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Museums: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

UPSC Exam Art & Culture

Museums: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

National Museum

Established : 15th August 1949, functioning as a Subordinate Office under Ministry of Cul- ture since 1960, formally inaugurated on 18 December 1960.

Location : In the Darbar Hall of the Rashtrapati

Bhawan, New Delhi.

Activities: Acquisition of art objects, their ex- hibition and conservation. Coordinates the

‘Festival of India’ in various countries. It has now 26 galleries with new addition of Bud- dhist Art gallery, Decorative Arts gallery, Jew- ellery Gallery,  anjore and Mysore School of Painting, Evolution of Indian Scripts and Coins Gallery etc.

Indian Museum

Established: 2nd February 1814, Location: Kolkata It is the ninth oldest regular museum of the world, a second oldest institution of its kind in the Asia Pacific Region and repository of the largest museum objects in India. It has more than 1 million exhibits having the rich- est collection on Art, Archeology, Anthropol- ogy, Geology, Zoology and Botany.

Allahabad Museum

Established : 1931 (declared as an institution of national importance by the Central Gov- ernment in 1985) It preserves and displays Historical Art and Archaeological objects like sculptures, paint- ing, rare coins of gold, silver, copper and lead. It also has paraphernalia and family heirlooms of the Nehrus, including manuscripts of ‘An Autobiography’ by Jawaharlal Nehru and a large volume of his correspondence.

National/Museum Institute of History of Art, Conservation and Museology

The National Museum Institute of History of Art, Conservation and Museology, New Delhi, an  autonomous organization fully funded by the Ministry of Culture was established and declared a Deemed University in 1989. This is the only Museum University in India and is presently functioning at the first floor of na- tional Museum, New Delhi.


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Cultural Institutions: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

UPSC Exam Art & Culture

Cultural Institutions: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

Lalit Kala Academy

!     Established in 1954. Headquarters: New Delhi. Since its inception, the Academy has been organising national exhibition of contem- porary Indian art with 15 national awards, each of Rs. 50,000. Every three years, the Academy also organises Triennial India, an International exhibition of contemporary art in New Delhi.

!     Regional Centres : Chennai, Lucknow, Kolkata and Bhubaneshwar and Garhi Artist Studies, Delhi.

!    The Academy honours eminent artists and art historians every year by electing them as fellows of the Academy. To propogate Indian art outside, the Academy regularly participates in International Biennials and Triennials abroad and also organises exhibitions of works of art from other countries. To foster contracts with artists from outside, it sponsors exchange of artists with other countries under the various cultural exchange programmes and agreements of the  Government.

!    The present chairman of Lalit Kala Academy: Ashok Vajpyee.

Sangeet Natak Academy

It was established on January 28, 1953 by a  resolution of the Ministry of Education headed by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad signed on 31st May 1952.   Headquarter – New Delhi;

The Sangeet Natak Academy - India’s Na-tional Academy for  Music,  Dance  and Drama – is the first Academy of the Arts, set up by the Republic of India. It encour- ages the forms of Dance, Drama and Mu-sic,  offers  Scholarships  to Artists  and Teachers of traditional arts and gives awards to outstanding  Artists .  The  Academy Awards are the highest National recogni- tion conferred on participating artists. The Academy  also  confers Fellowships to Scholars, their numbers being restricted to 30 living recipients. The Fellowship and Awards carries a cash prize of Rs. 50,000 a  shawl and ‘Tamrapatra’. "    The present chairperson of Sangeet Natak Academy  - Ram Nivas Mirdha

Sahitya Academy

"   Sahitya Aca demy is  the Indi an N ational Academy of letters meant to promote the cause of  Indian literature through publications, translations, seminars, workshops, cultural exchange programmes and literary meets organised all over the country. The Academy was founded in March 1954 as an  autonomous body fully   funded by the Department of Culture. The Academy has recognised 24 languages. It has an Advisory Board for each of the languages that suggests various programmes and publications in the concerned languages. Its head office is in New Delhi.

"   The highest honour conferred by the Academy on a writer is by electing him its fellow. This honour is reserved for the ‘Immortals of Literature’ and limited to 21 at any given time.

"   The present Chairman of Sahitya Academy is Sunil Gangopadhyay.

National School of Drama

It is one of the foremost theatre institutions of the World and the only one of its kind in India. It was set up by Sangeet Natak Acad- emy in 1959, later in 1975 it became an au- tonomous body, totally financed by Depart- ment of Culture. The objective of NSD is to train students in all aspects of theatre, in- cluding Theatre History Production, Scene Design, Costume Designs, Lighting, Makeup etc. The training course at NSD Art and Cul- ture is of three years duration. Each year, 20 students are admitted to the course.

Archaeological Survey of India

The Archaeological Surrey of India (ASI) was established in 1861. It functions as an attached office of the   Department of Culture. Under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act of 1958, the ASI has declared 3,612 monuments to be of national importance in the country. Since its establish- ment one hundred and forty two years ago, the ASI has grown into a large organisation with an all India network of offices, branches and circles,   Conservation, preservation md maintenance of the Centrally protected monu- ments and sites are the prime tasks of ASI. The major activities of the Archaeological Sur- vey of India are:

i)    Maintenance, conservation and preservation of Centrally protected monuments/sites and re- mains;

ii)    Conducting   archaeological explorations and excavations;

iii)   Chemical preservation of monuments   and antiquarian remains;

iv)   Architectural survey of monuments;

v)   Development    of  epigraphical research and publications;

vi)   Setting up and re-organisation of site muse- ums and

vii)  Training in Archaeology.

National Archives of India

The National Archives of India is the official custodian of   the non-current records of the Government of India  and is holding them in trust for the use of administrators and schol- ars. It is an Attached Office of the Ministry of Culture. It was set up in March 1891 in Calcutta (Kolkata) as the Imperial Record Department and subsequent to the transfer of the National Capital from Calcutta to New Delhi in 1911. It has a Regional   Office at Bhopal and three record centres at Bhubandeswar, Jaipur and Pudducherry.


Anthropological Survey of lndia, Kolkata The Anthropological Survey of India's contri- bution for understanding the people of India by its coverage of the entire length and breadth of the  country and its human surface in the People of India project, its publications and ethnographic films have been widely used and acknowledged all over the world.

Since its inception, the it has been involved in studying the bio-cultural profile of Indian popu- lations for over half a century, from its head- quarters in Kolkata and seven regional centers spread over the length and breadth of the coun- try.

Three main thrust areas of research in the Anthropological Survey of India are:

"   Understanding and documenting socio-cultural aspects of the People of India including audio- visual documentation, collection and preser- vation of museum arte-facts

"   Understanding the physical and biological varia- tion among the people of India through estab- lished methods and also the new technologies. understanding pre-historic, paleo-anthropo- logical and linguistic aspects of the people of India

?  Indira Gandhi National Centre For the Arts - New Delhi

The India Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA) is a premier national institution en- gaged in the pursuit of knowledge on arts and culture and in the exploration of relationships of arts and culture with various disciplines of learning and diverse aspects of life. It was es- tablished in 1985 in the memory of the Late Prime Minister Smt to Indira Gandhi. The IGNCA promotes interaction and understand- ing between diverse communities, regions, social strata, and between India and other parts of the world. The IGNCA has been designated as a nodal agency for setting up a National Data Bank on Arts, Humanities and Cultural Heritage.

Indian Society of Oriental Art

Set up in Kolkata, it promotes knowledge of ancient and modern Indian and oriental art; collects objects of art; holds exhibitions, lectures seminars etc. it also researches and study. It has a collection of rare and modern ,art books.

Indian Council for Cultural Relations

It was founded on 9 April 1950 by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the first Education Minister of independent India. An autonomous body to establish and promote cultural relations and exchanges between India and other countries. It  has overseas offices at Suva (Fiji), San Francisco (US), Georgetown (Guyana). It organises   Nehru  Memorial   award  for International Understanding. It has established cultural centers for Indians abroad.

Indian Council of Historical Research

It enunciates and implements a national policy of historical research and encourages scientific writing of history. It gives grants for seminars, research activities, and publications in the field of history. It maintains a large and expanding library cum documentation centre exclusively for  researchers and scholars.

Indian Institute of Islamic Studies 

Set up in 1963, at New Delhi, its main objects are to promote the study of Islamic culture and civilization, to promote intercourse between scholars and institutions engaged in Islamic studies in different countries and focus on India's contribution to Islam. It has 5000 plus manuscripts in Arabic and Persian.

National Gallery of Modern Art 

The National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA), New Delhi was founded in 1954. The main aim of t he NGMA is  the promotion and development of contemporary Indian Art. The NGMA's  important  collections  includepaintings ,  sculpture ,  graphic  arts  and photographs. NGMA organizes exhibitions from its  collection  and under  Cultural Exchange programme periodically. The foremost responsibility of the NGMA is the ensure quality  and to  set and maintain standards of excellence. 

National Mission for Manuscripts

The National Mission for Mansuscripts was launched in February, 2003 by the Ministry of Culture to save the most valuable of our cultural inheritance, i.e.,   manuscripts. The mission seeks  to  unearth and  preserve  the  vast manuscript wealth of India. An ambitious five year project, the Mission seeks not merely to locate  catelogue  and  preserve  India ’s manuscripts but also to enhance access, spread a wareness  and  encour age  their  use  for ducational purpose.


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(VIDEO) SCO Summit 2017 - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

(VIDEO) SCO Summit 2017 - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

Topic of Discussion: SCO Summit 2017 - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

Expert Panel Name : Samita Sharma (Foreign Affairs Journalist), Sheelkant Sharma (Former Diplomat) , Mukul Sanwal (Former Diplomat), Natasha Jha Bhaskar (Anchor)


Courtesy: Lok Sabha TV

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(VIDEO) Can India Afford Stoppage of All Cattle Trade? - Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

(VIDEO) Can India Afford Stoppage of All Cattle Trade? 

- Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

Topic of Discussion: Can India Afford Stoppage of All Cattle Trade?- Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

Expert Panel Name : Prof. Subrata Mukherje(Political Analyst),Yatish Rajawat (Senior Journalist), N.K Shukla (Joint Secretary, AIKS), Prof.Rajvir Sharma (RSS Thinkar),Frank Rausan Pereira (Anchor)


Courtesy: Rajya Sabha TV

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Some of The Tribes In India: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

UPSC Exam Art & Culture

Some of The Tribes In India: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams


Abhor             These   tribes  are  found  in Arunachal Pradesh and Assam.

Abujmaria       Known variously as Abudjamadis, Abujmariya and Hill Maria, these tribes are found in the geographic illy inaccessible areas of Abujhmar Mountains and Kutrumar Hills in the Bastar dist rict of Madhya Pradesh. They speak a Dravidian language called Abujmaria. The Hill Miria tribes are considered as a sub-group oi the Gonds, who are historically the most important group of original Indian tribes.

Adivasika        These are forest dwellers found mainly in Northern Kerala, near Calicut.

Adivasi Girasia These  tribes inhabit  'he Banaskantha and Sabarkantha dis- tricts of Gujarat and are believed to be  the  des cendant s  of  the Rajputs who married Biil wormn. The name "Girasia" refers to the Rajput and other landholders liv- ing in the Gujarat and Rajasthan regions.  Theirlanguage,  al so known as Adivasi Girasia, is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Bhil subgroup.

Adiyan            Also known as Eravas ,  these people are found in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.

Aka                 These tribes are 5 found mainly in the Andaman Islands, Arunachal Pradesh and  also  in  par t s  of Assam. The Aka people are so named for a black, sticky paint they use on their faces. They used to speak Aka (now an extinct lan- guage) on the Andunan Islands and Aka Lel, a dialect of Nisi, in Assam. The Aka people in Assam celeb - ate the Nechido Festival every year on the first day of November.

Alars                Also  known  as  Chathans or Chatans, these tribes are found in the Kerala-Palghat region. They speak Alar and Malayalam.

Amindivi          These  tribes are found   in Lakshadweep.

Amri Karib      Known by different names like Mikir, Manchati, Mikiri, Karbi, these tribes are found in the Mikir and Rengma Hills of Assam. They speak Amri, a dialect of Mikir.

Anal                 These tribes are found in Manipur.

Angami:           These tribes are found in Kohima, the capital of Nagaland.

Ao                    The Aotribe  is  found in  the Mokokchung  District of Nagaland. The main festivals of the Aos are Moatsuand Tsungremmong celebrated during the first week of May and August, respectively.

Apatani            These tribes, also described as Apa, are found south of the Tibetan border in the states of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland. Their language is also kncwn as Apatani. These tribes are re- nowned for their cultivation, es- pecially the Terraced rice fields, which are located along the sides of the valleys.

Arnatas            Also known is Aranacan  and Eranadans, these tribes are fouid in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala. They speak Aranatan and malayalam.

Baiga               Known by names like Baigai, Bega and Bhumis these people are found in Bihar, Maharashtra. Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal Their language is also known as Baiga.

Banchharas       These tribes are found in Madhya Pradesh.

Bangni             The Bangni (also known as the Dafla or the Nishi) inhabit the hills of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. Their native language, Nisi, be- longs to the Tibeto-Burman lan- guage family.

Bangri              These tribes are located mainly in the states of Haryana, Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Delhi. Their language, Bangaru, is a member of the Indo- Aryan language family.

Banjaras          Known by different names in dif- ferent places like Lamani, Lambadi, Bangala, Banjori, Banjuri, Gohar- Herkeri, Goola, Gurmarti, Kora, Labhani Muka, Lambara, Lavani, Lemadi, Lumadale, Sugali, Tanda, Vanjari, Waji, Gormati and Singali, these tribes are mainly concen- trated in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya   Pradesh,   Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, TamilNadu, Maharashtra Karnataka, Orissa and West Bengal. Their common language is Lamani.

Barda               These tribes are found in Gujarat.

Bavacha          These tribes are found in Gujarat.

Barel    The Barels are considered to be the sub-group of Bhils. They speak Barel language.

Bathudi           The Bathudis live primarily in the districts of  Mayurbhanj

Chamars          These tribes are known by differ- ent names like Chamari, Chambhar Boli and Chambhari. These are found in the States of Madhya Pr adesh,  Uttar  Pradesh  and Maharashtra. Their language is known as Chamari.

Chameali Pahari The Chameali Pahari tribes are primarily located in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Jammu & Kash- mir.

Changs             These tribes are found in the Tuensang District of Nagaland.

Chang-Pas       These are the tribes found in the northern upland valleys of the Indus River in Jammu & Kashmir. They speak in Tibetan dialect.

Charan            These tribes are found in Gujarat.

Chekhasang     Chekhasang and Pouchry Tribes are found in the Phek District of Nagaland. Chakhesang culture and customs are quite different from the other Naga tribes. There are evidences of the ex is tence of head-hunting among the villagers in the ancient days.

Chenchus         Known  variously as Chenchucool am,  Chenchwar, Chenswar and Choncharu, these tribes are found primarily in the state of Andhra Pradesh and also in parts of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Orissa. Their native language (also-called Chenchus) belongs to the Dravidian language family. Many also speak Telugu.

Cheros             These tribes, which claim to be the descendants of the Rajputs, are found in Bihar, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal and are primarily concentrated in Palamau, Shahabad, Champaran and other surrounding districts. The Chero speak a language that is also called Chero.

Chettier           Chettie' is tlie Hindu fishermen caste of Tamil Nadu.

Chola Naickans Also known as Chola Naikar, these tribes are fourtd mainly in the Nilambur jungle in Kerala. They speak  Canarese,  a  dialect  of Kannada.

Dafla                These   tribes   are   found   in Arunachal Pradesh.

Damarias         These   tribes   are   found   in Rajasthan.

Deori               These  tribes  live a long  the Brahmaputra River and are prima- rily located in the states of Assam, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh. They speak a Tibeto-Burman lan- guage that is also called Deori. The Deori are one of the four division of   the Chutiya people group and are also related o the Eastern Bodo- Garo.

Dhodia            The Dhodia are located in the ex- treme southeastern districts of Gujarat, in the hilly regions south of the Tapi River and in Dadra & Nager Haveli. The Dhodia are the highest ranking tribe and the third largest tribal group in Gujarat. They speak Dhodia, a Bhillan- guage.

Dhurwa           These tribes are forest dwellers found mainly in the Bastar district of Madhya Pradesh and Koraput district of Orissa. They are con- sidered as a sub-group of the Gond, the largest tribal group in India. They speak Parji in three dialects.

Dimasa            These are Proto-Austroloid tribes found in Meghalaya and Mizoram

Eravallan       These tribes ire found in Kerala.

Gaddi    Known by names like Bharmauri  Bhadi, Pahari Bharmauri, Panchi Brahmauri Rajput, Gaddyal and Gadi, these tribes are found in parts  of  Himachal  Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradeih and Punjab. Their language is also known as Gaddi.

Galong            These  tribes , also  known  as Gallong, Gallo, Galo and Adi-Galo, live in Assam, along the Tibet bor- der area Their language is also known as Galong.

Gamit              These   tribes   are   found   in Karnataka.

Gamti              This is one of the Bhil tribes that live mainly in the Surat and Broach districts of Gujarat, India. Among the Bhil, the word gamta means "headman," possibly giving the Gamti a feeling of superiority over ot her Bhiltribes. They speak Gamti, which is one of the Bhil languages.

Garhwali          The Garhwali or the Central Pahari are a hardworking and often iso- lated people who are primarily lo- cated in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir.

Garos               The Garos or Achiks belong to the Bodo family of the Tibeto-Burman race and are found in Meghalaya. They are said to have migrated from Tibet.

Gonds              The Gonds comprise the largest tribal group in India. Historically, the Gonds were the most impor- tant group of the original Indian tribes. In the 1500's, several Gond dynasties were established and their rajas or kings ruled like Hindu princes. The Gonds were con- quered by the Muslim armies in 1592 but their tribes were not dis-turbed by the changes in adminis- tration.

Gongte             These tribes are found in Manipur.

Gosains            These tribes are found in Madhya Pradesh.

Gotte               These tribes, also known as Po- dia Koya, are found in the jungles of Madhya Pradesh. Their lan- guage is Podia Koya, which is a dialect of Koya.

Gracias These tribes, known by different names like Garasia, Rajput Girasia, Dungri Grasia and Dhungri Bhili are found in Gujarat and Rajasthan. Their  language  is  known  as Garasia

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Unesco Representative List Of India Intangible Cultural Heritage Of Humanity: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

UPSC Exam Art & Culture

Unesco Representative List Of India Intangible Cultural Heritage Of Humanity

: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

India - Chhau dance - Chhau dance is a tr adi tion fr om eas tern India that enacts episodes from epics including the Mahabharata and Ramayana, local folklore and abstract themes. Chhau dance is intimately connected to regional festivals, notably the spring festival Chaitra Parva. Its or igin is traceable to indigenous  forms  of  dance and  martial practices. Chhau is taught to male dancers from families of traditional artists or from local communities. The dance is performed at night in  an open space to traditional and folk melodies, played on the reed pipes mohuri and shehnai. The reverberating drumbeats of a variety of drums dominate the accompanying music ensemble. It binds together people from different social strata and ethnic background with  diverse social  practices, beliefs, professions and languages.

India - Kalbelia folk songs and dances of Rajasthan : Kalbelia community’s were once professional snake handlers. Today, women in  flowing black skirts dance and swirl, replicating the movements of a serpent, while men  accompany  them  on  the  khanjari percussion instrument and the poongi, a woodwind instrument traditionally played to capture snakes. The dancers wear traditional tattoo designs, jewellery and garments richly embroidered with small mirrors and silver thread.Kalbelia songs  disseminate

mythological knowledge through stories, while special traditional dances are performed during  Holi ,  the  festival  of  colours . Transmitted from generation to generation, the  songs and dances form part of an oral tradition for  which not extsor training manuals exist. Song and dance are a matter of pride for the Kalbelia community.

India - Mudiyettu, ritual theatre and dance drama of Kerala - Mudiyettu is a ritual dance drama from Kerala based on the mythological tale of a battle between the goddess Kali and the demon Darika. It is a community ritual in which the entire village participates. After the summer cr ops ha ve b een ha rvested, t he villagers reach the temple in the early morning on an appointed day. Mudiyettu performers purify themselves through fasting and prayer, then draw a huge image of goddess Kali, called as kalam, on the temple floor with coloured powders, wherein the spirit of the goddess is invoked. This prepares the ground for  the lively enactment to follow, in which the divine sage Narada importunes Shiva to contain the demon Darika, who is immune to defeat by mortals. Shiva instead commands that Darika will die at the hand of the goddess Kali. Mudiyettu is performed annually in

Bhagavati Kavus’ ,the  temples of the goddess, in different villages along the rivers Chalakkudy  Puzha , Periyar and Moov attupuzha .  Respons ibility  for  its transmission lies with the elders and senior per for mers ,  who  enga ge  t he  younger generation as apprentices during the course of  the performance. Mudiyettu serves as an important cultural site for transmission of traditional values, ethics, moral codes and aesthetic norms of the community to the next generation, thereby ensuring its continuity and relevance in present times.


N ame                                            Location



Ajanta Caves                       Aurangabad, Maharas Elephanta Caves                 Island near Mumbai Ellora Caves                         Aurangabad, Maharas Jalianwala Bagh                   Amritsar, Punjab


Lothal                                     Gujarat


Nalanda                                 Near Patna, Bihar


Sanchi                                    Near Bhopal

Madhya Pradesh

Sarnath                                  Varanasi

Uttar Pradesh

Memorials and Monuments

Akbar ’s Tomb                       Sikandra, Near Agra

Uttar Pradesh

Anand Bhawan                   Allahabad

Uttar Pradesh


Bibi-ka-Maqbara                 Aurangabad, Maharashtra

Gandhi Sadan in 1948        New Delhi


Jamia Milia                            Delhi

Kranti Maidan                     Mumbai


Rajghat                                  New Delhi Shakti Sthal                          New Delhi Shantivan                              New Delhi Teenmurti House                 New Delhi


Tomb of Ahmed Shah        Ahmedabad, Gujarat


Tomb of Sher Shah Suri     Sasaram, Bihar

Vijay Ghat                              New Delhi


Important Temples and Mosques

Ahmed Shah ’s Mosque     Ahmedabad

Bodh Gaya temple              Bodh Gaya, Bihar


Bhubaneswar Temples       Bhubaneswar, Orissa

Dilwara Temple                     Mt. Abu, Rajasthan


Originally Buddhist monasteries having unique architecture, sculpture and painting.

Consisting of  seven  caves  famous for the Trimurti and other sculptures

Ancient cave temples especially famous for ‘Temple of Kailash

Famous for  indiscriminate  firing by GenO' Dyer on April 13, 1919 on Congress meet- ing demanding independence..

Archaeological excavations revealed existence of Indus Valley civilisation

Ruins of an cient Buddhist University founded by Kumaragupta in 427 AD

Ancient Buddhist monastery famous for ‘Great Stupa

Famous for Stupas where Buddha preached his first sermon


Famous for its carvings and ar chitecture of Hindu and Mughal art.

Ancestral h ouse of the Nehru family which Mrs. Indira Gandhi gifted for conversion into a national memorial.

Mausoleum built by Aurangazeb in 1660

AD in memory of his wife Rabia Durrani.

Birla House where Mahatma Gandhi was assas- sinated

Muslim University founded by Dr Zakir Hussain

Historical venue where Gandhiji gave Quit In-

dia call in 1942.

Samadhi of Mahatma Gandhi on th e banks of the Yamuna.

Situated on the banks of Yamuna where Mrs. Indira Gandhi was cremated

Near Rajghat where Pt Jawaharlal Nehru was cre-


Residence of the first Prime Minister of India, Pt

Jawaharlal Nehru. Now converted into a national


Domed structure famous for paving of multicol- oured marble.

Domed structure

Samadhi of Lal Bahadur Shastri on the bank of the Yamuna.


Built in 1414 AD, its pillars have Hindu emblems.

60 m high temple built by Ashoka, the Great.

Site where Buddha attained enlightenment. Stone temples

Jain temple lavishly decorated with carvings.


Golden Temple

Jagannath Temple

Juma Masjid Khajuraho Temples Mahabalipuram Temples

Mahakali Temple

Meenakshi Temple

Moti Masjid

Sun Temple



Omkar Temple

Amritsar,Punjab Puri, Orissa



Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh


Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu


Madurai, Tamil Nadu

Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Konark, Orissa



Omkarji, Madhya Pradesh

Sacred shrine of the Sikhs.

Dedicated to Lord Jagannath, an incarnation of


Biggest mosque in India built by Mughal Em-

peror, Shahjahan

Famous sculptures depicting art of love built

some time in 950 AD – 1050 AD

Also called ‘Seven Pagodas’

Shiva Mandir

Dedicated to the Goddess Meenakshi

Built by Mughal Emperor Shahjahan

The mythological conception of the Sun God

riding a Konark Temple twenty - four wheeled

chariot drawn by seven h orses, carved in stone. Shiva Temple on an island in the Narmada river, also called ‘Black Pagoda’.

Other Structures - Gates / Towers / Pillars

Buland Darwaja Gateway of India Qutab Minar


Gol Gumbaz



Sanchi Stupa


Sarnath Stupa

Fatehpur Sikri, Agra Mumbai, Maharashtra New Delhi


Bijapur, Karnataka



Sanchi, Bhopal


Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

38 m high gate built by Akbar, is India’s highest gate

Built in 1911 AD to commemorate the visit of

King George V of UK

72.5m high stone tower, tallest minaret in India

built by Qutab-ud-din Aibak. as a Victory Tower

India’s largest dome built on the tomb of Sultan Mohammed Adil Shah covering an area of 1630 sq m

One of the earliest stupas, 17 m high and 36.5 m in diameter, made of bricks and sandstone.

22m high and 28 m in diameter, stone structure built on the spot where Lord Buddh a delivered his first sermon.

Important Forts & Gardens

Agra Fort

Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Originally built by Akbar and additions made by



Sh ah jah an contain ing famous buildin gs like



Royal Palace Shish Mahal, Moti Masjid, Diwan-



i-Aam and Diwan -i-Khas.

Gwalior Fort

Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh

On e of th e biggest for ts con tain in g famous



building like Man Mandir, Palace of Man Singh,




Hawa Mahal

Jaipur, Rajasthan

Multi-stor eyed pink coloured building

Hindodla Mahal

Mandu, Madh ya Pradesh

The walls sloping at an angle of over 770   create



an illusion that the entire building sways.

Jantar Mantar

New Delhi

Ancient observatory

Red Fort

New Delhi

Built by Shahjahan, made of red stone

Rashtrapati Bhawan

New Delhi

India’s biggest residential building

Moghul Gardens

New Delhi

Garden of Rashtrapati Bhawan.

Shalimar Gardens

Srinagar, J & K

Pleasure resort in Kashmir.

Vrindavan Gardens

Mysore, Karnataka

Unique gardens adjacent to the Krishnarajasagar






India’s longest corridor - 1,220 m long.


Tamil Nadu


Gomateswara statue

Sravanabelagola, Karnataka

India’s tallest stone statue of th e Jain Sage


Printed Study Material for UPSC PRELIMS EXAM

Printed Study Material for UPSC MAINS EXAM

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(VIDEO) GST deadline : Preparedness of Central and State Govts & Businesses - Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

(VIDEO) GST deadline : Preparedness of Central and State Govts & Businesses

- Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

Topic of Discussion: GST deadline : Preparedness of Central and State Govts & Businesses - Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

Expert Panel Name : Nitin Desai(Former Chief Economic Advisor,GOI),Ajay Dua(Fmr Secy,Ministry of Commerce),Arbind Prashad(Former Director General,FICCI), Priya Ranjan Das(Senior Journalist),Frank Rausan Pereira (Anchor)


Courtesy: Rajya Sabha TV

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(VIDEO) Iran Terror Attack & Iran Snubs India - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

(VIDEO) Iran Terror Attack & Iran Snubs India - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

Topic of Discussion: Iran Terror Attack & Iran Snubs India - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

Expert Panel Name : Dr.Waiel S.H.Awwad (SA Bureau Chief,SANA), Vivek katju (Former Diplomat) , Dr.Reena Ramachandran (Former CMD,HOCL), Natasha Jha Bhaskar (Anchor)


Courtesy: Lok Sabha TV

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(VIDEO) Significance of UK election results - Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

(VIDEO) Significance of UK election results - Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

Topic of Discussion: Significance of UK election results - Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

Expert Panel Name : Ummu Salma Bava(Professor,JNU),Niraj Srivastava(Former Diplomat),Pramit Pal Chaudhary(Foreign Editor,Hindustan times, Kamal Mitra Chenoy(Prof.JNU),Frank Rausan Pereira (Anchor)


Courtesy: Rajya Sabha TV

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UPSC will share CSE scores online, could be a game changer for Aspirants to get good Private Jobs

UPSC-LOGO.jpg (356×272)

UPSC will share CSE scores online, could be a game changer for Aspirants to get good Private Jobs:


Private firms scouting for talent can use scores obtained by candidates in examinations conducted by the Union Public Service Commission, an idea that Prime Minister Narendra Modi had mooted last year.

The public service commission, also called UPSC, annually puts nearly 10 lakh job aspirants through a rigorous selection process to select 5,000 candidates for jobs in the bureaucracy, police and the armed forces. For the remaining 99.5 per cent that lose the chance for a government job, the test scores don't mean anything.

But what if UPSC were to put its merit list online? Prospective recruiters from the private sector could use it to identify candidates who rank high in this list even if they did not make the cut for a slot in premier services such as the Indian Administrative Service or the Indian Foreign Service.

The UPSC says it will start doing this for every public recruitment examination from this month. "There shall be an "Opt-out Clause" which shall be applicable for the candidates who qualify for the final stage of the examination," an announcement by the commission said. For the rest, it will put out the scores secured by candidates in the list along with their contact details that will in some time be linked to an integrated information system being developed. The scores would be valid for one year.

"Think of it like a combined recruitment examination where the government agency concerned gets the right to pick the top rankers. But there are many good candidates who would have lost out by a few marks. The database could help them land some other job," a government official explained.


>>


Courtesy: NTTF

(VIDEO) Civil Services - A Dream Career - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

(VIDEO) Civil Services -  A Dream Career -  Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

Topic of Discussion: Civil Services - A Dream Career - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

Expert Panel Name : Sumit Jha (IPS Probationer), Dr. Sushma Yadav ( Prof., IIPA) , Sriram Srirangam(Director, Sriram's IAS, ND),Natasha Jha Bhaskar (Anchor)


Courtesy: Lok Sabha TV

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Classical Dances of India: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

UPSC Exam Art & Culture
Classical Dances of India: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams
Bharata Natyam  is a classical dance form originating in Tamil Nadu. In ancient times it was performed as ‘dasiattam’ by Devadasis. Bharatanatyam is popularly called  poetry in Motion. E.Krishna Iyer was one  of those who raised the social status of Bharata atyam and greatly popularized it. Ifollows  the  principle  of  Nat ya Shastra. Rugmini devi Arundale gave it  a  new life and revived it by stablishing ‘Kalakshetra’ at Adayar, Chennai.
Musical dialects based on individual temperaments, vocal capacity and musical aptitude.
Name of Gharana    Place      Founder
Gwalior Gharana    Gwalior    Nanthan Khan
Agra                        Agra         Hajisujan Khan
Rangeela                Agra         Faiyyaz Khan
Jaipur Atroli            Jaipur       Alladiya Khan
Kiran Gharana        Avadh      Abdul Wahid Khan
Kathak : It is a North Indian Classical dance form. The story of   Kathak begins  in  ancient  times  with  the performances of professional storytellers called Kathakas who recited stories from epics and mythology with some elements of dance. The work of the Maharaj family of dancers (Acchan Maharaj, Shambu Maharaj, Lachhu Maharaj and Birju Maharaj) helped in spreading the popularity of Kathak.
Kathakali : This dance form is from Kerala. Kat haka li or iginated from Rama natt am. Traditinally a Kathakali onducted at night and ends in early morning. But now it has been reduced to three hours or even lesser.In Kathakali, the story is enacted purely by the movements of the hands  and by facial expressions and bodily movements. The makeperformance is usually up of Kathakali artists are Pachcha, Kathi, Kari, Thaadi and Minukku.
Gatka ........................................ Punjabi
Paika ......................................... Orissa
Thag Ta .................................... Manipur
Kalaripayattu ............................. Kerala
Choliya ...................................... Uttaranchal
Pang Lhabosol. ......................... Sikkim
Kuchipudi  is the classical form of Andhra Pradesh. The dance is accompanied by song which is  typi cally carnatic music.The technique of Kuchipudi makes use of fast rhythmic footwork and sculpuresque body movements. Kuchipudi is a combination of Natya, Nritta and Nritya.
Manipuri dance is a classical dance from Manipur. The dancers feet never strike the ground hard. Movements of the body and feet and facial expressions in Manipuri dance are suitable and aim at devotion and grace.
Mohiniyattam is a dance form from Kerala. It is considered a very graceful dance meant to  be performed as solo recital by women. Maharaja Swathi Tirunal, poet Vallathol Narayana  Menon through Kerala Kalamandalam founded by him and Smt.Kalamandalam Kalyanikutty Amma revived Mohiniyattom.
Odissi : Classical dance form of Odisha (Orissa). Odissi is the oldest classical dance rooted in rituals and tradition. It is particularly distinguis hed  from other classical Indian dance   forms by the importance it places upon the independent movement of head, chest and pelvis.
Sattriya is a classical dance form from Assam.It was recognized as a classical dance by Sangeet Natak Academi on November 15, 2000. Sattriya Nritya was usually performed in the Sattras (Assam monasteries) in a highly ritialistic manner by male dancers alone. But in the second half of the 19th Century Sattriya Nritya moved from the monastery to the metropolitan stage. The core of Sattriya Nritya has usually been mythological stories.
Classical Dance Exponents
Kelucharan Mohapatra, Pankaj Charan Das, Hare Krishna Behera ,  Sonal  Man singh, Kabita Dwivedi, Kiran Sehgal, Madhvi   Mudgal ,   Sharon Lewon, Myrta Barvil. Indarani Rahman, Priyambada Mohanty.
Bharata Natyam      Rujkmini   Devi   Arundale(of Kalakhestra Fame) T Bala- sarswathi, Yamini Krishna Mur- thy, Padma Subramaniyam, Mri- nalini Sarabhai, Vaijayantimala Bali, Leela Samson.
Kuchipudi              T. Bala sarswathi ,Esther Sherman, Ragini Devi, Indrani Rahman, Swapna Sundari, . Sobha Naidu, Raja  Reddy, Radha Reddy, Vempati Chinna Satyam, Satyanarayanan Sharma ,  Sudha  Sekhara , Rajaram Rao, G. Sarala
Kathakali               Mukunda Raja (of Kalmandalam fame), Koppan Nair, V Kunju Kurupu, Gopinathan Krishnan,  VN Menon, Kottakkal Sivaraman.
Mohiniattam           Kalyani Amma, Shanta Rao, Roshan  Vejifdar,   Bharati Shivaji, Kanak Rele.
Manipuri                Jhaveri Sisters, Charu Mathur, Sadhona Bose, Bipin Singh, Rita  Devi , Savita Ivkihta , Tandor Devi.
Kathak                   Bitju Maharaj, Kalka-BindaGharana, Kunudini Lakhia, Damayanti Joshi, Rani Karna, Saswati Sen, Roshan Kumari, Gopi Krishna, Sitara Devi, Sambhu Maharaj ,  Ananda Shankar, Shovna  Narayan, Bhandana Mangal, Kulgrani Bhatt, Gitanjali Lal.

(VIDEO) Why Indian Universities Continue to Fare Poorly in Global Rankings? - Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

(VIDEO) Why Indian Universities Continue to Fare Poorly in Global Rankings? 

- Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

  • Topic of Discussion : Why Indian Universities Continue to Fare Poorly in Global Rankings? - Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate
  • Expert Panel MemberVenkitesh Ramakrishnan, (Senior Associate editor, Frontline),Krishan Bir Chaudhary, (President, Bhartiya Krishak Samaj),Prof.Ravi Shrivastava (Economist,JNU),Tajamul Haque (Former Chairman,CACP),Anchor: Frank Rausan Pereira


Courtesy: Rajya Sabha TV

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(VIDEO) Kabul Process - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

(VIDEO) Kabul Process - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion 

Topic of Discussion: Kabul Process -  Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion 

Expert Panel Name: Dr.A.K.Pasha,Vishal Chandra (Research Fellow, IDSA),Salman Haider(Former Diplomat),Anchor: Natasha Jha Bhaskar


Courtesy: Lok Sabha TV

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