user7's blog

Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 40

Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 40

Passage

All expositions on Vedanta accept the truths expressed in the Vedas which are believed to be the very breath of the Supreme Brahman and not the creation or

Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 39

Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 39

Passage

There is a Portuguese word ‘Saudade’, a word that makes into lists of those hardest to translate into English. It describes a deep, heart-crushing nostalgic longing for something someone loves, something someone lost. That is the word to describe the emotion that must have driven Housefull: The Golden Age of Hindi Cinema, edited by Ziya Us Salam. This record of notable films from the
1950s and 1960s is written by journalists Ziya Us Salam, Suresh Kohli, Anuj Kumar, and Vijay Lokapally.
How do you write about films you obviously love? It is a tricky feat to accomplish. You could part the curtains and delve into the inside story, which could slip into gossip magazine territory. Or you could start analysing these movies as compositions of images and signs. It could range from insightful to boring, at worst pretentious. Or you use the movies as a starting point and funnel out the discussion into the social, economic, and political context, and then land in academic territory.

1. The problem in writing about good films is that, one may end up

1. infringing the academic territory.
2. reducing it to gossip mongering.
3. trying to be pretentious.
4. boring and over insightful.

(a) Only 1, 2, 3
(b) Only 1, 2, 4
(c) Only 1, 3, 4
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

2. What does the passage imply?

(a) A book review by its author (of Housefull: The Golden Age of Hindi Cinema).
(b) A book review by Zia Us Salam.
(c) A book review by Zia Us Salam, Suresh Kohli, Anuj Kumar and Vijay Lokapally.
(d) Obstacles in writing a film review.

Passage

The South Asian region is energy deficient as it does not produce enough oil and gas to meet its needs. Thus, it depends heavily on imports. In the emerging energy and environmental crises, the SAARC region stands quite vulnerable, compared to developed economies. It is estimated that the energy needs of South Asia will increase three times in the next 15 to 20 years.
Some of the SAARC member states have considerable experience in using environment-friendly, renewable energy sources. This includes wind, solar and biogas plants in India, micro-hydro plants in Nepal, micro financing for rural energy in Bangladesh, grid connected small hydro plants in Sri Lanka and small hydro and solar plants in Pakistan.
The clean energy resource potential is yet to be exploited as countries like Nepal, Bhutan and Pakistan either remain energy deficient or are not able to optimally harness and utilise their resources. The dependence on import calls for greater diversification of energy options especially towards renewable resources.

3. In the emerging energy and environmental crises, the SAARC region stands quite vulnerable as compared to the developed economy because­

1. It depends heavily on imports.
2. Diversification of energy options especially towards renewable resources remains unexplored.

(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) None of these

4. Which one of the following statements conveys the key message of the passage?

(a) India, a SAARC member country has a. considerable experience in environmental­ friendly, renewable energy resources than other member countries.
(b) Other member countries should also explore their wind, solar and biogas energy options like India.
(c) Nepal, Bhutan and Pakistan are extremely lagging behind, than their counterparts in the SAARC region.
(d) All the SAARC member countries should try to reduce their dependence on oil and gas imports and should try to explore their untapped renewable resources optimally.

5. With reference to the passage, energy and environmental crises can improve in South Asian Region, if

1. The SAARC region reduces its oil and gas imports.
2. The SAARC region explores new avenues of non-conventional, environmental-friendly energy resources and is able to optimally harness them.
3. The SAARC Region imports technology from the developed economy to optimally harness its untapped renewable resources rather than importing petroleum products.

(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Only 1 and 2
(d) 1, 2 and 3

CSAT Paper-2 Study Material for UPSC Prelims Exam

UPSC Exam Complete Study Materials (Pre+Mains+Interview Combo Notes)

COMPLETE STUDY MATERIAL FOR UPSC PRELIMS (GS+CSAT+NCERT+Tests)

Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 38



Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 38



Passage

There is something people like about rappelling or abseilling. A form of controlled descent used in mountaineering. It follows the more gruelling task of climbing up. Of late, rappelling has found popularity as a staged activity. Participants walk up a cliff rock face, while securely anchored to at least one safety rope that is released in a controlled fashion from above. Some clubs keep a third line free for instructors to come down and assist should anyone get stuck mid-route. Most important, participants are allowed adequate pauses enroute for that photograph of manhood’s dawning, , mama’s precious boy looking great on vertical rock. As many adventure clubs would tell you, very few of these muscle toting, fatigues-clad youngsters return to climbing. The photograph endures; the mountain fades. Those who stick on do so because of a deeper fascination, fully acknowledging their fragility and hardly resembling the branded image of the adventurous. Further, as with the maturity curve in Indian sports, deep purses do not always mean great talent; it is the progressive tapping of the pyramid’s bottom end that reveals a wider canvas of talent. The story is little different with automobiles, where self-image precedes utility in vehicle purchase. Utility vehicles (Uvs), sports utility vehicles (SUVs) and a few crossovers make up the ‘adventure vehicles’ on Indian roads. In 2004–05. total domestic UV sales had increased by 20.46 per cent to 176.339 units from 146.388 units. As at end August 2005, the trend for 2005–06 was a sales rise of 13.67 percent to 72.686 units for the category.
Crossovers sell in very small volumes. So the country’s adventure vehicle story is manly that of UVs. Of these, the obviously brute types, that is, the big, expensive SUVs- lord the relatively tame terrain of cities. Where else can the contrast be sharper? The key thing is to be seen seem adventureous and look capable of crushing all else on the rods. A well known fact is that beyond the odd automobile journalist who test-drives a ‘brute’ in testy terrain, most owners of off-road studs dare not stray from the tramac, as the vehicles are expensive. In a cost-conscious market like India with long periods of careful ownership, you could bunch a wide range of vehicles from the cheapest Scorpio, costing around ` 7.3 lakhs (in Mumbai), to the costliest Porsche Cayenne, selling at ` 92 lakhs, into this segment. Naturally therein, the base of ownership and the tendency to punish the vehicle tapers with higher price points. So if the brutes are largely doing tame duty or, worse, showing off, where are the real adventure vehicles? To pick out that segment, one needs to first outline the contours of Indian adventure. Like everything else, it tends to be and needs to be low cost. Indian civilan mountaineering expeditions, for example and there are several every year travel without radio contact, global positioning system of satellite phone, and cut down on porters and use borroed or hired equipment in short, rough it out wherever possible. The limited budget is entirely skewed towards the final goal with highest priority in expense for critical input segment equipment, clothing, shelter and food), all else enjoying lower priority it is a bottom of the pyramid consumer experience, one in which the final stages of transport are met by ruged, low end UVs. In the hill and moditains it is the Bolero, Sumo, Trax and their earlier brethren which remain trusted and are worked hare on rough tracks every day. Mahindra and Mahindra (M and M). Tata Motors and Force Motors (earlier Tata Tempo) make these vehicles. The companies are based in Maharashtra, which has the highest number of adventure clubs in the country and a strong presence of the autombile industry. While on a trek or rock climb in the sahyadris, it is common to run into somebody from Tata Motors of Tata Power, equally strong being the likelihood of having a batch-mate from one of the Tata companies if you are training at a mountaineering institute in the Himalayas. Sadly, however, the economies of mass manufacturing shy away from responding to niche segments and in India, adventure is a niche activity. The marker’s darling therefore, remains the great Indian family or that faceless bunch of strangers, jammed into a “people’s carrier”. No marks for guessing which is the adventure’s longstanding favorite for personal transport. Although the price of petrol has risen, the one vehicle that consistency captured the fancy of adventure enthusiasts was the Maruti Gypsy, now reduced to largely institutional sales. It has the perfect size to manoeuvre on mountain roads, is the best off-road vehicle around, commands respect in remote areas, allows space for others on roads and, in the true spirit of the adventurer, has a light weight presence.
No fanfare. It is the vehicle people will still give an arm and a leg to load up and head for the crags. Interestingly, this size of the UV has been left unattended by all domestic manufacturers, including Maruti, which has often described the Gypsy’s small size and petrol engine as potential sales dampeners. M and M has an engaging product in the larger Invader while Tata Motors and Force Motors have kept out. But Maruti’s own view was partly based on the Gypsy’s limited ability as a people mover. But the typical adventurer, the sort hailing from the bottom of the pyramid, would have been happy with a manoeuvrable, off-road model that was backed by the country’s largest vehicle support network. Neither Maruti nor other manufactures found it attractive. For the present, therefore, India’s adventure vehicles are gas guzzlers, sold with little appreciation for he budget and requirement of Indian adventures.

1. According to the author which type of items take priority due to the budget constraints for adventure trips?

(a) Porters
(b) Global Positioning System
(c) Specialized Equipment
(d) Satellite Phone

2. “It is the vehicle people will still give an arm and a leg to load up and head for the crags.” Which one of the following is not a feature of the vehicle referred to in the above sentence?

(a) This vehicle can be maneuvered smoothly on hillyroads
(b) The sales of this vehicle are mostly institutional
(c) It is well accepted in remote areas
(d) It is the best vehicle for all terrains

3. Which of the following statements is incorrect as per the passage?

(a) Abseilling has lately become popular as a staged activity
(b) India’s adventure vehicles are manufactured and sold constricting requirement of Indian adventures
(c) Indian market is cost conscious with longer periods of careful ownership’s
(d) Force Motors is the successor of Bajaj Tempo

Passage

Unemployment is an important index of economics lack and lost output, but it is much more than that. For the unemployed person it is often a damaging affront to human dignity and sometimes a catastrophic blow to family life. Nor is this cost distributed in proportion to ability to bear it. It falls most heavily on the young, the semiskilled and unskilled, the black person, the older worker, and the underemployed person in a low-income rural area who is denied the option of securing more rewarding urban employment. The concentrated increase of unemployment among specific groups in the population means far greater costs to society than can be measured simply in hours of involuntary idleness or dollars of income lost. The extra costs include disruption of the careers of young people, increased juvenile delinquency, and perpetuation of conditions which breed racial discrimination in employment and otherwise deny equality of opportunity. There is another and more subtle cost. The social and economic strains of prolonged under utilization create strong pressures for cost increasing solutions. On the side of labour, prolonged high unemployment leads to “share-the-work” pressures for shorter hours, intensifies resistance to technological change and to rationalization of work rules, and in genera, increases incentives for restrictive and inefficient measures to protect existing jobs. On the side of business, the weakness of markets leads to attempts to raise prices to cover high average overhead costs and to pressure for protection against foreign and domestic competition. On the side of agriculture, higher prices are necessary to active income objectives, when urban and industrial demand for food and fibres is depressed and lack of opportunities for jobs and higher incomes in industry keep people on the farm. In all these cases, the problems are real and the claims understandable. But the solutions suggested raise costs and promote inefficiency. By no means the least of the advantages of full utilization will be a diminution of these pressures. They will be weaker, and they can be more firmly resisted in good conscience, when markets are generally strong and job opportunities are plentiful. The demand for labour is derived from the demand for the goods and services which labour participates in producing. Thus, unemployment will be reduced to 4 per cent of the labour is derived from the demand for the myriad of goods and services automobiles, clothing, food, electric generators, highways, and so on is sufficiently great in total to required the productive efforts of 96 per cent of the civilian labour force. Although many goods are initially produced as materials or components to meet demands related to the further production of other goods, all goods (and services) are ultimately destined to satisfy demands that can, for convenience, be classified into four categories: consumer demand, business demand for new plants and machinery and for additions to inventories, net export demand of foreign buyers, and demand of government units, federal, state, and local. Thus Gross National Product (GNP), our total output, is the sum of four major components of expenditure: personal consumption expenditure, gross private domestic investment, net exports, and government purchases of goods and services. The primary line of attack on the problem of unemployment must be through measures which will expand one or more of these components of demand. Once a satisfactory level of employment has been achieved in growing economy, economic stability requires the maintenance of continuing balance between growing productive capacity and growing demand. Action to expand demand is called for not only when demand actually, declines and recession appears but even when the rate of growth of demand falls short of the rate of growth of capacity.

4. In this passage, the word involuntary means

(a) Not free
(b) Without exercise of the will
(c) Done gratuitously
(d) Not desirable

5. According to the passage, a typical business reaction to a recession is to press for

(a) Protection against imports
(b) Higher unemployment insurance
(c) Restrictive business practices
(d) Restraint on union activity

CSAT Paper-2 Study Material for UPSC Prelims Exam

UPSC Exam Complete Study Materials (Pre+Mains+Interview Combo Notes)

COMPLETE STUDY MATERIAL FOR UPSC PRELIMS (GS+CSAT+NCERT+Tests)

Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 37

Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 37

1. Just before reaching the mountain peak you found your feet were slipping due to sand kept underneath your feet you…

(a) Balance your body and change steps to move up to the top.
(b) Start screaming for help.
(c) Start praying to god to keep you safe.
(d) Start abusing your trainer

2. During a train journey you found some passengers arguing unnecessarily disturbing other people . you——

(a) Do not play any heed to them
(b) Start doing you work
(c) Persuade them factually not to do so
(d) Fell them to leave that place.

3. while going to a place on an urgent mission you found that the only bus left was full and no other public transport was available you…

(a) Use your power to get seats.
(b) Take your ticket by persuading conductor by giving him extra money.
(c) Use your money illegally and get a seat
(d) Somehow manage your entry into the bus and travel the distance standing.

4. Being the eldest of the family you found your family was uprooted due to undone you—

(a) Tell your other brothers to contribute for rehabilitation
(b) Rehatriectate your family by arranging necessary things
(c) Wait for the government to help your family
(d) Wait for the god to smoothen the situation

5. AD divides BAC equally in the figure given below where AB = 5 cm, AC = 7 cm and BC = 3 cm. What is the value of BD?

(a) 2.50 cm
(b) 1.25 cm
(c) 1.75 cm
(d) None of these

CSAT Paper-2 Study Material for UPSC Prelims Exam

UPSC Exam Complete Study Materials (Pre+Mains+Interview Combo Notes)

COMPLETE STUDY MATERIAL FOR UPSC PRELIMS (GS+CSAT+NCERT+Tests)

Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 35

Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 35

Direction: You have to take one of the following course of action based on the information provided and the above condition and sub-condition. All the cases are given to you as on 1.07.2011.

(a) If the data provided are not adequate to take a decision.
(b) If the students is to be admitted.
(c) If the case is to be referred to the principal.
(d) If the case is to be referred to the vice-principal.

1. Aaryan pandey has secured 62% average marks in PCM and 55% overall marks in XII std. Final Examination. He was born on 5th July, 1991. He can pay Rs. 60,000 at the time of admission. He has secured 65% marks in the entrance test.

2. Sahil Singla was born on 5th March, 1991. He can pay Rs. 60,000 at the time of admission. He has secured 65% average marks in PCM in XII std. and 65% marks in the entrance test.

3. Sharad was born on 25th October, 1985. He can pay Rs. 40,000 at the time of admission and remaining amount within two months. He has secured 65% marks in the entrance test. He has also secured 60% average marks in PCM and 56% overall marks in XII std. Final Examination.

4. Jeevan Das has secured 75% overall marks in XII std. final Examination. He has secured 60% marks in the entrance test. He was born on 8th January 1992. He can pay Rs. 60,000 at the time of admission. He has secured 58% average marks in PCM in XII std. Final Examination.

5. Shreya was born on 8th August 1993. She can pay Rs. 60,000 at the time of admission. She has secured 65% overall marks in XII std. final examination and 65% marks in PCM. She has also secured 75% marks in the entrance test.

CSAT Paper-2 Study Material for UPSC Prelims Exam

UPSC Exam Complete Study Materials (Pre+Mains+Interview Combo Notes)

COMPLETE STUDY MATERIAL FOR UPSC PRELIMS (GS+CSAT+NCERT+Tests)

Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 34

Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 34

1. You are meeting a co- worker for the first time outside work. He is late half an hour. How will you react?

(a) Tell him that you don’t appreciate waiting for so long and in future he should take care of this
(b) Ask him the reason of being late
(c) Wait for sometime and then you go to your home
(d) Ask indirectly that if something happened to make him late.

2. You have started a business by taking loan from a bank. But, your business failed miserably what will you do in future?

(a) You will pay the loan anyhow and then run.
(b) You will study your failure and establish your business again
(c) You will again try to establish another business
(d) You will leave everything.

3. You are the director of a big company. To motivate your subordinates, you have decided to pay them perks and incentives. Paying incentives can be done except when.

(a) Output is hard to achieve
(b) Delays are consistent.
(c) Employees have no over control quality
(d) Employees have no over the productivity.

4. A team is performing extremely good and is a paramount example of team work. When of the following may be the primary force in the success of the team?

(a) Cohesiveness among members.
(b) Collective responsibility
(c) The team leader (d) Both (a) and (b).

5. An officer has decided to survey his district identify the problems in the area and important a few policies to benefit the people. But the policies did not succeed the Reason for this failure could be.

(a) He was unexperienced and hence could not identify the problems correctly
(b) He had no knowledge about the district.
(c) He had sufficient resources for the implementation of his policies.
(d) His implementation way was good.

CSAT Paper-2 Study Material for UPSC Prelims Exam

UPSC Exam Complete Study Materials (Pre+Mains+Interview Combo Notes)

COMPLETE STUDY MATERIAL FOR UPSC PRELIMS (GS+CSAT+NCERT+Tests)

Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 32

Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 32

Passage

Some modern anthropologists hold that biological evolution has shaped not only morphology but also human behaviour. The role those anthropologists ascribe to evolution is not of dictating the details of human behaviour but one of imposing constraint ways of feeling, thinking and acting that “come naturally in archetypal situations in any culture”. Our ‘frailties’, emotion and motives such as rage, fear, greed, gluttony, joy. lust, love may be a very mixed assortment, but they share at least one immediate quality: we are as we feel, “in the grip” of them and this way they give us our sense of constraints.
Unhappily, some of these frailties shape our need for ever increasing security among them which are presently maladaptive. Yet beneath the overlay of cultural details, they, too, are said to be biological in direction, and therefore as natural to us as our appendices are. We would need to comprehend thoroughly their adaptive origins in order to understand how badly they snide us now. And we might then begin to resist their pressures.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to present­

1. a p osition on the foundation of human behaviour and on what those foundations imply,
2. a theory outlining the parallel development of human morphology and of human behaviour o
3. a practical method for resisting the pressure of biologically determined drives.

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1 and 2

2. The author implies that control over the “frailties’ that constrain our behaviour is thought to presuppose­

I. that those frailties are recognized as currently beneficial and adaptive
II. a full understanding of why those frailties evolved and of how they function now.

(a) I only
(b) II only
(c) Both I and II
(d) None of these

3. It can be inferred that in his discussion of maladaptive frailties the author assumes that-­

I. evolution does not favour the emergence of adaptive characteristics over the emergence of maladaptive ones.
II. changes in the total human environment can outpace evolutionary change.

(a) I only
(b) II only
(c) Both I and II
(d) None of these

Passage

Social justice evades definition, Still in simple and commonly perceived form social justice may be described as principle which consists in the claims of all men to advantages and an equal share in all advantages which are commonly regarded as desirable and which are in fact conducive to human well being. That is reason why social justice encompasses all the principles of justice e.g. justice of transactions or rectificatory justice by way’ of restitution and compensation; justice of conformity to rules or like shall be treated alike; justice according to deserting one or distributive justice; justice according to need; justice according to choice. Social justice modified and fixes priority among the various principles of justice. A jurist very succinctly summaries the practical shape of contents of social Justice.(1) the principle of social . Justice requires that all men and women should have a to an equal share in all those advantages which commonly desired and conducive to human well being; (2) this principle is not identical with the demand for equal treatment for all men and women, it rather requires preferential treatment of the privileged under who lack advantages possessed by others; (3) the principle allocation according to need is a subordinate aspect of social justice; (4) the principle of conformity to rules is also subordinate aspect of social justice. This principle is designed to secure all men and women two advantages; (i) that their reasonable expectations will be fulfilled and (ii) their dignity is respected; (5) discrimination is justified only. (i) to give effect to the principle stated in the two above; (ii) to benefit the exploited (iii) on the basis of conduct and choice and so far as justice of transactions and special relations require it, (6) it is arguable that, the equal claim principle is the principle likely in the long run to lead to social stability.
Now we will discuss about how we are making a transition from equalitarian justice to equalisationaI justice. Article 46 provides that the state. shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and, in particular of the scheduled castes and the scheduled tries, and shall protect them from social injustices and all forms of exploitation. It embodies the concept of ‘distributive justice’ which connotes, inter alia, the removal of economic inequalities and rectifying the injustice resulting from dealing or transactions between unequals in society.
With a view to ensure social justice to its citizens the Constitution enshrines many provisions like Articles 15 (4), 16 (4), 19(l) (d)-(e), 275, 330 and 335. Protective discrimination policy gives concrete shape to the idea of social justice and with a view to ensure its meaningful purpose the Supreme Court has kept the creamy layer out of socially and educationally backward classes.

4. Consider the following statements­

l. Principle of social justice supposes that all men and women should be equal stakeholders in all the benefits that accrue to the society.
2. Protective discrimination translates the idea of social justice into reality.

(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1, nor 2

5. Which of the following statements is/ are correct in the light of the passage

(a) Distributive justice presupposes removal of economic inequalities.
(b) Equal claim is the only claim which in the long sun leads to social stability.
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Neither (a), nor (b)

CSAT Paper-2 Study Material for UPSC Prelims Exam

UPSC Exam Complete Study Materials (Pre+Mains+Interview Combo Notes)

COMPLETE STUDY MATERIAL FOR UPSC PRELIMS (GS+CSAT+NCERT+Tests)

Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 31

Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 31

Passage

At the Fourth World Water Forum held in Mexico City in March 2006, the 120-nation assembly could not reach a consensus on declaring the right to safe and clean drinking water a human right. Millions of people the world over do not have access to potable water supply. But it is good times for the bottled-water industry, which is cashing in on the need for clean drinking water and the ability of urban elite to pay an exorbitant price for this very basic human need. The fortunes of this more-than- $100-billion global industry are directly related to the human apathy towards the environment - the more we pollute our water bodies, the more the sales of bottled-water. It is estimated that the global consumption of bottled-water is nearing 200 billion litres - sufficient to satisfy the daily drinking water need of one-fourth of the Indian population or about 4.5 per cent of the global population.
In India, the per capita bottled-water consumption is still quite low-less than five litres a year as compared to the global average of 24 litres. However, the total annual bottled-water consumption has risen rapidly in recent times – it has tripled between 1999 and 2004 —from about 1.5 billion litres to five billion litres. These are boom times for the Indian bottled-water industry - more so because the economics are sound, the bottom line is fat and the Indian government hardly cares for what happens to the nation’s water resources. India is the tenth largest bottled-water consumer in the world.
In 2002, the industry had an estimated turnover of ‘ 10 billion (‘ 1,000 crore). Today it is one of the India’s fastest growing industrial sectors. Between 1999 and 2004, the Indian bottled-water market grew at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 25 percent — the highest in the world. With over a thousand bottled-water producers, the Indian bottled-water industry is big by even international standards. There are more than 200 brands, nearly 80 per cent of which are local. Most of the small-scale producers sell non-branded products and serve small markets. In fact, making bottled-water is today a cottage industry in the county. Leave alone the metros, where a bottled-water manufacturer can be found even in a one-room shop, in every medium and small city and even some prosperous rural areas there are bottled-water manufacturers.
Despite the large number of small producers, this industry is dominated by the big players —Parle, Bisleri, Coca-Cola, PepsiCo, Parle Agro, Mohan Meakins, SKN Breweries and so on. Parle was the first major Indian company to enter the bottled-water market in the county when it introduced Bisleri in India 25 years ago. The rise of the Indian bottled water industry began with the economic liberalisation process in 1991. The market was virtually stagnant until 1991, when the demand for bottled-water was less than two million cases a year. However, since 1991-1992 it has not looked back, and the demand in 2004–05 was a staggering 82 million cases. Bottled-water is sold in a variety of packages: pouches and glasses, 330 ml bottles, 500 ml bottles, one litre bottles and even 20 to 50 litre bulk water packs. The formal bottled-water business in India can be divided broadly into three segments in terms of cost: premium natural mineral water, natural mineral water and packaged drinking water.
Attracted by the huge potential that India’s vast middle class offers, multinational players such as Coca-Cola and PepsiCo have been trying for the past decade to capture the Indian bottled-water market. Today, they have captured a significant portion of it. However, Parle Bisleri continues to hold 40 per cent of the market share. Kinley and Aquafina are fast catching up, with Kinley holding 20–25 per cent of the market and Aquafina approximately 10 per cent. The rest, including the smaller players, have 20–25 per cent of the market share.
The majority of the bottling plants - whether they produce bottled-water or soft drinks - are dependent on ground-water. They create huge water stress in the areas where they operate because groundwater is also the main source in most places the only source - of drinking water in India. This has created huge conflict between the community and the bottling plants. Private companies in India can siphon out, exhaust and export groundwater free because the groundwater law in the country is archaic and not in tune with the realities of modem capitalist societies. The existing law says that “the person who owns the land owns the groundwater beneath”. This means that, theoretically, a person can buy one square metre of land and take all the groundwater of the surrounding areas and the law of land cannot object to it. This law is the core of the conflict between the community and the companies and the major reason for making the business of bottled-water in the country highly lucrative.

1. What is/are the reason(s) for the global growth of bottled-water industry?

(a) Pollution of water bodies
(b) Basic human need for clean drinking water
(c) Paying capacity of the elite
(d) All of the above

2. According to the passage, which of the following statements is/are true?

A. In India, the increase in total annual bottled-water consumption is followed by increase in per capita bottled-water consumption.
B. Indian bottled-water market grew at the highest CAGR.
C. The formal bottled-water business in India is divided into broadly two segments in terms of cost.

(a) A only
(b) A and C both
(c) B only
(d) A, B and C

Passage

The National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) in Goa has developed a real-time reporting and Internet-accessible coastal sea-level monitoring system and it has been operational at Verem jetty in the Mandovi estuary in Goa since September 24, 2005. The gauge uses a cellular modem to put on the Internet real-time sea-level data, which can be accessed by authorised personnel. By using a cellular phone network, coastal sea-level changes are continuously updated on to a web-server. The sea-level gauge website can be made available to television channels to broadcast real-time visualisation of the coastal sea level, particularly during oceanogenic hazards such as storm surges or a tsunami. A network of such gauges along the coast and the islands that lie on either side of the mainland would provide data to disaster management agencies to disseminate warnings to coastal communities and beach tourism centres.
The gauge incorporates a bottom pressure transducer as the sensing element. The sea unit of the gauge, which houses the pressure transducer, is mounted within a cylindrical protective housing, which in turn is rigidly held within a mechanical structure. This structure is secured to a jetty. The gauge is powered by a battery, which is charged by solar panels. Battery, electronics, solar panels, and cellular modems are mounted on the top portion of this structure. The pressure sensor and the logger are continuously powered on, and their electrical current consumption is 30 mA and 15 mA respectively. The cellular modem consumes 15 mA and 250 mA during standby and data transmission modes respectively. The pressure sensor located below the low-tide level measures the hydrostatic pressure of the overlying water layer. An indigenously designed and developed microprocessor based data logger interrogates the pressure transducer and acquires the pressure data at the rate of two samples a second. The acquired pressure data is averaged over an interval of five minutes to remove high-frequency wind-waves that are superimposed on the lower frequency tidal cycle. This averaged data is recorded in a multimedia card. The measured water pressure is converted to water level using sea water density and acceleration owing to the earth’s gravity. The water level so estimated is then referenced to chart datum (CD), which is the internationally accepted reference level below which the sea-level will not fall. The data received at the Internet server is presented in graphical format together with the predicted sea-level and the residual. The residual sea level (that is, the measured minus the predicted sea level) provides a clear indication of sea-level oscillation and a quantitative estimate of the anomalous behaviour, the driving force for which could be atmospheric force (storm) or physical (tsunami).
A network of sea-level gauges along the Indian coastline and islands would also provide useful information to mariners for safe navigation in shallow coastal waters and contribute to various engineering projects associated with coastal zone management, besides dredging operations, port operations and man-water treaties with greater transparency. Among the various communication technologies used for real-time transmission of sea-level data are - the wired telephone connections, VHF/UHF transceivers, satellite transmit terminals and cellular connectivity. Wired telephone connections are severely susceptible to loss of connectivity during natural disasters such as storm surges, primarily because of telephone line breakage. Communication via VHF/UHF transceivers is limited by line-of-sight distance between transceivers and normally offer only point-to-point data transfer. Satellite communication via platform transmit terminals (PTTs) has wide coverage and, therefore, allows data reception from offshore platforms. However, data transfer speeds are limited. Further many satellites (for example, GOES, INSAT) permit data transfer only in predefined time-slots, thereby inhibiting continuous data access.
Technologies of data reporting via satellites have undergone a sea change recently in terms of frequency of reportage, data size, recurring costs and so forth. Broadband technology has been identified as one that can be used optimally for real-time reporting of data because of its inherent advantages such as a continuous two-way connection that allows high-speed data transfer and near real-time data reporting. While satellite communication is expensive, wireless communication infrastructure and the ubiquity of cellular phones have made cellular communication affordable. Low initial and recurring costs are an important advantage of cellular communication. A simple and cost-effective methodology for real-time reporting of data is the cellular-based GPRS technology, which has been recently implemented at the NIO for real-time reporting of coastal sea level data.

3. According to the passage, which of the following statements is not true?

(a) Network of gauges along the coast and the islands would help disaster management agencies to disseminate warnings
(b) Cellular-based GPRS technology is not a simple and cost effective method for real-time reporting of data
(c) Disadvantage of wired telephone connection is the loss of connectivity during disasters due to line breakages .
(d) Data reporting via satellites has undergone changes in terms of frequency, data size, recurring cost, etc.

4. What is the outermost part of the sea unit of the gauge?

(a) Pressure transducer
(b) Mechanical structure
(c) Cylindrical protective housing
(d) Sensing element

5. What is the limitation of satellite communication via platform transmit terminals?

(a) Coverage
(b) Offshore platforms
(c) Data transfer speed
(d) None of these

CSAT Paper-2 Study Material for UPSC Prelims Exam

UPSC Exam Complete Study Materials (Pre+Mains+Interview Combo Notes)

COMPLETE STUDY MATERIAL FOR UPSC PRELIMS (GS+CSAT+NCERT+Tests)

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - user7's blog