIST OF YOJANA) Reflecting the True Spirit of a Jan Andolan [JUNE-2018]


(GIST OF YOJANA) Reflecting the True Spirit of a Jan Andolan

[JUNE-2018]


Reflecting the True Spirit of a Jan Andolan

Safe sanitation and clean water are fundamental to a healthy population, and at the core of integrated human development. Every year millions of people across the world, most of them children, die from diseases associated with inadequate clean water supply, and lack of sanitation and hygiene. Clean water and safe sanitation are critical to survival, and their absence can impact health, food security, and livelihoods of families across the world. As a basic requirement and a human right, sanitation campaigns have been rolled out by successive governments over the past few decades. These campaigns attempt to work towards safe sanitation on several fronts, such as achieving Open Defecation Free (ODF) status, Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM), etc. The Swachh Bharat Mission, is an unprecedented one it is the largest behavioral change campaign in the world. The programme aims to achieve “Swachh Bharat” by 2019, by bringing about a general improvement in the quality of life in rural areas, accelerate sanitation coverage, motivate communities to adopt sustainable sanitation practices and focus on Solid and Liquid Waste Management, among others. On Independence Day in 2014, the Prime Minister of India, from the ramparts of the Red Fort, made a clarion call to the nation for a Swachh Bharat by 2nd October 2019, to mark the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. This milestone announcement set India on an incredible journey. The world’s biggest sanitation programme, the Swachh Bharat Mission’s resolution for a Clean and Open Defecation Free (ODF) India by October 2019, is unprecedented in history. When it was first launched, 550 million people contributed towards practicing Open Defecation in India (OD). That number, today, is down to an approximate of 200 million. Arguably one of the most ambitious and bold declarations made by a head of Government towards cleanliness and sanitation in the world, sanitation has been squarely placed at the forefront of national policy and development. A let century India on the path to becoming a global economic super power should have no place for filth and open defecation. The Prime Minister decided to put his political capital behind sanitation and cleanliness and make it a national priority! And this is the biggest factor that sets SBM apart from its counterparts from earlier years.

Such progress enabled by a building momentum has been a steady climb for SBM-G. Over the years, few aspects of the Mission have stood out to set SBM apart from its predecessors and place it on the path of instituting change. At the outset, the programme is led with the continuous support from the highest level to drive change. The Prime Minister himself is the communicator-in-chief, building a narrative on sanitation by engaging all stakeholders and making it everyone’s business. The programme itself is built on initiatives which think scalability during the design process -to reach everyone, everywhere. Along with the stakeholders, it is critical the Mission dictates continuous and close engagement with the implementers, the States and districts to keep up the momentum and enable a steady line of communication across levels. With the momentum built and the jan andolan getting stronger everyday, an important task for the Ministry at hand is to ensure quality and good housekeeping practices. For this, the Ministry has in place a comprehensive and robust online platform for the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin). Household level data with respect to sanitation facilities of all villages in the country is made available on the Management Information System (MIS) by State Governments on the basis of the Baseline Survey of 2012-13.

Study Material for IAS (UPSC) Pre 2018

(The Gist of Kurukshetra) Role Of ICTs In Rural Development [MAY-2018]


(The Gist of Kurukshetra) Role Of ICTs In Rural Development

[MAY-2018]


Role Of ICTs In Rural Development

(The Gist of Kurukshetra) Reducing Drudgery Through Technology [MAY-2018]


(The Gist of Kurukshetra) Reducing Drudgery Through Technology

[MAY-2018]


Reducing Drudgery Through Technology

(The Gist of Kurukshetra) Space Technology for Rural Development [MAY-2018]


(The Gist of Kurukshetra) Space Technology for Rural Development

[MAY-2018]


Space Technology for Rural Development

(GIST OF YOJANA) Decentralished Approach to Tackling Nutrition [MAY-2018]


(GIST OF YOJANA) Decentralished Approach to Tackling Nutrition

[MAY-2018]


Decentralished Approach to Tackling Nutrition

Where should the government invest if it wants to maximise India’s long-run economic growth, given fiscal and capacity constraints? This was the question posed in the 2015-16 Economic Survey. The short answer “the highest economic returns to public investment in human capital in India lie in maternal and early-life health and nutrition interventions” (Ministry of Finance, 2016). It is a well-recognised fact that globally, nutrition-related factors contribute to about 45 percent of child deaths under age 5. India is no exception 33 per cent of the total disease burden was caused by maternal, neonatal and nutritional diseases. (Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Public Health Foundation of India, and Indian Council for Medical Research, 2017). Tackling malnutrition, however, is no easy task. Nutritional interventions for children in isolation can have only a modest impact. Instead, what is required is a holistic and comprehensive plan -with multiple interventions ranging from increased access to health services right from adolescent stages, improved diet and supplements such as fortification, counselling and improved sanitation. Moreover, given the different forms of malnutrition, the timing and type of nutritional interventions can also make a significant difference. While wasting or low weight for height is usually the symptom of acute under nutrition due to insufficient food intake or diseases such as diarrhoea; Stunting or low height for age refers to chronic malnutrition which occurs over time (generally occur before age two) and its effects are largely irreversible.
While these numbers are worrying, Over the last year, momentum around nutrition has been steadily building. Union and State governments along with other stakeholders have acknowledged nutrition as a key component of development. On September 20, 2017, the Government of India committed to investing Rs. 12,000 crores over the next 3 years for improving maternal and child health and increasing the cost norms of the Supplementary Nutrition Programme (Press Information Bureau, 2017). This was accompanied by the launch last month of National Nutrition Mission (NNM) with a three-year ' budget of Rs. 9046.17 crore commencing from 2017-18 with a vow to make India free from malnutrition by making POSHAN Abhiyan the next “Jan Andolan”. (press Information Bureau, 2018).

Flexible Financing

The first step in ensuring the success of the programme is to get the financing right. Not only are costs of delivering nutrition interventions different across states and districts, but analysis undertaken of the NFHS at both the state and district level, as well as the previous Rapid Survey of Children (RSOC), have highlighted significant inter-state and intra-state variation on achievement in nutritional outcomes. (Chakrabarti, Kapur, Vaid, and Menon, 2017; NITI Aayog, n.d.). For instance, while less than 17 per cent of children under 5 are stunted in Kerala, the proportion is over 40 per cent in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Similarly, while districts in Bihar and Jharkhand have the highest prevalence of wasting; districts in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh topped the list in terms of high levels of stunning. (NITI Aayog, n.d.).

The government has already announced incentivising states through finances by providing performance incentives. Additionally, however, it will be essential to also provide enhanced flexibility such that states or even districts can choose from a basket of interventions based on their current level of nutritional development. This, in turn, may even require pooling resources across ministries or departments. Given the multidimensionality of nutrition, it would probably do more good if relevant ministries/departments could set aside a proportion of their budgets to tackle nutrition. As previously mentioned, there is no real point in spending resources on skill development if our children do not have the cognitive ability or productivity developed in the early years. Moreover, through the implementation of a common platform for real-time monitoring at the last mile will further enable the ability to use the data to make local decisions. Thus, if for instance a state or a district or even a panchayat wants to tackle nutrition by focusing on ending open defecation, it should have the flexibility to determine its own roadmap.

Clearly Defined Functions

With funds in place, functions should follow. Despite attempts at convergence in the past, evidence from the field suggests that the integrated approach to nutrition services have not been able to achieve desired results. Each department usually implements programmes through a unique planning, budgeting and management system that holds officers accountable upward to the individual department. The multi-dimensional nature of nutrition, however, requires not just coordination amongst a host of ministries -water, sanitation, health, education, but most critically the ability to create a holistic plan focussed right from adolescent care to maternal and child health care. In order to strengthen coordination across Ministries and have clear lines of accountability, roles and responsibilities and accountabilities of each member within the bureaucracy will need to be clearly defined and articulated. Essential thus to the success of India’s nutrition strategy will be clearly defined institutional arrangements not just at the National level and state level (as already envisaged in the nutrition missions) but also in the districts that allow multiple levels of jurisdiction to work together. This further needs a clear and detailed articulation of roles and responsibilities across different layers of government and efforts to enhance capacity.

Study Material for IAS (UPSC) Pre 2018

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