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UPSC Mains Exam Syllabus - Santhali Optional

UPSC Mains Exam Syllabus - Santhali (Literature)

::Paper – 1::

(Answers must be written in Santhali)

Section "A"

Part I—History of Santhali Language

1. Main Austric Language family, population and distribution.
2. Grammatical structure of Santhali Language.
3. Important character of Santhali Language: Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics, Translation, Lexicography.
4. Impact of other languages of Santhali.
5. Standardization of Santhali Language.

Part II—History of Santhali Literature

1. Literary trend of the following four periods of history of Santhali Literature.

(a) Ancient Literature before 1854.
(b) Missionary period Literature between 1855 to 1889 AD.
(c) Medieval period: Literature between 1890 to 1946 AD.
(d) Modern period : Literature from 1947 AD to till date.

2. Writing tradition in History of Santhali literature.

Section "B"

Literary forms—Main characteristics, history and development of following literary forms.

Part I

Folk Literature in Santhali—folk song, folk tale, phrase, idioms puzzles, and Kudum.

Part II

Modern literature in Santhali

1. Development of poetry and prominent poets.
2. Development of prose and prominent writers.

(i) Novels and prominent Novelists.
(ii) Stories and prominent story writers.
(iii) Drama and Prominent Dramatist.
(iv) Criticism and prominent critics.
(v) Essay, sketches, memoirs, travelogues and prominent writers.

Santhali writers

  • Shyam Sundar Hembram, Pandit Raghunath Murmu, Barha Beshra, Sadhu Ramchand Murmu, Narayan Soren ‘Toresutam’, Sarda Prasad Kisku, Raghunath Tudu, Kalipada Soren, Sakla Soren, Digamber Hansda, Aditya Mitra ‘Santhali’, Babulal Murmu ‘Adivasi’, Jadumani Beshra, Arjun Hembram, Krishna Chandra Tudu, Rupchand Hansda, Kalendra Nath Mandi, Mahadev, Hansda, Gour Chandra Murmu, Thakur Prasad Murmu, Hara Prasad Murmu, Uday Nath Majhi, Parimal Hembram, Dhirendra Nath Baske, Shyam Charan Hembram, Damayanti Beshra, T.K. Rapaj, Boyha Biswanath Tudu.

Part III

  • Cultural Heritage of Santhali tradition, customs, festival and rituals (birth, marriage and death).

IAS Mains General Studies Study Kit

UPSC Mains Exam Syllabus - Maithili Optional

UPSC Mains Exam Syllabus - Maithili (Literature)

::Paper – 1::

History of Maithili Language and Its Literature

(Answers must be written in Maithili)

Section "A"

History of Maithili Language

1. Place of Maithili in Indo-European Language family.

2. Origin and development of Maithili language. (Sanskrit, Prakrit, Avhatt, Maithili)

3. Periodic division of Maithili Language. (Beginning, Middle era, Modern era).

4. Maithili and its different dialects.

5. Relationship between Maithili and other Eastern languages (Bengali, Asamese, Oriya)

6. Origin and Development of Tirhuta Script.

7. Pronouns and Verbs in Maithili Language.

    Section "B"

    History of Maithili Literature

    1. Background of Maithili Literature (Religious, Economic, Social, Cultural).

    2. Periodic division of Maithili literature.

    3. Pre-Vidyapati Literature.

    4. Vidyapati and his tradition.

    5. Medieval Maithili Drama (Kirtaniya Natak, Ankia Nat, Maithili dramas written in Nepal).

    6. Maithili Folk Literature (Folk Tales, Folk Drama, Folk Stories, Folk Songs).

    7. Development of different literary forms in modern era :

    (a) Prabandh-kavya
    (b) Muktak-kavya
    (c) Novel
    (d) Short Story
    (e) Drama
    (f) Essay
    (g) Criticism
    (h) Memoirs
    (i) Translation

    8. Development of Maithili Magazines and Journals.

    IAS Mains General Studies Study Kit

    UPSC Mains Exam Syllabus - Dogri Optional

    UPSC Mains Exam Syllabus - Dogri (Literature)

    ::Paper – 1::

    HISTORY OF DOGRI LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (Answers must be written in Dogri)

    Section A

    History of Dogri Language

    1. Dogri language: Origin and development through different stages.
    2. Linguistic boundaries of Dogri and its dialects.
    3. Characteristic features of Dogri Language.
    4. Structure of Dogri Langauge:

    (a) Sound Structure:

    Segmental : Vowels and Consonants
    Non-segmental : Length, Stress, Nasalization, Tone and Junture.

    (b) Morphology of Dogri:

    (i) Inflection Categories: Gender, Number, Case, Person, Tense and Voice.
    (ii) Word Formation; use of prefixes, infixes and suffixes.
    (iii) Vocabulary: tatsam, tadbhav, foreign and regional.

    (c) Sentence Structure; Major Sentence-types and their constituents, agreement and concord in Dogri syntax.

    5. Dogri Language and Scripts: Dogre/Dogra Akkhar, Devanagari and Persia.

    Section B

    History of Dogri Language

    1. A brief account of Pre-independence Dogri Literature: Poetry & Prose.
    2. Development of modern Dogri Poetry and main trends in Dogri Poetry.
    3. Development of Dogri short-story, main trends and prominent short-story writers.
    4. Development of Dogri Novel, main trends and contribution of Dogri Novelists.
    5. Development of Dogri Drama and contribution of prominent playwrights.
    6. Development of Dogri Prose; Essays, Memoirs and travelogues.
    7. An introduction to Dogri Folk Literature—Folk songs, Folk tales 7 Ballads.

      IAS Mains General Studies Study Kit

      UPSC Mains Exam Syllabus - Bodo (Literature) Optional

      UPSC Mains Exam Syllabus - Bodo (Literature)

      ::Paper – 1::

      History of Bodo Language and Literature [Answers must be written in Bodo]

      Section A

      History of Bodo Language

      1. Homeland, language family, its present status and its mutual contact with Assamese.
      2. (a) phonemes : Vowel and Consonant Phonemes.
          (b) Tones.
      3. Morphology : Gender, Case and Case endings, Plural suffix, Definitives, Verbal suffix.
      4. Vocabulary and its sources.
      5. Syntax : Types of sentences, Word Order.
      6. History of scripts used in writing Bodo Language since inception.

      Section B

      History of Bodo Literature1. General introduction of Bodo folk Literature.
      2. Contribution of the Missionaries.
      3. Periodization of Bodo Literature.
      4. Critical analysis of different genre (Poetry, Novel, Short Story and Drama).
      5. Translation Literature.

      IAS Mains General Studies Study Kit

      UPSC Mains Exam Syllabus - Forestry Optional

      UPSC Mains Exam Syllabus - Forestry (Optional)

      ::Paper – 1::

      Section "A"

      1. Silviculture - General :

      • General Silvicultural Principles : ecological and physiological factors influencing vegetation, natural and artificial regeneration of forests; methods of propagation, grafting techniques; site factors; nursery and planting techniques-nursery beds, polybags and maintenance, water budgeting, grading and hardening of seedlings; special approaches; establishment and tending.

      2. Silviculture - systems :

      • Clear felling, uniform shelter wood selection, coppice and conversion systems. Management of silviculture systems of temperate, subtropical, humid tropical, dry tropical and coastal tropical forests with special reference to plantation silviculture, choice of species, establishment and management of standards, enrichment methods, technical constraints, intensive mechanized methods, aerial seeding thinning.

      3. Silviculture - Mangrove and Cold desert :

      • Mangrove : habitat and characteristics, mangrove, plantation-establishment and rehabilitation of degraded mangrove formations; silvicultural systems for mangrove; protection of habitats against natural disasters.
      • Cold desert - Characteristics, identification and management of species.

      4. Silviculture of trees :

      • Traditional and recent advances in tropical silvicultural research and practices. Silviculture of some of the economically important species in India such as Acacia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Acacia auriculiformis, Albizzia lebbeck, Albizzia procera, Anthocephalus Cadamba, Anogeissus latifolia, Azadirachta indica, Bamboo spp, Butea monosperma, Cassia siamea,Casuarina equisetifolia, Cedrus deodara, Chukrasia tabularis, Dalbergia sisoo, Dipterocarpus spp., Emblica officindils, Eucalyptus spp, Gmelina Arborea, Hardwickia binata, Largerstroemia Lanceolata, Pinus roxburghi, Populus spp, Pterocarpus marsupium, Prosopis
      • juliflora, Santalum album, Semecarpus anacardium,. Shorea robusta, Salmalia malabaricum, Tectona grandis, Terminalis tomemtosa, Tamarindus indica.

      Section "B"

      1. Agroforestry, Social Forestry, Joint Forest Management and Tribology :

      • Agroforestry - scope and necessity; role in the life of people and domestic animals and in integrated land use, planning especially related to (i) soil and water conservation; (ii) water recharge; (iii) nutrient availability to crops; (iv) nature and ecosystem preservation including ecological balances through pest-predator relationships and (v) providing opportunities for enhancing bio-diversity, medicinal and other flora and fauna. Agro forestry systems under different agro-ecological zones; selection of species and role of multipurpose trees and NTFPs, techniques, food, fodder and fuel security. Research and Extension needs.
      • Social/Urban Forestry : objectives, scope and necessity; peoples participation.
      • JFM - principles, objectives, methodology, scope, benefits and role of NGOs.
      • Tribology - tribal scene in India; tribes, concept of races, principles of social grouping, stages of tribal economy, education, cultural tradition, customs, ethos and participation in forestry programmes.

      2. Forest Soils, Soil Conservation and Watershed management :

      • Forests Soils: classification, factors affecting soil formation; physical, chemical and biological properties.
      • Soil conservation - definition, causes for erosion; types - wind and water erosion; conservation and management of eroded soils/areas, wind breaks, shelter belts; sand dunes; reclamation of saline and alkaline soils, water logged and other waste lands. Role of forests in conserving soils. Maintenance and build up of soil organic matter, provision of loppings for green leaf manuring; forest leaf litter and composting; Role of microorganisms in ameliorating soils; N and C cycles, VAM.
      • Watershed Management - concepts of watershed; role of mini-forests and forest trees in overall resource management, forest hydrology, watershed development in respect of torrent control, river channel stabilization, avalanche and landslide controls, rehabilitation of degraded areas; hilly and mountain areas; watershed management and environmental functions of forests; water-harvesting and conservation; ground water recharge and watershed management; role of integrating forest trees, horticultural crops, field crops, grass and fodders.

      3. Environmental Conservation and Biodiversity :

      • Environment; components and importance, principles of conservation, impact of deforestation; forest fires and various human activities like mining, construction and developmental projects, population growth on environment.
      • Pollution - types, global warming, green house effects, ozone layer depletion, acid rain, impact and control measures, environmental monitoring; concept of sustainable development. Role of trees and forests in environmental conservation; control and prevention of air, water and noise pollution. Environmental policy and legislation in India. Environmental Impact Assessment. Economics assessment of watershed development vis-a-vis ecological and environmental protection.

      4. Tree Improvement and Seed Technology :

      • General concept of tree improvement, methods and techniques, variation and its use, provenance, seed source, exotics; quantitative aspects of forest tree improvement, seed production and seed orchards, progeny tests, use of tree improvement in natural forest and stand improvement, genetic testing programming, selection and breeding for resistance to diseases, insects, and adverse environment; the genetic base, forest genetic resources and gene conservation in situ and ex-situ. Cost benefit ratio, economic evaluation.

      IAS Mains General Studies Study Kit

      UPSC Mains Exam Syllabus - Agricultural Engineering Optional

      UPSC Mains Exam Syllabus - Agricultural Engineering (Optional)

      ::Paper – 1::

      Section "A"

      1. Soil and Water Conservation : Scope of soil and water conservation. Mechanics and types of erosion, their causes. Mechanics and types of erosion, their causes. Rainfall, runoff and sedimentation relationships and their measurement. Soil erosion control measures - biological and engineering including stream bank protectionvegetative barriers, contour bunds, contour trenches, contour stone walls, contour ditches, terraces, outlets and grassed waterways. Gully control structures - temporary and permanent - design of permanent soil conservation structures such as chute, drop and drop inlet spillways. Design of farm ponds and percolation ponds. Principles of flood control-flood routing. Watershed Management - investigation, planning and implementation - selection of priority areas and water shed work plan, water harvesting and moisture conservation. Land development - leveling, estimation of earth volumes and costing. Wind Erosion process - design for shelter belts and wind brakes and their management. Forest (Conservation) Act.

      2. Aerial Photography and Remote Sensing : Basic characteristics of photographic images, interpretation keys, equipment for interpretation, imagery interpretation for land use, geology, soil and forestry. Remote sensing - merits and demerits of conventional and remote sensing approaches. Types of satellite images, fundamentals of satellite image interpretation, techniques of visual and digital interpretations for soil, water and land use management. Use of GIS in planning and development of watersheds, forests including forest cover, water resources etc.

      Section "B"

      3. Irrigation and Drainage : Sources of water for irrigation. Planning and design of minor irrigation projects. Techniques of measuring soil moisture - laboratory and in situ, Soil-water plant relationships. Water requirement of crops. Planning conjunctive use of surface and ground water. Measurement of irrigation water, measuring devices - orifices, weirs and flumes. Methods of irrigation - surface, sprinkler and drip, fertigation. Irrigation efficiencies and their estimation. Design and construction of canals, field channels, underground pipelines, head-gates, diversion boxes and structures for road crossing.

      Occurrence of ground water, hydraulics of wells, types of wells (tube wells and open wells) and their construction. Well development and testing. Pumps-types, selection and installation. Rehabilitation of sick and failed wells.

      Drainage causes of water logging and salt problem. Methods of drainage- drainage of irrigated and unirrigated lands, design of surface, sub-surface and vertical drainage systems. Improvement and utilization of poor quality water. Reclamation of saline and alkali soils. Economics of irrigation and drainage systems. Use of waste water for irrigation - standards of waste water for sustained irrigation, feasibility and economics.

      4. Agricultural Structures : Site selection, design and construction of farmstead - farm house, cattle shed, dairy bam, poultry shed, hog housing, machinery and implement shed, storage structures for food grains, feed and forage. Design and construction of fences and farm roads.

      Structures for plant environment – green houses, poly houses and shade houses. Common building materials used in construction - timber, brick, stone, tiles, concrete etc and their properties. Water supply, drainage and sanitation system.

      IAS Mains General Studies Study Kit


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