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UPSC Recruitment Paper 2019 : Deputy Central Intelligence Officer (Technical), IB

UPSC



UPSC Recruitment Paper 2019 : Deputy Central Intelligence Officer (Technical), IB



1.Suppose a specimen (metal or semiconductor) carrying a current I is placed in a transverse magnetic field B, an electric field ε is induced in the direction perpendicular to both I and B. Then this phenomenon is known as
(a) Mobility
(b) Super conductivity
(c) Hall effect
(d) Diffusion

2. The rate of change of collector current with respect to the reverse saturation current, keeping β and VBE constant, is called
(a) Stability factor
(b) Fixed bias
(c) Load line
(d) Bias compensation

3. Which one of the following has negative temperature coefficient?
(a) Sensistor
(b) Thermistor
(c) Metal
(d) Heavily doped semiconductor

4. If a conductor of length L, carrying a current of I, is placed in a magnetic field of intensity B, then the force fm acting on this conductor is (assuming that the directions of I and B are perpendicular to each other)
(a) fm = BIL
(b) fm = BI/L
(c) fm = LI/B
(d) fm = 2BI/L

5. In a P-N junction diode, if a forward-bias potential (Vd) is zero, then
(a) The forward-bias current (Id) will be equal to the reverse saturation current (Is)
(b) The forward-bias current (Id) will be equal to the negative of reverse saturation
current (Is)
(c) Id will be zero
(d) Id = 2Is

6. What is the cutoff frequency of the op-amp, if unity gain frequency is 10 MHz and voltage differential gain is 50,000?
(a) 200 Hz
(b) 100 Hz
(c) 1000 Hz
(d) 2000 Hz 

7.Which of the following elements are most frequently used for formation of p-type material by doping a pure germanium or silicon crystal with impurity atoms having three valence electrons?
(a) Antimony, Arsenic, Boron
(b) Boron, Gallium, Arsenic
(c) Phosphorus, Boron, Gallium
(d) Boron, Gallium, Indium

8. Consider the following statements for sampling:
1. Flat-top sampling is preferred because of its noise immunity.
2. In natural sampling, the top of each rectangular pulse remains constant and is equal to the instantaneous value of the signal x(t) at the start of sampling.
3. One important reason for intentionally lengthening the duration of each pulse in flattop sampling is to reduce the bandwidth.
Which of the above statements are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3 

 

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(Success Story) Medical Science Optional Strategy - Dr. Dheeraj Kumar AIR-64



(Success Story) Medical Science Optional Strategy - Dr. Dheeraj Kumar AIR-64



Dr. Dheeraj Kumar hails from the town of Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh. He did his schooling in Hindi Medium till 12th, after which he proceeded to do his MBBS, and then MD in Radiology, both from Banaras Hindu University. His father is a retired police constable. He found his calling for public service when he realised that the less fortunate receive no aid from officials and vouched to change that. After his UPSC attempt in 2019, which was his first attempt, he went back and joined a hospital in Gorakhpur as a consultant radiologist awaiting his results.

Roadmap To His Journey

Dheeraj started his journey on 7th June 2018. He joined classroom coaching with Insights in Bangalore but felt self-study was more his forte. He immediately started by looking up toppers’ strategy. He streamlined and planned his preparation, continuing his mains cum prelims preparation, and moved completely to prelims preparations starting January.

The Syllabus Is Your Best Friend

Dheeraj made notes of 400-500 words for each keyword/topic mentioned in the upsc syllabus. He has studied the UPSC previous years’ papers and noticed how the paper set has been meticulously designed around these words. He recommends that all aspirants take special care in knowing and understanding each topic mentioned in the syllabus.

Why Medical Science Optional?

As an MD doctor, Dheeraj chose to take up Medical Science as his optional as it remains his field of expertise. It is a technical background and the UPSC syllabus is quite lengthy. It might be the downfall for many. But if you have studied well in your MBBS, and can right to the point answers, you will score well.

How Notes Helped In Answer Writing :

Dheeraj made notes for each topic which has an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. The body had all positive, negative, and any social and government efforts in the field. The conclusion showed the way on how to make it work even better. Making notes this way helped him develop answer writing skills.

How To Prepare Your Medical Science Optional

The first step should be going through the UPSC syllabus. MBBS has 19 subjects across semesters. But one need not study them all during your UPSC preparation. Stick to the syllabus, use minimum resources, use diagrams and flowcharts as best as you can, and prepare notes keeping all these points in mind.

As there is a word limit, for cramming all the information in one answer, Dheeraj used flowcharts extensively. As most of the questions are from disease management, Dheeraj believed this is the best way to follow.

Medical Science Optional Notes By Topper

Test Series For Medical Science Optional

Unfortunately, there was no standard test series available for the Medical Science optional. Dheeraj had to stick to writing notes for the syllabus topics as a way to practice his answer writing.

Message To Aspirants

Don’t let the information overload get to you

There is an overload of information out there, both online and offline. Don’t get overwhelmed and stick to whatever is mentioned in the UPSC syllabus. Once you have finished the syllabus, only then move on to any other information. 

Write answers, time yourself. Keep your head down, and give it your hundred percent. 

All the best!

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(E-Book) Current Affairs GK for UPSC, IAS Exams- OCTOBER 2020 PDF

General Awareness for UPSC Exams - NOV 2020

Current Affairs GK for UPSC, IAS Exams - OCTOBER 2020 PDF

  • Medium: English
  • E-BOOK NAME : IAS Current Affairs GK PDF - OCTOBER 2020
  • Total Pages: 85
  • PRICE: 49/- FREE/- (only for few days)
  • Hosting Charges: 19/-
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Covered Topics:

  • National
  • International
  • Business And Economy
  • Science and Technology
  • Environment
  • Sports
  • MCQ Questions

 


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(Sucess Story) Humble Beginnings To Height of Success – Dr. Pankaj's Inspirational Story AIR-56



(Sucess Story) Humble Beginnings To Height of Success – Dr. Pankaj's Inspirational Story AIR-56



Dr. Pankaj’s story is what movies are made of. Hailing from the Teet village of Rewari district in Haryana, Pankaj has done his schooling from the village government school. After his schooling, he cleared PMT and got admitted to a government medical college. He is the first IAS officer from his village. During his MBBS days, he realized that although as a doctor he will do good, there is a much larger platform available from which he can solve the issues people from villages such as his face on a day-to-day basis.

UPSC Result 2019: पिता चाहते थे इसलिए डॉक्टर बने, अब आइएएस बनकर हासिल किया खुद का मुकाम

Formerly selected as an IPS officer, Dr. Pankaj Secured AIR-56 in his 3rd UPSC CSE Attempt in 2019

The Struggles Of Rural India

Pankaj says people from the deep rural areas of India have a lack of guidance in their lives. They do not have access to ready information such as daily english newspapers, nor have they met people from such distinct and specialized walks of life such as IAS or IPS officers. This is one of the reasons he failed his interview in his first attempt. Regarding his second attempt, Pankaj believes his preparation was very good. However, it was nervousness and the fear of failure that messed his optional paper. As a result, his result suffered.

Pankaj’s father believed that there is no difference between a government and a private school, and if the teachers teach with care, children from these schools can do very well in life as well. Pankaj has taken after his father’s school of thought. Conviction matters. If you are confident and believe in your dreams, you will not give up on it.

The Internet Is Your Friend

Getting Started) IAS Preparation for Rural/Remote Areas Students | IAS EXAM  PORTAL - India's Largest Community for UPSC Exam Aspirants.

Pankaj believes the internet is crucial towards success for people from the rural belt even more. Even if you lack the resources at hand, the internet will get you everything you need, whether it's texts, newspapers, or even guidance from ias toppers. Spending 5-10 hours every day on your preparation is important and finding a way to accommodate this in your day is non-negotiable. Persistence and consistency will push you through.

Luck Cannot Defeat Perseverance

There are also some factors beyond your control. Maybe a upsc question paper was concentrated on topics that are not your strong suit. Maybe the person who interviewed you was not in a very giving mood. These can affect your result. But do not give up. Take another look at your strategy and keep trying harder. One may get selected in their very first attempt or the very last, but none of that would affect the social impact either one of you will have.

How was life when preparing for UPSC? - Quora

Success Has Always Been A Struggle. Image Credit: @sylvia duckworth

Message To Aspirants

Pankaj believes every person, from every sphere of life, can achieve what they set their eyes at. Being confident about your abilities is key. 

He requests all aspirants to realize that although UPSC CSE is a great platform, it is not the end of the world. 

You are more than one exam and your life should not be defined by it. As long as you take this exam as an exam, you will perform to the best of your abilities.

© IASEXAMPORTAL

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(Getting Started) PSIR Optional Strategy By Simi Karan AIR-31



(Getting Started) PSIR Optional Strategy By Simi Karan AIR-31



Odisha’s Simi Karan cracked the UPSC Civil Services examination in her very first attempt in 2019 and has secured an all India rank of 33. An electrical engineer by training, at 22, she is one of the youngest people to be joining the service. Hailing from Odisha, Simi was brought up in Chattisgarh and has done her schooling at DPS Bhilai School. She even topped her CBSE boards in Chhattisgarh.

Why Political Science & International Relations (PSIR) ?

Because the optional is of 500 marks, and you may have to read it for 2 or 3 years depending on how many attempts you need to clear the exam.  The sole criteria for choosing your optional should never be what toppers across the years have chosen or what the average score was, as if you do check it, you will see that there is an even distribution of scores and toppers in this area.

Simi’s prime focus was on what interested her. She checked the upsc syllabus, previous year’s questions, and toppers’ answers, and decided that this was a subject she could study for long hours and not give up. Simi enjoyed learning something new every day. There is a lot of concise material available in the market for PSIR. She took her entire 7th semester to decide on her optional, and considering all these advantages, as well as the overlap with the General Studies papers, Simi finally zeroed in on PSIR.

Simi Karan’s Booklist

Political science optional new books for UPSC CSE IAS exam for Sale in  Jodhpur, Rajasthan Classified | IndiaListed.com

Keep your sources limited

  • Subhra Ranjan’s Notes
  • Pax Indica by Shashi Tharoor
  • The Hindu and Indian Express Editorial – map current affairs with topics from the syllabus
  • Observer Research Foundation website for International Relation
  • Facebook pages of The Diplomat, Rajya Sabha TV, India’s World, and The Centre For Policy Research for relevant articles
  • External Affairs Minister, Foreign Secretary, Prime Minister’s speeches

Odisha's Simi Karan cracks UPSC civil services with 2 months of preparation: Here's her secret to success

AIR-33 UPSC CSE 2019 Simi Karan

Notes making

Make diligent notes on everything. This is a vast optional and you cannot revise everything unless you make notes. Simi recommends e-Notes as you can add, delete, update, and edit continuously as you find new information in current affairs, and newer sources. Simi herself used Evernote. She incorporated keywords, as she believed that the arts optionals give better results when approached with scholarly language. She also made introductions and conclusions on topics that kept repeating either through the year or through previous years’ questions to help her save time during the actual exam.

 

Mindmaps are great notes taking tools and provide for a quick revision

Strategy

Paper-1 Part-A

Simi wrote down the most important keywords and used them to revise. 

Paper-1 Part-B

Simi made notes on important commissions and their reports. She integrated these notes with related static polity topics.

Paper-2

Again, Simi started with keywords and wrote notes to ensure they had these words. Integrated notes are necessary to understand and then explain answers to IR questions.

Current Affairs

Previous Years Questions help you understand what to give importance to. Simi says every relation formed, or acted on between India and other countries are news items you should concentrate on. 

Answer Writing

Do not forget to use keywords. Simi noted keywords for each thinker, each country, each policy. Using these words gives the examiner insight into the effort put in by an aspirant in grasping the core concepts of the subject. And keep practicing, practice is key.

Message To IAS Aspirants

AIR-33, UPSC CSE 2019, Simi Karan with her family

Simi says how many hours you put in is not the key, but the setting and fulfilling short-term goals are what will help you complete your journey. Simi hopes to work towards women empowerment and education as an IAS officer and bring more opportunities for citizens across the nation. She hopes each aspirant keeps giving this exam their hundred percent and wishes them the best of luck.

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(The Gist of PIB) Finance Minister unveils Doorstep Banking Services and declares EASE 2.0 Index Results  [SEPTEMBER-2020]


(The Gist of PIB) Finance Minister unveils Doorstep Banking Services and declares EASE 2.0 Index Results

 [SEPTEMBER-2020]

Finance Minister unveils Doorstep Banking Services and declares EASE 2.0 Index Results

Union Minister of Finance inaugurated Doorstep Banking Services by Public Sector Banks (PSBs) and participated in the awards ceremony to felicitate best performing banks on EASE Banking Reforms Index.

Doorstep Banking Services:

  • As part of the EASE Reforms, Doorstep Banking Services is envisaged to provide convenience of banking services to the customers at their doorstep through the universal touch points of Call Centre, Web Portal or Mobile App.
  • Customers can also track their service request through these channels. The services shall be rendered by the Doorstep Banking Agents deployed by the selected Service Providers at 100 centres across the country.
  • The services can be availed by customers of Public Sector Banks at nominal charges.

EASE Banking Reforms Index:

  • A common reform agenda for PSBs, EASE Agenda is aimed at institutionalizing clean and smart banking. It was launched in January 2018. PSBs have shown a healthy trajectory in their performance over four quarters since the launch of EASE 2.0 Reforms Agenda.
  • Bank of Baroda, State Bank of India, and erstwhile Oriental Bank of Commerce were felicitated for being the top three in the ‘Top Performing Banks’ category according to the EASE 2.0 Index Results.
  • Bank of Maharashtra, Central Bank of India and erstwhile Corporation Bank were awarded in the ‘Top Improvers’ category basis EASE 2.0 Index.

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Courtesy: PIB

(The Gist of Science Reporter) Device for Diabetic Retinopathy Testing


(The Gist of Science Reporter) Device for Diabetic Retinopathy Testing

[September-2020]


Device for Diabetic Retinopathy Testing

  • One arising in diabetics is Diabetic Retinopathy. This is an of the several complications abnormal growth in the retinal blood vessels and usually worsens when the patient is on insulin. Symptoms of Diabetic Retinopathy include blurred vision, problems in recognising colours, etc.
  • There is a long and inconvenient procedure for examining this condition of the eye, as part of which ophthalmologists use many modern laboratory techniques. But now IIT Guwahati researchers have developed a portable point-of-care device for early and easy detection of diabetic retinopathy. It is a microfluidic analyzer device developed in collaboration with Shri Sankaradeva Nethralaya, Guwahati which can alert the patient by identifying diabetic retinopathy at an early stage with the help of tear or urine sample.
  • The research team identified a protein called beta-2 microglobulin or B2M, found in tears and urine of the patients. It’s a reliable biomarker for the condition. The device uses nanogold-laden antibodies of the protein to detect its presence in the sample. 
  • A colour change in the sample denotes the presence of protein. The device is as easy and portable as a glucometer, so a patient can be examined easily at general clinics.
  • The research has been published in the journal ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering. The team has also filed an Indian patent for this idea and device.

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(GIST OF YOJANA) Fighting Corruption

(GIST OF YOJANA)  Fighting Corruption

[September-2020]

Fighting Corruption

Introduction:

  • Corruption in India is rampant because of various reasons. In a developing democracy such as ours, the scope for corruption is immense because of tremendous developmental activities of the government. 
  • A touchstone of any government is the quality of its performance reflected in the various decisions taken by its institutions and individuals manning the institutions. In order to ensure right and good governance, it is necessary for the government to be open, accountable, accessible, transparent, sensitive, fair and proactive. 
  • A government that is not fair, sensitive and transparent is bound to be prone to corruption. Unfortunately, our track record in India in ensuring such corruption-free governance cannot be said to be satisfactory.

Ethics in Governance:

  • According to the fourth report of the Second Administrative Reforms Commission on “Ethics in Governance”, “corruption is an important manifestation of the failure of the ethics and values system in society”.
  • It would therefore imply that unless proper values are nurtured and encouraged nothing much can be done to improve the conduct of human beings in public administration. Corruption is commonly defined as misuse of public office for private gains. It can be either political or administrative. In this article we can confine ourselves to corruption in civil service, although political corruption is the starting point of all corruption in any democracy.
  • Public expenditure of enormous proportions in emerging democracies to fight poverty, illiteracy, poor public health and lack of infrastructure provides a grand opportunity for both politicians and civil servants to indulge in corruption.
  • The failure of executive machinery in ensuring good quality public administration is mainly because of a feudal approach and excessive govemmentalisation of public activities.
  • The second factor contributing to corruption thriving in the country is the over centralised administrative system both at the Center and the States. The main reason for this archaic and outdated administrative system is partly due to legacy of the colonial rule and also due to inadequate leadership in assuring a new administrative system. There is, therefore, an urgent need to review and simplify the laws and the rules so as to decentralise decision-making with proper monitoring checks and balances.
  • The public anger against misgovernance in the delivery of public services gets accentuated when the government is insensitive to public grievances. This is more so when there is a failure in tackling problems arising out of natural disasters. We have seen similar patterns in many developing countries in Asia, Latin America, Africa and Europe and Middle East. 
  • The widespread public protest against lack of performance in public administration also contributes to violence and hatred between the people and the government. Although we have enough laws to deal with corruption, there are many areas we ought to take preventive steps so as to ensure that the scope for corruption is minimised. 
  • One important step could be to decentralise powers financial and administrative— in favour of local self-government so that people are not forced to go from pillar to post for redressal of grievances. The distribution of powers should start from State Government level to district and village government levels. 
  • This was intended to be achieved by the Panchayat Raj programme but was not achieved due to failure in implementing the scheme. It is worthwhile to refer to the success stories in Surat where the local self-government was able to raise funds locally for meeting developmental activities within the district.
  • Also, a Panchayat in Coimbatore District (Tamil Nadu) was able to raise funds by generating wind energy to meet the needs of the village and to distribute the surplus for others.
  • Reducing the manpower in government offices by outsourcing important public services with adequate checks and effective monitoring, will no doubt go a long way to improve the quality of delivery of public services.
  • The working of the government both at the Centre and the State needs to be made time-bound by insisting that every public grievance received should be dealt with within a time frame of say one month. When there is a noncompliance of this time-bound action, the senior officials will have to be made accountable so that monitoring becomes real and effective. Erring officials not complying with this requirement should be punished adequately unless there is any overriding reason.

Top-level police administration:

  • Another important field requiring urgent action is “top-level police administration”. Unfortunately, the respect Tor rule of law from the citizens as well as civil servants especially in matters relating to law and order cannot be said to be satisfactory. Lack of impartiality on the part of enforcement agencies such as police and other regulatory authorities has also contributed to widespread corruption. 
  • In a recent trend that is taking place by which the investigating authorities communicate with the media even when investigation is still in progress, presumably to satisfy an over anxious media. Nowhere in the world do the investigating agencies keep on briefing the media on a daily basis even when the investigation is not complete.
  • This needs to be shunned. Similarly, the Supreme Court has already given guidelines to various state governments to implement police reforms especially in the field of training, posting and transfers in order to delink political influence in police administrative matters. This should be implemented without any further delay to ensure effective law and order administration.

Conclusion:

  • Ultimately our fight against corruption in civil service can succeed only if we have the right persons in the right positions. This can be achieved only by fine-tuning our recruitment and training system as may be realised from the following observations by Dr. Rajendra Prasad, “whatever the Constitution may or may not provide, the welfare of the country will depend on the way in which the country is administered. That will depend upon the men who administer it”.

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(The Gist of PIB) SAriculture Minister launches 22 Bamboo Clusters in 9 States  [SEPTEMBER-2020]


(The Gist of PIB) Ariculture Minister launches 22 Bamboo Clusters in 9 States

 [SEPTEMBER-2020]

Ariculture Minister launches 22 Bamboo Clusters in 9 States

22 bamboo clusters launched in states of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Assam, Odisha, Nagaland, Tripura, Uttarakhand and Karnataka.

About:

  • These clusters will be engaged in raising nurseries and plantations, and development of bamboo products such as furniture, agarbatti, Venetian blinds, chopsticks, toothbrush etc.
  • It aims to increase income of farmers, promote use of bamboo and its export.
  • Applications of Bamboo: use in building materials, agricultural implements, furniture, musical instruments, food items, handicrafts, large bamboo-based industries (paper pulp, rayon etc.), packaging, etc.

Measures to promote bamboo:

  • Indian Forest Act 1927 was amended in 2017 to remove bamboo from the category of trees. This allows cultivation and felling of bamboo and its products without any felling and transit permissions outside forests.
  • Restructured National Bamboo Mission, launched in 2018-19 for holistic development of complete value chain of sector.
  • Import policy has also been modified to ensure progress of the bamboo industry in the country.
  • Capacity-building and training programmes for artisans for making value added products from bamboo.
  • India is only second to China in bamboo reserves, accounting for 20% of the global production.

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(The Gist of Science Reporter) A Step Closer towards a more Effective Treatment for Osteoarthritis


(The Gist of Science Reporter) A Step Closer towards a more Effective Treatment for Osteoarthritis

[September-2020]


A Step Closer towards a more Effective Treatment for Osteoarthritis

  • Researchers (IISc) have developed a microparticle formulation that allows sustained release of drugs to treat osteoarthritis, at the Indian Institute of Science a chronic joint condition.
  • They have designed a polymer matrix made of polylacticco-glycolic acid or PLGA, an FDA-approved biomaterial, to encapsulate rapamycin, an immunosuppressant drug. Preliminary studies on cells cultured in the laboratory as well as in mice models have shown promising results indicating reduced inflammation and cartilage repair due to sustained drug release.
  • Osteoarthritis is associated with the wear and tear of the cartilage ‒ the smooth tissue that protects bone joints ‒ caused due to stress or ageing. The current treatment plan revolves more around managing pain and inflammation than treating the disease. Although several classes of drugs seemed promising in preclinical trials, low drug retention and rapid clearance from the target site have made clinical translation difficult.
  • The formulation developed by the IISc team, however, has a residence time of up to 30 days at the target site, with no evident signs that it may cause discomfort to patients. Such a sustained-release system can improve patient compliance and reduce hospital visits.
  • PLGA is widely used for drug delivery applications and several drug formulations are currently used in clinics. Rapamycin is commonly used to suppress the immune response in patients undergoing surgery for organ transplant to prevent organ rejection. Preclinical studies have shown its potential for treating osteoarthritis by preventing cell loss and cartilage damage, thereby reducing inflammation. However, the short drug retention time of ~1-4 hours demands frequent injections to maintain the therapeutic window in the joints.
  • Dhanabalan and her colleagues combined the advantages of PLGA and rapamycin to create a system that would allow sustained release of the drug. This was achieved by encapsulating rapamycin in PLGA microparticles.

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(GIST OF YOJANA) Accountability in Government

(GIST OF YOJANA)  Accountability in Government

[September-2020]

Accountability in Government

Introduction:

  • The recent emphasis on revolutionised democracy seeking increased accountability from the government has brought into focus its need and importance in Governance and governmental functioning.
  • Accountability mechanisms-in functioning of the State-has been engaging attention of the civil society, academicians and lawmakers in general and international financial institutions and donors in particular. It is in this context that accountability institutions assume importance and form the core of any good governance mechanism helping in bridging the gap between the stakeholders and the decision makers.
  • Concept of accountability in governance:
  • In order to appreciate the concept of accountability in governance, it is imperative that concept of accountability be discussed as the first step. 
  • The questions pertaining to who is accountable to whom and for what, are required to be addressed as discussed in section I of the paper. 
  • Section II examines the institutional mechanisms that exist in India to ensure accountability fixating responsibilities on concerned authorities while Section III is concluded with a way forward.

Section 1: Accountability:

  • The accountability to the citizens is a fundamental principle of democratic governance. Accountability refers to the process as well as norms that make decision makers answerable to ones for whom decisions are taken i.e. the decision maker and the beneficiary.
  • It is not limited to accountability to seniors in hierarchy only as a chain of command but also the stakeholders including citizens and civil society. 
  • It may stem out of legal requirements or may be determined by the moral and ethical framework of the organisation. Accountability’ has an answerability component to justify’ the action and an enforcement component that is to take action in cases where an act of omission or commission is established. It provides for remedial measures including punishment in case of deviations from norms.
  • Accountability helps in improving public confidence in government performance. Strong accountability is not a panacea for everything as the governments today operate in a very complex environment with stakeholders consisting of different interest groups, competing demands on limited resources and complex legal requirements for example relating to the environment. However, an accountability mechanism certainly encourages responsible governance. It facilitates a feedback mechanism between the Government and its citizens.
  • There is external accountability that is between the Government and the citizens which is established through the elections. Internal accountability mechanisms refer to systems of checks and balances and oversight mechanisms. 
  • The framers of the Indian Constitution, while adhering to the principle of separation of powers between Legislature, Judiciary and Executive also provided for appropriate checks and balances for administrative objectivity and accountability.
  • The accountability could be financial, administrative, legal or professional. The basic questions that are required to be addressed are:

1. Who is accountable to whom?

2. And for what?

  • As is evident from Chart I, there is an overarching framework governing the accountability consisting of legal and regulatory framework and systems and processes with democratic traditions and moral and ethical values being the guiding principles. 
  • The ultimate accountability to stakeholders, the citizens is to be ensured through a transparent, responsive and responsible administration which is subject to scrutiny by the oversight institutions.
  • Who is Accountable to Whom?
  • The concept of accountability is not new. Aristotle wrote, "Some officials handle large sums of money: it is therefore necessary to have other officials to receive and examine the accounts."
  • First and foremost, stakeholder in any case would be the citizens. As the electorate, they have right to seek accountability of the elected representatives, what is referred to as external accountability. Internal accountability mechanisms refer to systems of checks and balances and incentives on one hand and oversight mechanisms coupled with expectations of the stakeholders to be met on the other.
  • The citizens are the taxpayers. They have a right to know how the money paid by them has been expended by the Government. Was it used for appropriate purposes and efficiently? 
  • Did it benefit the target group? What were the outcomes?
  • Did the government functionaries entrusted with the collection of taxes and implementing the schemes of the government follow the prescribed norms? So, the accountability to the citizens is most critical in order to ensure sustenance of public trust and confidence in the existing democratic systems.
  • The Chart II indicates accountability as an ongoing process. The stakeholders directly or indirectly participate in framing the vision and indicating the priorities. The schemes are framed and implemented by the government. The results of evaluation help in improving the system. 
  • At the same time, they empower the stakeholder to seek justification from the decision makers who in turn are obligated to provide necessary explanations. There are checks and balances and incentives in the system on one hand and expectations of the stakeholders to be met on the other.

Accountability for What?

  • Accountability is essentially an obligation to give an account of the actions taken or the decisions made by the person in authority to the stakeholders who are impacted by those decisions. While on one hand, it necessitates transparency in decision making on the other it also presupposes that the accurate and reliable information and data is maintained by the government agency and is available in public domain for public scrutiny. In absence of information and facts neither the grievance of the citizens could be appreciated nor could the responsibility be imposed for act of omission or commission.
  • The government functionaries are expected to take decisions within the administrative framework provided for the same in the form of General Financial Rules (GFR). Delegation of Financial Power Rules (DFPR).
  • Manual of Purchase of Goods and Services etc. Therefore, any deviation would have to be seen by the oversight agencies with reference to this framework. However, in order for accountability- mechanism to be really effective, it also needs to be ensured that the framework itself is robust. A weak administrative framework would lead to weak accountability mechanisms.
  • The Right to Information Act, 2004 has introduced a huge element of transparency in the decision-making in the government as well as access to information. Similarly, digitisation of various services to the citizens has not only facilitated faster delivery of services but also provided a clear trail of transactions for any analysis by an oversight agency.
  • The Citizen’s Charter also clearly spelt out the responsibilities of various agencies of the government. By laying down the timelines for rendering the specific services they proactively make themselves accountable to the citizens. 
  • For example, the Citizen’s Charter of the Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) provides for inter-alia service delivery standards which include the specified timelines for issue of refunds or redressal of grievances. In the budget speech in February 2020. The Finance Minister announced insertion of new section 119 A in the Income Tax Act namely, “Taxpayers’ Charter”. 
  • This would provide the much-needed legal backing to Citizen's Charter in India as it would follow the model of governmental accountability in the form of a vision being strengthened through legal status to a priority area of service delivery. Following this new approach would help establish a precedent for Citizen’s Charters in other governmental agencies thereby improving not only their credibility but also efficiencies for governmental functioning.

Section II: The Institutional Mechanisms

  • Existence of strong and independent accountability institutions is a necessary condition for good governance. These institutions can detect the violations and deviations from prescribed norms as well as the instances of poor administration. They can indicate the abuse of power and unconstitutional conduct.
  • The institutional mechanisms in context of the Government to ensure accountability may emanate out of Constitutional provisions, Legislative Framework and administrative arrangements.
  • External accountability between the Government and the citizens is established through the elections. Internal accountability mechanisms refer to systems of checks and balances and oversight mechanisms.
  • The framers of the Indian Constitution, while adhering to the principle of separation of powers between Legislature, Judiciary and Executive also provided for appropriate checks and balances for administrative objectivity and accountability. 
  • The institutions of horizontal accountability in Indian context include the institutions of Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG), the Election Commission, the Vigilance Commission, the Central Information Commission and the Ombudsman. In addition, there are a large number of Regulatory bodies including SEBI, THAI, CERC, CPCB etc. 
  • While the institution of CAG and Election Commission derive their mandate from the Constitution. others draw their mandate from the respective Acts governing them. Financial accountability is rather critical for the overall functioning of the government. 
  • The budget is passed by the Parliament allocating specific sums of money to different ministries and departments to implement the schemes and projects. The Executive has full authority and freedom to formulate, design, and implement the schemes and projects for development and welfare of the citizens of the country.
  • In order to ensure accountability of the executive to the legislature, the framers of the constitution created an independent oversight agency namely CAG of India as per Article 148 of the Constitution of India. Further, accounting for the expenditure incurred by the ministries and departments is done by the office of Controller General of Accounts (Ministry of Finance). 
  • The Finance and Appropriation Accounts prepared by them are audited by the CAG of India who submits a report thereof to the Parliament in terms of Article 151 of the Constitution. This completes the financial accountability loop. The role of CAG is not limited to financial audit of accounts. In addition, CAG of India conducts Compliance Audit and Performance Audit. 
  • The focus of Compliance Audit is on examination of rules, regulations, orders and instructions for their legality, adequacy, transparency, propriety, prudence and effectiveness. 
  • Performance audit is an independent assessment or examination of the extent to which an organisation, program or scheme operates economically, efficiently and effectively. Thus, the audit conducted by the CAG of India covers almost all aspects of accountability. 
  • The CAG of India is an independent constitutional authority who is neither part of the Executive, nor of the Legislature. Further, his independence is ensured through Constitutional and legislative provisions. Independence of the authority entrusted with the task of oversight helps in efficient discharge of his functions as part of the accountability mechanism.

Section III: Conclusion and Way Forward 

  • Accountability is a necessary condition for good governance though not necessarily a sufficient condition. It is governed by the principles of democratic traditions and moral and ethical values of the society as well as legal and regulatory and administrative framework. As mentioned above, it lots two elements namely. Answerability and enforcement. The concept of accountability should not be limited to a fault-finding perspective or blame game but should encompass the larger perspective of correcting and improving the systems. 
  • Of course, responsibilities must be fixed for violation of norms, deviation from processes etc., and acts of deliberate omission and commission should not go unnoticed and unpunished. However, the focus should be on identification of systemic errors/failures and suggesting improvements thereof. It also needs to be recognised that in a scenario of collective decision-making, it becomes an ease of collective responsibility and accountability. The accountability mechanisms also need to keep pace with developments of modern government structures particularly in the era of digitisation.
  • There is also a need to sensitise the functionaries towards their responsibilities and duties in context of the accountability frameworks. For better transparency, not only there should be a Citizen’s Charter but also well-defined Standard Operating Procedures (SoPs) for performing a job. 
  • Element of discretion needs to be minimised for ensuring responsiveness, transparency, and accountability.

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(Getting Started) GS Mains Exam Strategy By Navneet Mann AIR-33



(Getting Started) GS Mains Exam Strategy By Navneet Mann AIR-33



From the beautiful town of Amritsar, Navneet has secured an all India rank of 33 in her UPSC CSE 2019 attempt. She currently lives in Delhi and is looking forward to joining the services. She is a computer science engineer from Indira Gandhi Delhi Technical University. She started her preparation back in college and in her first attempt in 2018 and secured an all India rank of 501. She is currently continuing her Defense Accounts Service training.

Navneet Mann, AIR-33, UPSC CSE 2019

Sources

Navneet stresses that for upsc mains, the objective should not be multiple sources but multiple revisions. In mains, the idea is to write 2 to 3 pages of good content for each question. Thus, revision is key. For subjects like Security, Governance, Society, Navneet suggests using the UPSC syllabus to look up topics for these subjects which are there in mains but not in prelims. She also suggests keeping sources for subjects such as History, Art and Culture, etc. very limited because the cost-benefit is very low. 

For more current subjects such as Disaster Management, keeping current affairs updated is important. Use keywords from the syllabus and make your notes. Do not forget to treat IAS toppers’ answers as a source for your answer writing. 

Ethics

Do not leave it for the last minute. Start reading topics from the syllabus from day one. Write answers and try to use multiple facets for each answer. Navneet used the Ethic in Governance from the 2nd ARC report, as well as NITI Aayog’s Best Practices of States.

Answer Writing

Answer Writing Tips

Navneet suggests you start writing a few answers before Prelims itself. Get comfortable in writing and structuring your answers. Once you are secure in your prelims attempt and are completely involved in mains preparation, start writing answers in a time-tested environment.

Navneet had introductions designed to impart statistical or factual introductions. She believed that the best practice is to start with a definition. Next, in the body, depending on the question wrote different aspects of the topic in question. In conclusion, Navneet believes in summarizing the answer. She used a lot of Sustainable Development goals as quotes go finish off her answers.

Test Series

Navneet took 2 test series for her mains preparation – one from Vision IAS and Forum IAS. She also took GS Score’s Essay tests. Writing tests are as important as learning for mains. Writing 20 questions over 2 hours for 7 papers takes a lot of strength and tests give you the required practice for it. Tests also allow you to think and analyze, recall information from multiple sources under pressure. Thus, test series are key to giving your best in the exam.

UPSC Note making

Do not miss making notes for mains. 7 exams are conducted in a week and you cannot revise even one fraction of the syllabus at the last moment if you have not made notes. Make notes crisp and short. Revision is crucial. Notes ensure you can revise the whole syllabus at least once.

Notemaking Tips

Message to Aspirants

Navneet is a believer in the 5P philosophy for UPSC CSE –

  • Patience 
  • Performance
  • Practice
  • Pressure
  • Perfection

As long as you can handle all of them, you will find your name on the final list one day.

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(Getting Started) ANSWER WRITING - How To Incorporate Charts And Graphs To Your Answers



(Getting Started) ANSWER WRITING - How To Incorporate Charts And Graphs To Your Answers



As so many toppers have already vouched, answer writing in UPSC Mains is what gets an aspirant their rank. However, it is not always easy to score. Knowledge is not the only relevant skill you need to write good answers. An examiner reads hundreds of answer sheets and your answer must stand out so that they find it interesting enough to mark your answer above average. This is why aspirants use headings, sub-headings, bullet points, etc. And this is also why charts and graphs hold an important place in UPSC aspirants’ minds.

Different Types Of Charts And Graphs

Information, whether statistical or empirical, can be represented via charts and graphs. The most popular ones that help you not only enhance your answer quality but also keep your answers short and crips while showcasing all relevant information are given below –

  1. Flow Chart

Flow charts are undoubtedly the most popular form of explainers used by UPSC aspirants in their answers. One of the reasons they are so popular is because they allow us to represent a flow of events or a timeline or just conditional facts in a very compact and clear way, often saving aspirants the trouble of writing 100s of words and cluttering their paper.

Below are a few representations of flow charts used to explain or analyze different topics –

18 - INSIGHTSIAS

Effects of Globalization on Indigenous Economy

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 26 JUNE 2018 - INSIGHTSIAS

Failure of the Jajmani System

 

9 - INSIGHTSIAS

Explaining the System of Purushartha

  1. Pie Chart

Pie charts are mostly used to explain percentages. By virtue of this nature, they are an excellent tool to represent data uncovered by committee reports, the census, or the budget, and such similar documents. Pie charts explain shares each component hold and the total circle represents the whole system together. Below are a few examples of pie charts used to answer questions of different topics –

UPSC Mains Strategy; How to draw diagrams in UPSC answers

Education Level Amongst Female Indian Citizens Between The Age Of 15-49

Data Interpretation

CO2 Emissions by Various Sectors

  1. Bar Graph

Bar graphs are used for comparison among different groups. These are also great tools to showcase diversity as well as inequality and can often be used to present data found on different government reports such as wealth distribution among different castes, land distribution among states, etc. Below are a few examples –

Wealth Distribution Among Castes Between Rural And Urban Areas

Indian Inequality: A Rural-Urban Perspective | ECOREYA

Literacy Among Rural and Urban Population by Gender

  1. Line Graph

Line graphs show data across a timeline and are used as a comparison metric for progress, or the lack thereof. Often, these graphs find their place in analytical answers that spans decades and is a well-developed tool for representing any time-specific data. Below are a few examples –

Insights into Editorial: Ways to measure poverty in India — and why the  numbers matter - INSIGHTSIAS

A Timeline of India’s Rise from poverty

Is Indian GDP growth steady?

GDP Growth

Use Them Right To Score High

Whenever relevant, try and use these pictorial representations of data to make for more interesting answers. However, do not overdo it as that may have a negative impact. Remember which chart or graph best represents which type of data and never forget to label them properly. With mains right around the corner, we hope this trick will not only help you right better answers but also help you complete your paper on time. Keep practicing answer writing and surely you will overcome the hurdle that is UPSC Mains Examination.

Best of Luck!

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(The Gist of PIB) SHGs across the country being geared up to prepare the Village Poverty Reduction Plan  [SEPTEMBER-2020]


(The Gist of PIB) SHGs across the country being geared up to prepare the Village Poverty Reduction Plan 

 [SEPTEMBER-2020]

SHGs across the country being geared up to prepare the Village Poverty Reduction Plan 

Since 2018-19, Self Help Groups (SHGs) under Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM) are mandated to participate in annual GPDP planning process and to prepare VPRP.

About: 

  • It allows poor families, who are members of SHGs formed under DAY-NRLM, to raise their demands in a participatory method and submit the final plan to the Gram Panchayats for consideration.
  • DAY-NRLM aims to reduce rural poverty, by mobilizing 10-12 crore rural households into SHGs.
  • Gram Panchayats are constitutionally mandated for preparation of GPDP for economic development and social justice utilizing resources available with them.
  • VPRP is prepared by SHGs and their federations which need to be integrated with GPDP.

Objectives of VPRP:

  • Prepare a comprehensive and an inclusive demand plan of the community for local development.
  • Facilitate an interface between the SHG federation and Panchayati Raj institutions for development of demand plan.
  • Strengthen the community-based organisations and their leadership for active participation in poverty reduction activities.

Components of VPRP:

  • Demands under VPRP are categorized into five major components:
  • Social inclusion - plan for inclusion of vulnerable people/household into SHGs under NRLM
  • Entitlement - demand for various schemes such as MGNREGS, SBM, NSAP, PMAY, Ujjwala, Ration card etc.
  • Livelihoods - specific demand for enhancing livelihood through developing agriculture, animal husbandry, production and service enterprises and skilled training for placement etc.
  • Public Goods and Services - demand for necessary basic infrastructure, for renovation of the existing infrastructure and for better service delivery
  • Resource Development - demand for protection and development of natural resources like land, water, forest and other locally available resources
  • Social Development - plans prepared for addressing specific social development issues of a village under the low cost no cost component of GPDP

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(The Gist of Science Reporter) New Fat Burning Molecule does not Affect Satiety


(The Gist of Science Reporter) New Fat Burning Molecule does not Affect Satiety

[September-2020]


New Fat Burning Molecule does not Affect Satiety

  • Obesity a plethora of health ailments like diabetes, cardiovascular problems, fatty liver disease, etc. is a severe global health issue causing Obesity disturbs the psychological wellness shortening life span too. Genetic factors and lifestyle impact obesity.
  • People often opt for various anti-obesity interventions which sometimes cause certain complications too. Targeting metabolic efficiency has been gaining importance among the scientific communities working on antiobesity approaches. Recently scientists from Virginia Tech have discovered new fat-burning mitochondrial protonophore having a “Zero effect on satiety”.
  • Mitochondrial protonophores also called mitochondrial uncouplers reduce metabolic efficiency and have been known for weight loss effect for many years. Mitochondrial uncouplers (mUncouplers) are known since long. They lower metabolic efficiency by calorie wasting and are expected to treat calorie based metabolic disorders. 2,4-DNP is a popular mUncoupler with weight loss effects in humans. But it is banned for having a very narrow range of effective and toxic doses. 
  • The scientists from Virginia Tech have discovered BAM15 as an orally bioavailable molecule showing weight loss effects in mice. Studies showed greater nutrient oxidation and decreased body fat in mice fed on BAM15 supplemented obesogenic diet. Supplementing BAM15 did not induce any under-eating or over-eating issues in recent mice studies. BAM15 administration showed weight loss effects without any deleterious effects on the whole body, cellular and molecular levels in skeletal tissues.
  • Some anti-obesity drugs were reported with thermogenic side effects while BAM15 administration showed no changes in body temperatures and clinical biochemistry of subject mice. Low aqueous solubility of BAM15 is reported to have no effect on its oral bioavailability. In fact, its lipophilic nature aided an easy penetration through membranes. Apart from the weight loss effect, a great reduction in hepatic fat accumulation was observed in BAM15 fed mice. Scientists believe that BAM15 is not only an effective weight loss agent but also an active compound for treating metabolic disorders like diabetes and fatty liver associated Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH).
  • With successful weight loss effect in mouse model, scientists from Virginia tech (where present mouse model studies were conducted) made hundreds of similar molecules and are checking for their compatibility in humans. 

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(GIST OF YOJANA) Ethics and Integrity, A Talisman

(GIST OF YOJANA)  Ethics and Integrity, A Talisman

[September-2020]

 Ethics and Integrity, A Talisman

  • Truth, values, compassion and empathy are a few virtues that define one’s character. Integrity is the consistent and uncompromising adherence to such strong moral and ethical principles, and values. The word integrity is derived from the Latin word ‘integer’ meaning whole, so without it no one is complete. One might possess exceptional abilities, skill-set or wealth, but it has compromised integrity, then every other quality is seen in doubt.
  • Whether it is professional or personal life, public or corporate, and, higher-ups or a humble daily wager, the good conduct and ethics are irrespective of what you are or who you are dealing with. This moral conviction of one’s beliefs and values stay undiminished under all circumstances. As British writer CS Lewis has put it aptly, integrity is “doing the right thing even when no one is looking.”
  • This judgement of right and wrong, what to do and what not to do, and how one is ought to act, form the ethics. They are the moral principles which govern an individual. Now, the question may occur that can they differ from one person to the other? What one perceives to be right may be wrong for the other. Here, comes the role of intent. If a decision went wrong, but was taken with good intent and mindfulness, it might still fall within the ambit of a moral behaviour-to err is human. But any step taken to harm someone under compromised values and ill-intent, is certainly not an ethical conduct.
  • The moral compass of individuals may fall differently in a spectrum of value-system. They may judge situations differently, perceiving morality or the scope to be ‘lesser morals’ in given situations, and might remain inconsistent in their overall approach. It may sound subjective and prescriptive but well-intended ethical behaviour has no substitute. It decides for one’s dependability and truthfulness. As they say, if you tell the truth, you do not have to remember anything.
  • When it comes to an organisation, be it public or private, bringing together different sets of people under the same ethical behaviour is even more important as each of them is the face of organisation. Work ethics of each individual along with the implementation of stringent code of conduct and citizens’ charter, without any exceptions, govern the ethical work culture. If you trust a brand, you start trusting its products; alternatively, if you find a quality product, you look forward to other products of the brand and mist is built on the overall brand. Same goes for organisations.
  • This edition of Yojana on an extremely relevant theme collects and recalls knowledge and wisdom possessed by great minds. It attempts to answer doubts, dilemmas and analyse situations defining ethical conduct and integrity in various spheres of life. Yojana Team is hopeful that this edition would help you in the “when in doubt" situations of your life and guide you towards righteous conduct.

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(The Gist of PIB) Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana  [SEPTEMBER-2020]


(The Gist of PIB) Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana

 [SEPTEMBER-2020]

Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana

PMMSY (Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and dairying) intends to address critical gaps in fish production and productivity, quality, technology, post-harvest infrastructure and management etc.

About:

  • It primarily focuses on adopting 'Cluster or Area based approaches' and creation of Fisheries clusters through backward and forward linkages.
  • It will be implemented as an umbrella scheme with two separate Components-
  • Central Sector Scheme (100% central funding) i.e entire project/unit cost will be borne by central Government.

Key objectives of the scheme:

  • Harnessing of fisheries potential
  • Enhancing offish production and productivity
  • Modernizing and strengthening of value chain - post -harvest management and quality improvement
  • Doubling fishers and fish farmers incomes and generation of employment
  • Enhancing contribution to Agriculture GVA and exports
  • Social, physical and economic security for fishers and fish farmers Robust fisheries management and regulatory framework

Centrally Sponsored Scheme include:

  • Enhancement of Production and Productivity Infrastructure and Post-Harvest Management Fisheries Management and Regulatory Framework It will be implemented from FY 2020-21 to FY 2024-25.
  • PMMSY envisage suitable linkages and convergence with various other schemes such as MGNREGS for ponds construction and water bodies development; NRLM for marketing; Sagarmala project for fishing harbours.
  • PM also launched e-Gopala app, a comprehensive breed improvement marketplace and information portal for direct use of farmers.
  • It will help in managing livestock including buying and selling of disease-free germplasm in all forms, guiding farmers for animal nutrition, treatment of animals using appropriate medicine etc.

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