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(VIDEO) Bumper Crops Expected this Year: Is it a Good News? - Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

(VIDEO) Bumper Crops Expected this Year: Is it a Good News?

- Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

Topic of Discussion: Bumper Crops Expected this Year: Is it a Good News? - Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

Expert Panel Name :  Nitin Desai (Former Chief Economic Advisor,GOI), Tajamul Haque (Former Chairman,CACP), Gargi Parsai (Senior Journalist), Yashvir Singh (President, Kisan Kamgar Sabha), Frank Rausan Pereira (Anchor)


Courtesy: Rajya Sabha TV

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(VIDEO) International Yoga Day - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

(VIDEO) International Yoga Day - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

Topic of Discussion: International Yoga Day - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

Expert Panel Name :  Dr. Subhash Sharma (Scientific Yoga Cure ),  Nikita Anand (Yoga Practitioner,Dhyan Foundation) , Acharya Pratishtha (Yoga Practitioner), Salini Verma (Studio,Anchor)


Courtesy: Lok Sabha TV

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(VIDEO) NDA declares its candidate for President: Message and road ahead - Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

(VIDEO) NDA declares its candidate for President: Message and road ahead 

- Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

Topic of Discussion: NDA declares its candidate for President: Message and road ahead - Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

Expert Panel:  Vinod Sharma (Political Editor, Hindustan times), Ashok Tandon (Senior Journalist), Neerja Chowdhury (Senior Journalist), Udit Raj (MP, BJP), Frank Rausan Pereira (Anchor)


Courtesy: Rajya Sabha TV

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(VIDEO) Rising Foreign Investment - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

(VIDEO) Rising Foreign Investment - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

Topic of Discussion: Rising Foreign Investment - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

Expert Panel Name : P.K. Chaubey (Former Prof. IIPA),  Amit Kapoor (Institute For Competetiveness) , Rakesh Joshi (Prof.IIFT) Salini Verma (Studio,Anchor)


Courtesy: Lok Sabha TV

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(Answer Key) UPSC Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination, 2016

(Answer Key) UPSC Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination, 2016

Exam Name: Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination

(VIDEO) President Poll Curtain Raiser - Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

(VIDEO) President Poll Curtain Raiser 

- Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

Topic of Discussion: President Poll Curtain Raiser - Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

Expert Panel: Prof. Pushpesh Pant (Political Analyst), Bharat Bhushan (Editor, Catch News), Neerja Chowdhury (Senior Journalist), Ashok Tandon (Senior Journalist), Frank Rausan Pereira (Anchor)


Courtesy: Rajya Sabha TV

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(VIDEO) Social Welfare Schemes - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

(VIDEO) Social Welfare Schemes - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

Topic of Discussion: Social Welfare Schemes - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

Expert Panel Name : Prafulla ketkar (Editor Organiser), Madan Diwan (Social Economist) , Natasha Jha Bhaskar (Anchor)


Courtesy: Lok Sabha TV

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Indian Literature: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

UPSC Exam Art & Culture

Indian Literature: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

Indian Literature

Indian Literature refers to the literature produced on the Indian subcontinent. The earliest works of Indian Literature were orally transmitted. Sanskrit literature begins with the Rig Veda. The Sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabarata appeared towards the end of the the first millennium BCE. Classical Sanskrit literature, Tamil Sangam Literature and Pali Literature flourished in the first few centuries of  the first millennium CE.   Literature in Kannada and Telugu appeared in the 9th and 11th Centuries respectively. Later Literature in Marathi, Bengali,   Hindi, Persian, Urdu began to appear.

Assamese Literature

Though the origin of Assamese language may be traced in the 7th century, its literary tradition started in the 13th century with the advent of the Vaishnava founder in Assam, Shanker Dev (1449-1568)   who composed ' creative drama, epic and songs. The tradition of fiction novel writing was started in the 19th century by Padnath Gohai Barua and Rajnikant Bardolai. Some of the famous novelists of this phase were Dandinath Kalit, Devchandra Ta lukdar,  Beena Barua  who  are  still remembered. In the field of prose, Virendra Bhattacharya (1924 -1997)  bagged the prestigious Gyanpith award. Again in year 2000, Indira Goswami was given the Gyanpith award. The most famous modern Assamese writers are Indira Goswami,   Nirupama Bargohain, Birendra  Kumar  Bhattacharya,  Homen Borgohain, Bhabendra Nath Saikia, Amulya Barua, Atul Chandra Hazarika, Nalini Bala Devi, Sharma Pujari, Roindra Bora etc.

Bengali Literature

During the primary stage of its development, the Bengali literature followed the Nath School of thought and romanticism of Radha Krishna. The tradition of modernity in Indian languages emerged first in Bengali literature because the Britishers first came there and infused English thought with the Bengali. The Benga liliterature got internat ional recognition when Gitanjali of Rabindranath Tagore was awarded Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. Other famous Indian Bengali writers were Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay, Bankim Chandra  Chattopa dhyay and  Michael Madhasudan Dutt.


Bodo is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by the Bodo people of North-Eastern India and Nepal. It is a rich language, it has to its credit large number of books on poetry, drama, short story, novel, biography, travelogue, children’s literature and literary criticism. After the inclusion of Bodo language in the Eighth Schedule as a 22nd official language in 2003, noted Bodo literati, Mangal Singh Hajowary was awarded the coveted; Sahitya Akademi Award for his "Jiuni Mwgthang Brsombi Arw Aroj" for year 2005.

Kannada Literature

Kannada is one of the important part of Indian literature and even during the fifth century, it was considered well developed. It is very close to the Sanskrit. A revolutionary change in the Kannada   literature  was   brought  by Basveshwar who contributed a lot in prose writing which was also adopted by Telugu. The  prominent  authors of the cultural Renaissance period were B.M. Shri Kantya, M. Govinda Pandey, K.V. Puttapa and D.R.Bandre.  Putt apa and Ba ndre have been awarded Gyanpith award. Girish Karnad is the famous dramatist of this phase. The fiction Sanskar of U.R,. Anantmurthi has also bagged Gyanpith award. Works of Kannada literature have recieved seven Gyanpith awards which is  the highest number  awarded for  the literature in any Indian Language.


Konkani is very close to Marathi and Hindi. The Portuguese impact may be easily traced in most of the literary work of Konkani. The modern phase in the Konkani started in 19th century   during  which  Shomaya Goyambay, B. Barker, R.B. Pandit and Sar Desai were the chief authors. The prominent Konkani novelist are Reginaldo, Fernandese, M. Sar Desai and B.J.P. Saldhana.

Maithili Literature

Maithili is chiefly  spoken  in  the Mithilanchal region of Bihar. It is the second State language of Bihar. In the 14th century, Jyotishwar enriched the literature in a holistic way. His work Dhurt Sama-gam is very popular in Maithili Vidyapati was another founding father of Maithili. He was the court poet of Mithilanchal under King Shiv Narayan. His poetic works and songs are full of devotion to the God Shiva. He opted the theme of love, beauty and separation for his literary work. He is also very popular in Hindi and Bengali. In the 20th century, Baba Nagarjun, Ramanand Renu etc. contributed in  the field of prose writing. The Graduate Putauh & Kanyadan of Hari Mohan Jha are very popular.

Manipuri Literature

The history of Manipuri Literature trace back to  thousand of years with florish of its civilization. Manipuri is a language of Tibeto- Burmen family and particularly spoke in some estern states . The  literature  is  greatly influenced by the folk literary tradition. Most of the early literary works found in Manipuri literature were in poetry and prose. Some of the books were written with  combination of both the  prose and poetry. Hija Harao is an epic of ornamental style. Ram - No Gaya is the another popular work based on the death of  Ram.

Marathi Literature

The first phase is the Yadav period (1189 -1320) which was basically a period of poetry writing; Viveksindhu of Nathpanthi Mukundraj was the greatest work of this period. Bhavarth Ramayan was composed by Eknath. During the period of Marathas (1600-1700), Christian Missionary  of Goa contributed a lot. Father Cofens wrote Krist Puran. During this period Tukaram and Guru Ram Das emerged. During the Peshwa period (1700-1800), new literary trends were   established, Krishna Dayanarv and Sridhar were the chief poets of this period. In 1840, the first  Marathi  daily Digdarshan was started  which  was later on, followed by Darpan. During this modern phase, Nibandhamala of Chiplunker, biographical work of N.C. Kelker and several novels of Hari Narayan Amte and V.S. Khandekar published which became very popular. Vijay Tendul akar  is  known  for  his  dramas , Sakharam Bainder and Ghasi Ram Kotwal.

Malayalam Literature

The primary Malayalam literary tradition consists of three streams of thought in its composition. The first is the Pach Malayam stream, which consists of folk song and folk story. The  second is the Tamil stream, during which the Ramayana like composition were composed and third is the Sanskritic stream, during which refined literary compositions were composed. In the 15 th century,  Krishna gatha  was composed by Cherushasheri Nambudri. In the 16th century Ezhuthachan compos ed Adhyatma Ramayana Killipattu, Sree Maha Bharatam Killipattu and Bhagavatham Killipattu. The poetic works Ramnattam of Kottarakara Thampuran, Bakvadham,  Nivat hakavaju Kalkeya vadam, Kirmeerava dham, Kalyanas owgandhikam of Kottayathu Thampuran, Nalacharitam of Unnayi variyar etc. also become popular. Several noted works were written during the 19th century, but it was in the 20th century the Malayalam literary movement came to prominence. Malayalam literature flourished under various genres and today it is a fully developed part of Indian literature.

Nepali Literature

Nepali is the language of Indo-European family and it follows Devanagri script. It is also very close to Hindi, Maithili and Bengali. In the 18th century, Nepalese literature came in light with the publication of the works of Subnand Das, Shalai Ballav Aryan and Udayanand. Sanskrit- works were generally translated into Nepali. Krishna Charitha, first epic in Nepali, was composed by Vasant Sharma. In the 20th century, Mitrasen, Moti Ram Bhatt, Lekhnath and Balkrishna Sharma contributed a lot in the field of prose writing. Some popular novelist are Pratiman Lama, Rudraraj Pandey, Shiv Kumar Rai, Subhas Ghising etc. Balkrishna Sharma and Aryali are the popular dramatist.

Oriya Literature

Oriya has a rich literary heritage dating back to the 13th century. Sarala Dasa who lived in th  14th century is known as the Vyasa of Orissa. He translated the Mahabharta into Oriya. Oriya basically originated from the Magadhi dialect and it is very close to the Assamese. Sharla Das, Balram Das, Jagrmath Das, Yashwant Das etc. contributed, a lot to this devotional and cultic tradition. Fakir Mohan Senapati is considered as the modern  and popular  architect of Oriya literature. He is known for his novel Galp- Salp and Chhamana Aatha Guntha. The epic Mahayatra of Radhanath Rath is widely popular. In 1993, Sitakant Mahapatra was awarded Gyanpith award. Manoj Das, Ramakanta Rath,Jagadish Mohanty, Sarojini Sahoo, Pratibha Satpathy, Padmaj Pal, Binapani Mohanty are few names who made the Oriya literature and Oriya language work.

Kashmiri   Literature

The Kashmiri languages and literature is greatly influenced by the Persian and Sanskrit. The first literary works  in Kashmiri is Tantrasar of Abhinav Gupta whi ch was composed dur ing the 11th century. The modern phase in Kashmiri literature started when a large number of Urdu poets began to start writing in Kashmiri. Prominent among them  are  Mahjur,  Akhatar  Moinuddin, Mohammad Amin Kamil and Agha Shahid Ali. Rehman Rahi got the 2004, Gyanpith award.

Gujarati Literature

Gujarati Literature’s history may be traced to the 10 00 AD. Si nce then li tera ture has flourished till date. During the 13th century and its primary stage of development, Gujarati literature followed the romanticism in their work. Padam, Rajshekhar and Jaishekhar composed romantic prose in Gujarati. Modernism in Gujarati is visible in the fiction, Koran Chela of Narmod Shanker. In 1985, Pannalal Patel was honoured with Gyanpith award. Well known laureats of Gujarai literature are Hemachandracharya, Narsinh Mehta, Mirabai, Akho, Premanand Bhatt, Dayram, Narmad, Umashankar Joshi, Pannalal Patel etc.

Punjabi Literature

The history of Punjabi Literature starts with advent of Aryan in Punjab. The Punjab literary tradition is generally conceived to commence with Fariduddin Ganjshakar. His mostly spiritual and devotional verse were complied after his death in the Adi Granth. The Janamsakhis, stories on the life and legend of Guru Nanak are early examples of Punjabi prose literature. Sufi poetry developed under Shah Hussain, Sultan Babu, Shah Sharaf, Ali Haider and Bulleh Shah. The Victorian novel, Elizabethan drama, free verse and Modernism enter ed Punjabi Literature through the introduction of Brit ish education during colonial rule.

Tamil Literature

It is the language of Dravida family, the origin, of which may be traced around 500 B.C. It is very ancient as well as modern. At the primary stage Tolkapiyam, a grammar was published. This period (500 B.C.-200 B.C.) is known as the  Sangam period. Tirukural of Tiruvallure is still very popular. As  far as devotional  literary  work  is concerned, the Ramayana of Kamban got wide popularity. Manimekhale and Shilappadikaram are the other prominent epics. The trends of modernisation, patriotism and consciousness in Tamil literature started with the works of Subrahamanyam Bharthi. He inspired thousands of youths through his literary works. The other prominent novelists are Rajan Ayyar, Madhavaiya, Pudumaipitan, K.P. Rajgopalan and Kalki Krishnamurti. The chief architect of prose   composition are Jayakantan,Neela Padamnabhan, Sunderamswami, Indira Parthsarthi etc.

Telugu Literature

The origin of this language is traced to the llth century. The period between 11th to 15th century  is  consi dered  as  the  period  of translation. In the 16th century. The poet, Srinath who composed Shreengar Naishadham was widely acclaimed.Gona Ganna Reddy is considered as the Tulsidas of Telugu. His Rangnath Ramayana became very popular. Patana, Tikkanna and Gauranna were the other religious poets. The period of 16th and 17th centuries is considered as the golden age in the Telugu literature. 19th century is  considered as the  period of Renaissance in Telugu literature.

Santhali Literature

Santhali language is classified under the Munda sub-group of the Austric family. The Santhali speaking population is spread across Jharkhand, West bengal, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Assam, Tripura, and even Nepal, Bangladesh, Tibet and Burma. After a long struggle, the Santhali language was incorporated into the 8th Schedule of the Indian Constitution or. 22 December, 2003. It is believed that the Santhali literature has its beginning in the 14th century. The first ever book in Santhali literature was published in 1852. It was written by Reverend J. Phillips, titled " An Introduction to the Santhali language". The first real work by a Santhali writer was a translation of R. Corstairs 'Harma's Village' by  R.P.K. Rapaj and was titled 'Harmawah Ato'. The first collection of poems that was printed was that of Paul Jujhar Soren titled 'Baha Dalwak'. Pt .  Ra ghunat h  Mur mu,  N ar a yan  Sor en (Toresutam), Aditya Mitra (Santhali), Babulal Murmu (Adivasi) are some of the prominent Santhali literary figures. Writers like Doman Sahu 'Samir', Basudev Besra and Bhagwat Murmu gave valuable contributions to this literature. Recently, Jadumani Besra became the first Santhali writer to be awarded the prestigious Sahitya  Akademi Puraskar.

Sanskrit Literature

The origin of Sanskrit language is traced during the 1500 B.C. to 1200 B.C. The Ashthadhayi of Panini, Ramayana of Valmiki, Mahabharata of  Vyas etc. were composed during early times. The  Panchatantra of Vishnu Sharma , Budhacharitra of Ashwaghosh and Bodhimatiakavya of Saundaranand are other famous works of this period. Meghdutam, Kumar sambhav and Raghuva nsham  of Kalidas are still very popular. His famous drama, Abhigyan Shakuntalam got world wide r ecogni t i on.                Ma l vika gni mi tr a    and Vikramorvshiyam are the other famous dramas of Kalidas. Ashwaghosh and Bhasa started the dramatical composition in Sanskrit. Pratiyogandharayan and Pratibhanatkam are very popular dramas of Bhasa. Vishakhadutta, Harsha, Bhavbhuti, Bodhayan and Rajshekhar were the other prominent dramatists. The ancient book on Ayurveda such as Rasraj Mahodadhi, Charakshamhita, Yog Ratnakar etc. were composed in Sanskrit. Algebra of Aryabhatta and "Lilawati" of Bhashkaracharya were also composed in Sanskrit.

Sindhi Literature 

The history of its origin may be traced in a 13th century. Gahu is considered as a very ancient work of Sindhi which follow the t heme  of  Roma nt i cis m.  In  Sindhi,like Sanskrit, the primary poetic composition followed the oral tradition. Pir Saduddin (1290 - 1551)  was the chief  poet  who composed religious and devotional poetry. The famous sufi poet of the Sindhi is BajKajan (1465-1551). From the 17th century, this literature proceeds towards modernism. Rasalo Sandesh of Shah Abdul Latif is a popular work. Some of the other known authors are Sahay, Chairai Sami, Dalpat, Gulmohammad, Imtiaz Aadil Soomro etc. Lal Shahbaz Oalardar was famous for his different works.

Urdu Literature

The literary trends of Urdu may be traced in the 13th century especially in the Muslim courts and administration. The prominent authors of Southern Urdu are Shekh Ganjus IIm, Khawaja Banda Nawaz, Mukini and Ahmad Aziz. Miratul Aashikeen of Banda Nawaz is still recited in a very voracious tone. In 17th century, Mullah Vajhi composed Kutub Mustari and Anayokti Sabras. The trend of Gazal writing was started by Amir Khusro, Vali, Kutub Shah etc. The credit of starting the trend of modernism in Urdu goes to Sir Saiyad Ahmad Khan. Mir Hasan and Mir  Taqi Mir also contributed  a lot. The Gul-i-Nagma of Raghupati Sahay Firak Gorakhpuri got   Gyanpith award. Premchandra, Nazeer Ahamad etc. are the promi nent  prose writers.The  popular dramatist are Banarsi, Talib Hassan and Lakhnavi. In 1990, Aag Ka Dariya of Kuratul- aim Haider got Gyanpith award.

Hindi Literature

According to Acharya Ram Chandra Shukla, the entire history of the Hindi literature may be understood by dividing it into three major phases. The first is called Virgatha or "Aadikal" (1050-1375) during which the composition of court poets became very popular. Some of the  best compositions are Prithiviraj Raso, Parimal Raso, Hamir Raso, Beesaldev Raso etc. Chandbardai, Sridhar and Madhukar were the popular poets. The second phase or period is known as "Bhakti Kal" (1375-1700) during whi ch most  of the literary works  were composed in devotion or respect to God especially Ram and Krishna. Sakhi, Sabad and Rasal of Kabir are still alive. Dadu Raidas, Nanak,  Maluketc. were the prominent authors. Ramcharitramanas, Vinay Patrika, Kavitawali and Hanumanbahu etc. of Tulsidas are popularly known works. The third phase is  known as "Ritikal" (1700-1900). By this time, the Hindi literary tradition became very matured and ornamental literary composition had already made its departure along with romanticism. Ramachandrika of Kesavdas b eca me very  popular.  Bihari, Jaswant , Padmakar etc. were the prominent poets of this time.

The tradition of modernity in Hindi started in the late 19th century. In 1826 Udant Martand, a  Hindi weekly was st ar ted.  Bha rt endu Harischandra wrote Premchandrika and Satya Harischandra (drama) which became very popular. Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi started Sarswatipatrika in 1930. In the field of novel writing, Devkinandan Khatri, Srinivas Das and Premchandra contributed a lot. Jayshankar Prasad, Bhagwati Charan  Verma  and Vrindawan Lal Verma are known figures. Mahadevi Verma, Nirala and Prasad were the prominent mystic (Chhayavadi) poets.

English Literature

Rabindranath Tagore was the first Asian writer to win the Nobel Prize for Literature(1913) . Tagore represents a happy combination of the ancient Indian tradition and the new European consciousness. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for his poem entitled Gitanjali. His other known works are Gora, Chare Baire and Galpa Guchchha. Mulka Raj Anand's r eputati on was first established  by his  first  two  novels , Untouchable (1935) ,  which gives an account of "a day in life" of a sweeper, and Coolie (1936), which follows the fortunes of  a peasant boy uprooted from the land. His trilogy, The Village (1939), Across The Black Waters (1940) and The Sword and the Sickle (1942), is an epic account of the gradual growth of the protagonist's revolutionary consciousness. Raja Rao's first novel Kanthapura (1938) is his most straight forward work. It gives an account  of how  her  village' s  revolt against a domineering plant ation owner comes to be influenced  the Gandhian ideal of  non-violence. Rao's  major work The Serpent and the Rope (1960) is regarded by  some Indian critics as the most important Indian novel in English to have appeared to date. Rao has also published the short novels The Cat and Shakespeare (1965) and Comrade Kirillov (1976). Nirad C. Chaudhari is being regarded as the most  controver sial of Indian writers in English. He emerged on the scene with his book The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian (1951). When he visited England, he  recorded his experiences in A Passage to  England (1959). In The Continent of Circe (1965) he puts forward the thesis that the Aryan settlers of India became enfeebled by the climate of North India. He has also published To Live or not to Live (1970) and a  second volume of autob iography, Thy  Hand, Great Anarch (1987)R.K. Narayan's early novels include the triology Swami and Friends (1935), The Bachelor of Arts (1937) and The English Teacher (1945). The novels of his middle per i od  r epr es ent his  b es t wor ks ;  t hes e include Mr. Sampath (1949), The Financial Expert (1952), The Guide (1958), The Man- Eater of Malgudi (1961) and The Sweet- Vendor (1967) .  They explore  conflicts between  traditional  Hindu values and western in cursions  into  the society. Narayan's more recent novels include The Painter of Signs(1976) , A Tiger for Malgudi (1983) and Talkative Man (1986). He has also published several volumes of short stories, including An Astrologer's Day (1947) and Lawley Road (1956).

Vikram Seth's first novel, A 'Suitable Boy has made him the most hyped-up first-time novelist in the history of Indian literature. The Golden Gate, a novel in verse had hit the bestsellers' lists in 1986-87. This was followed by three collections of verses : The Humble Administrator's Garden, All You Who Sleep Tonight and Beastly Tales From Here and There.

Salman Rushdie won the 1981 Booker Prize for Midnight's Children (1981). The Shame (1983) approaches politicalevents in Pakistan. He has also published Grimus (1975), a science fiction novel, and The Jaguar Smile (1987), a journal about wartorn Nicargua and of course, the banned book - The Satanic Verses. He was declared the writer of the millennium.

Anita  Desai has written  Fire in  the Mountains (1977). Clear Light of Day (1980) and The Village by the Sea (1982), Cry the Peacock (1963), Bye-Bye Black Bird (1971) and In Custody (1984). Her subtleuno stentatious  prose and her sensitive evocation of the inner lives of her characters make her one of the finest talents at work in the Indian novel.


Printed Study Material for UPSC PRELIMS EXAM

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Training Institute: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

UPSC Exam Art & Culture

Training Institute : Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

Training Institute

Film and Television Institute of India, Pune

The Film Institute was setup by the Govern- ment of India in 1960. With the coming of Television wing in 1974, the Institute was re- designated as Film and Television Institute of India.  The Institute became a society in Oc- tober 1974. The society consists of eminent personalities connected with film, Television, Communication, Culture, Alumi of Institute and Ex-officio Government   members. The Institute is governed by a Governing Coun-cil, headed by a Chairman. The current chair- man is Dr. U.R. Ananthamurthy. The Insti- tute consists of two wings, The Film wing and the TV wing.   It offers courses in both Film and Television. Film and Television In- stitute provides the latest education and tech- nological experience in the art and technique of film making and television production.

Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute (SRFTI)

SRFTI located in Kolkata is the second na- tional level film training Institute to be estab- lished by the Government of India. The In- stitute offers three - year post graduate di- ploma courses in Direction and Screenplay writing,  Cinematography,  Editing, and Audiography. Apart from the basic diploma course, the institute also has the provision  to conduct short and medium term courses on areas related to film and television  research and explorative studies in the  sociology, cul- ture and technology of film and television are other areas of focus in SRFTI

Indian Ins titute of Mass Communication (IIMC)

IIMC came into existence on 17th August 1963. It was established with the basic ob- jective  of undertaking teaching, training and research in the area of mass communication. The institute conducts a number of Post - graduate Diploma Courses in Print Journal- ism, Radio and TV Journalism and Advertis- ing and Public Relations. A number of spe- cialised short - term courses ranging from one week to twelve weeks are also organised to meet the ever - growing training needs  of communication professionals working in vari- ous media/publicity outfits of central, state governments and public sector organizations. In addition the institute also collaborates with different national and international agencies in conducting training programmes, seminars, workshops etc. and in undertaking research projects


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Indian Cinema: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

UPSC Exam Art & Culture

Indian Cinema : Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

Indian Cinema

!      India tops the world in respect of production of feature films.

!      The film producing centre in Mumbai is known as Bollywood.

!      The first talkies film Alam Ara was produced in 1931 by Ardeshir Irani (1886-1969).

!      Dada Saheb Phalke, the producer of India’s first indigenous feature filmRaja Harichandra (1913) is considered as the father of Indian Cinema.

!       India’s first cinemascope film is Kagaz ka Phool 1959 by Guru Dutt.

!       India’s first 70 mm film is Around the World (Hindi) 1967 by Raj Kapoor.

!      The most prestigious award in the Indian film world is Dada Saheb Phalke Award instituted by the Government of India for life long con- tributions to Indian Cinema.

!      Swarna Kamal (Golden Kamal) is the name of the award given to the best film of the year by the Government of India.

!      The first winner of the Dada Saheb Award was Devika Rani Roerrch (1969). She is known as the Lady of Indian Film.

!      Adi Shankara directed by G.V. Iyer is the first sanskrit film in India.

!      The first actress of the Indian Cinema to win a Padmashri Award was Nargis Dutt (1958).

!      Sivaji Ganesan was the first Indian to win the Chevalier Award instituted by the French Gov- ernment.

!      M.G. Ramachandran was the first film star to become the Chief Minister of an Indian State.

!      The first International Film Festival of India was held in 1952.

!       First Indian 3-D Picture is Malayalam cinema My Dear Kuttichathan.

!      Filmmakers such as Shyam Benegal contin- ued to produce realistic Parallel Cinema throughout the 1970s, alongside Satyajit Ray, Rit wi k Ghat ak,  Mr inal Sen,  Buddha deb Dasgupta and Gautam Ghose in Bengali cin- ema; Adoor Gopalakrishnan, John Abraham and G. Aravindan in Malayalam cinema; and Mani Kaul, Kumar Shahani, Ketan Mehta, Govind Nihalani and Vijaya Mehta in Hindi cin- ema.

Films Division

Th Film Division was constituted in January 1948  by rechristening the erstwhile Informa- tion Films of India and the Indian New Parade set up in 1943. Its headquarters is in Mumbai. Films Division produces documentaries, short films, animation films and news  magazines. The Division also sells prints, stock shots, video cassettes and distribution rights of docu- mentaries and feature films in India and abroad. Apart from production of films, Films Divi- sion also gives on hire, its studio, recording theatre,  editing  rooms  and  other  cine equipments to private film makers. The aim and objectives of the Division, focused on national   perspectives, are to educate and motivate people in the implementation of na- tional  programmes and to protect the image of  the land and the heritage of the country to Indian and foreign audiences.

Central Board of Film Certification

The Central Board of Film Certifica tion (CBFC) was set up under the Cinematograph Act 1952. CBFC certifies films for public ex- hibition in India.  It consists of a chairperson and twenty five other non -official members. Smt. Sharmila Tagore is the present Chairper- son of CBFC. Its headquarters is in Mumbai. It  has nine regional offices in Bangalore, Kolkata ,  Chennai ,  Cuttack,  Guwahati , Hyderbad,   Mumbai , New Delhi and Thiruvananthapuram.

National Film Development Corporation Limited (NFDC)

The National Film Development Corporation Limited was incorporated in 1975. It was formed by the Government of India with the primary objective of planning and promoting an  organized, efficient and integrated devel- opment of the Indian film industry. NFDC was reincorporated in the year 1980, by merging the Film Finance Corporation (FFC) and  In- dia n Motion Picture Export Corporat ion (IMPEC) with NFDC. The erstwhile Film Fi- nance Corporation was set up in the year 1962. It was  formed with the primary objective of extending finance to young talented film mak- ers for film production. The Indian Motion Picture Export Corporation was an autono- mous body. It was set up to regulate the im- port and export of films and canalization of raw stock into the country. The NFDC has so far produced over 200 films. These films in various Indian languages, have been widely acclaimed and have won many national and international awards. The Corporate office of NFDC is at Worli, Mumbai. It has three Re- gional Offices at Chennai, Kolkata and Delhi and a Branch Office at Thiruvananthapuram.

Directorate of Film Festivals

The Directorate of Film Festivals was setup under the Ministry of Information and Broad- casting in 1973 with the  prime objective of promoting good cinema. The activities of Directorate of Film Festivals include

a)    The International Film Festival of India

b)    The National Film Awards and the Dada Saheb Phalke Award

c)    Cultural Exchange Programme and Or-ganising screening of Indian  films through the mission abroad.

d)    The  selection of Indian Panorama.

e)    Participation in international film festi- vals abroad.

f)    Special film exposition of behalf of the Government of India

g)    Print collection and documentation. These  activities provides a unique platform for exchange of ideas, culture and experi-ences between India and other countries in the field of Cinema.

National Film Archive of India

The National Film Archive of India was es- tablished as an independent media unit under the Ministry of Information and Broadcast- ing in February 1964 with the following aims and objectives

1)    To trace, acquire and preserve for pos- terity the heritage of national cinema and build up a representative collection of World Cinema.

2)    To classify and document data related to  film, undertake and encourage re- search on cinema and publish and dis-tribute them; and

3)    To act as a centre for dissemination of film culture in the country and to ensure the cultural presence of Indian Cinema abroad.

Children’s Film Society, India (CFSI)

Children’s Film Society, India was established in  1955 to provide value - based entertain- ment to children through the medium of films. CFSI  is engaged in production, acquisition, distribution, exhibition and promotion of chil- dren’s films.   The Head office of the CFSI isin Mumbai with branch offices at New Delhi and Cheannai. CFSI holds, its own Interna- tional Children’s Film Festival once every two years. The 16th edition of this Festival was held in Hyderabad in November 2009. 70 films from 20 countries were selected  for partici- pation in the festival. 350 children participated in the festival from across the country.


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(VIDEO) What led to the revival of Gorkhaland demand? What are the possible solutions? - Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

(VIDEO) What led to the revival of Gorkhaland demand? What are the possible solutions? 

- Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

Topic of Discussion: What led to the revival of Gorkhaland demand? What are the possible solutions? - Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

Expert Panel: 


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(VIDEO) China Set Rules to Combat Extremism - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

(VIDEO) China Set Rules to Combat Extremism

- Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

Topic of Discussion: China Set Rules to Combat Extremism - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

Expert Panel Name : Prof.S.D.Muni (Former Diplomat), Prof.MD Nalapat (Manipal University) , Dr.Sanjeev Kumar(Research Fellow,ICWA), Natasha Jha Bhaskar (Anchor)


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News Papers: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

UPSC Exam Art & Culture

News Papers : Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

News Papers :
The office of the Registrar of Newspapers for India came into being on 1 July 1956. The Registrar of Newspapers for India submit on Annual Report to the Government by 31 December  every  year on the  status  of newspapers. The period for which the annual report was to be submitted, was changed from
the calender year to financial   year in 2002. As on 31 March 2009 the total number of registered newspapers /periodical was 73,146. Orissa publishes newspapers / periodicals in 21 major languages. Delhi,  Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra come next with 14, 13 and 11 major   languages. The largest number of newspapers / periodicals registered in any Indian languages is in Hindi (29094). The second largest number  of   newspa pers / periodicals registered in any language is in English (10,530). The state with the largest number of   newspapers/ periodicals is Uttar Pradesh with 11,543 newspapers/ periodicals. The state with the second  largest number of newspapers/ periodicals is Delhi with 9961 newspapers / periodicals.
The Press Information Bureau is the nodal a gency  of  the  Government of India  to diss eminate information to the print and electronic media on government policies, progamme initiatives and achievements. It functions as an interface  between  the Government and Media and also serves to provide feedback to the Government on People’s reaction as reflected in the media. Its headquarters is in New Delhi.
Press Trust of India (PTI)
Press Trust of India was founded on 27 August 1947. It began functioning from 1 February 1949. Press Trust of India, India’s largest news agency is a non profit sharing co-operative owned by the country’s newspapers with a mandate to provide efficient and unbiased news to  all subscribers. The PTI offers its news services in English and Hindi languages. Bhasha is  the Hindi language news service of the a gency.   PTI   subscribers   include 500 newspapers in India and 20 abroad. All Major TV/ radio channels in India and several abroad, including BBC in London, receive PTI service. The PTI now has its own satellite delivery system through a transponder on an INSAT satellite for reaching its services directly to subscribers anywhere in the country. PTI is on the internet too.  Currently, PTI commands 90 percent of news agency marketshare in India.
United News of India
United News of India was constituted on 19 December 1959 and started functioning from 21 March 1961. It is the first news agency in India   to launch a full - fledged Hindi wire service ‘ UNIVARTA’ in 1982 and a photo service and a graphics service in the same decade. In June 1992,   it launched the first ever   wire  service in Urdu. UNI  has correspondents in Washington, Newyork, London,Moscow, Dubai , Islama ba d, Kathmandu, Colombo, Dhaka, Singapore,Toronto (Canada) ,  Sydney (Australia) , Bangkok (Thailand) and Kabul (Afghanostan). UNI distributes world news from Reuters, the world’s largest information company. Besides, it  has news exchange arrangements with Xinhua of China, RIA Novosti of Russia, UNB of Bangladesh, Anadole of Turkey,  WAM of the United Arab Emirates, GNA of Baharin, KUNA of Kuwait, ONA of Oman and QNA of Qatar and CNA of Taiwan.
Nam News Network
NAM N ews Network (NNN ) is the new Internet based news and photo exchange arrangement of the news agencies belonging to  member countries of the non - aligned movement. NNN was formally launched by the Malaysian Information Minister   Mr. Zainuddin Maidin in Kuala Lumpur on 27 June
2006. It became operational from April 2006. NNN replaces the Non-aligned News Agencies Pool (NANAP) which had acted as the news exchange mechanism among non - aligned countries for the last 30 years.  News and photo contributions of NAM new agencies including  Press Trust of India are uploaded on to the NNN website.   Malaysian news agency Bernama is at present handling the operation of the website from Kuala Lumpur.
Press Council of India
Press Council of India is a statutory quasi - judicial authority mandated by the Parliament to  preserve the freedom   of the   press and maintain and improve the standards of the newspapers and the news agencies in India. It is  an autonomous body with equal quasi- judicial authority over the authorities and the press persons. The council is presently chaired by Hon’ble Mr. Justice G.M. Ray. The Press Council Act, 1978 provides for re-constitution of the Council every three years. The  council discharges   its functions primarily through adjudications on complaint received by it either against the press for violation of journalistic ethic or by the press for interference with its freedom. Where the council is satisfied, after inquiry, that a newspaper or  news agency has offended against the standards of journalistic ethics or public taste or that an editor or working  journalists has committed any professional misconduct, the council may warn , a dmonish  orcensure them or disapprove of their conduct. The decisions of the council are final and cannot be questioned in any court of law.
Research Reference and Training Division
The Research Reference and Training Division was set up in the year 1945. It is a subordinate office of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Its role is to assist the Media Units of the Ministry in collection, compilation and preparation of material involving research in  published work etc.   and building up of compendium of knowledge on importa nt subjects. The National Documentation Centre on Mass Communication (NDCMC) was created in 1976 as a part of the division for collecting, interpreting and desseminating information about the events and trends in  Mass Media through its periodical services. The NDCMC documents major news items, articles, and other information material available on mass communication.
Photo Division
Photo Division, an independent media unit meant for visual support for the varied activities of the Government of India, is subordinate office of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting and the biggest production unit of  its kind of the country in the field of photography. The Division is responsible for visual documentation and the preparation of photographs both in Black and White and Colour initially, for both internal and external publicity on behalf of the Government of India.
Publications Division
The Publications Division is a repository of books and   journals highlighting subjects of national importance and India’s rich cultural heritage. It is publishing books in English and Hindi as well as in all major Indian languages at  affordable prices. The division publishes books on India’s art, culture, history, land and people. flora and fauna, Gandhian literature, Children’s literature, science and technology,. biographies of eminent Indians, and also publishes book to   commemorate national events an centenaries of great leaders. Apart from the books, the Division publishes 21 periodicals in English, Hindi and regional
languages - Yojana in 13 languages , Kurukshetra in English and Hindi, Ajkal in Hindi and Urdu. Bal Bharati in Hindi and Employment News (weekly) in English, Hindi and Urdu.
Bharatendu Harischandra Awards
Inorder to promote original writing in Hindi, Publication Division instituted the Bharatendu Harichandra Awards 25 years back. These prestigious awards are given annually in four categories namely Journalism and Mass Communication, Women’s Issues, Children’s Literature and National Integration.


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Mass Communications: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

UPSC Exam Art & Culture

Mass Communications: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

Prasar Bharati: Prasar Bharati is the public service broadcaster in  the country with All India Radio and Doordarshan as its two constituents. It came into existence on 23 November, 1997. Its head quarters is in Delhi. The major objectives of the Prasar Bharati Corporation are as follows.

1)    Upholding the unity and integrity of the country and the values  enshrined in the constitution.

2)    Promoting national integration.

3)    Safe guarding citizen’s rights  and to be informed on all matters of public interest and presenting  a  fair  and  balanced  flow  of information.

4)    Paying special attention to the fiel ds  of education and spread of literacy, agriculture, rural development, health and family welfare and science and technology.

5)    Creating awareness a bout  women’s issues  and  taking special  steps  to protect the interests of children, the aged and other vulnerable sections of society.

6)    Providing  adequate coverage to the diverse cultures , sports  and games and  youth affairs.

7)    Promoting social justice, safeguarding the rights of working  classes , minorities  and  tribal communities.

8)    Expanding broadcasting facilities and promoting research and development  in broadcast technology. The present chairman of Prasar Bharati - Ms. Mrinal Pande

RADIO: Radio Broadcasting started in India in 1927 with two privately owned transmitters at Mumbai and Kolkata, which were taken over by the Government in 1930. These were operating under the name “India Broadcasting Service” until 1936 when it was given the present name “ All India Radio (AIR)”. It also came to be known as  “Akashwani” from 1957. All India Radio, informs, educates and entertains people through its  programmes broadcast from various stations. The AIR network comprises the national channel, regional stations, local radio stations, Vividh Bharati Centres. FM Stereo services and North - Eastern Services. All  India  Radio  is  one  of  the  largest broadcasting networks in the world.   As in December 2009 the network comprises 233 stations and 375 transmitters,  which provide radio  coverage to  99 . 1 6  percent of  t he population and reaches 91.82 percent area of the country.

External Services of All India Radio: All India Radio entered the realm of external broadcasting shortly after the outbreak of the second world war on 1 October 1939. The languages in which AIR reaches its foreign audience are  English, French,   Russian, Swahili, Arabic, Persian, Pushto, Dari, Baluchi. Sinhalese, Nepali, Tibetan, Chinese, Thai, Burmese and Bhasha Indonesia. The services in Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Gujarati are directed at overseas Indians.

Vividh Bharati: Vividh Bharati, which is a popular entertainment programme, is broadcast from 40 centres in India including four short wave transmitters at  Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai and Guwahati- Commer ci al b roa dcas ti ng cent res ar e at Chandigarh, Kanpur and Vadodara and two s tudi o               centres at Bhuba neswar and Shantiniketan. The great merit of Vividh Bharati service is that it provides entertainment for 15 hours a day to the listeners. Commercial broadcasting on Radio was introduced   in November 1967 as an experimental measure. Now it is carried by 31 centres. Army men fighting the Kargil war during 1999 stayed connected with their family members through Vividh Bharati’s popular programe in Hello Jaimala.

Yuva Vani: Yuva Vani gives programmes for the youth from 74 stations. The service provides a forum for the youth to present their viewpoint by participating in talks, discussions, interviews, plays, features and music. It is a service of the youth, by the youth and for the youth.

Archives Digital Library: A special project was launched to digitize all archival recordings in 2001. By this Akashavani has become one of the major digital libraries in the broadcasting network with modern tape numb ering system   in  tune   with the internationally accepted norms.

FM Radio: First FM service was started in 1972 in Madras and later in 1992 at Jalander. In 1993 AIR sold time slots for private FM Radio Broadcasting in 5 cities (Madras, Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta and Goa). They were soon followed by stations in Hyderbad, Jaipur and Lucknow. In 1999 Government of India privatized FM broadcating but it failed because the Government demanded higher revenues from private broadcasters.

The Ministry finally invited bids for FM frequencies in 2001 from across the country. However, this did not work out as foreseen as most private players bid heavily and most could not meet their commitments to pay the government the amounts they owed. Only a few stations like Radio City, Radio Mirchi and Red FM managed to sustain themselves.The Phase II of FM licensing happened in 2006, where some 338 frequencies were offered of which about 237 were sold. In Phase III of FM licensing the government went for re- bidding of unsold frequencies. In this smaller towns and cities opened up for FM Radio.

DOORDARSHAN: Doordarshan starts its service on 15 September 1959 at Delhi on an experimental basis. The second television centre was started in Bombay in 1972 and later it was expanded to other places. The rapid expansion of DD started in 1984. Doordarshan is presently operating 31 TV Channels besides free to air DTH Service.

DD National Channel: DD National is the No. 1 channel in the country in terms of absolute viewership. The service is available in terrestrial mode from  5.30 am till mid night. In the satellite mode it is available round the clock. All major national events are covered live.

Sports Channel:Sports channel of Doordarshan was launched on 18 March 1999. On 25th April 1999 the transmission  hours  of  the  channel  was increased from 10 hours to 12 hourss a day. From June 2000 onwards the transmission hours have been extended to round the clock.

DD India: The Channel, initially known as DD World was launched on 14 March 1995. In 2002 it was renamed DD India. It is a round - the - clock channel. It offers its international viewers update on the Indian social, cultural, political and economic scene.

DD Bharati: DD Bharati Channel was launched by Prasar Bharati on 26 J anuary 2002. It telecasts progr ammes  on  music, dance,   women education, health children.

DD Direct Plus: Doordarshan launched free - to air DTH Service “ DD Direct Plus” in December 2004 with 33 TV Channels primarily for providing TV coverage to the areas hithero uncovered by terrestrial transmitters DTH signals are uplinked to INSAT 4- B satellite from the DTH centre located at Todapur, New Delhi. DTH signals (KU Band) can be received anywhere in  the country (expect Andaman Nicobar islands) with the help of small sized dish receiver units. Presently there are 58 TV channels on Doordarshan’s DTH platform. DTH service in C- Band with 10 DD Channels especially for Andaman Nicobar Islands has been started in September 2009.


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Famous Theatre Personalities Of India: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

UPSC Exam Art & Culture

Famous Theatre Personalities Of India: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams


Alyque Padamsee:
Alyque Padamsee, known as the ‘Communi- cations Guru of India’ has immensely contrib- uted to the advertising industry and the world of  theatre. As theatre director he staged as many as  63 plays in 50 years, with several of them becoming box office hits.  He has also produced plays like ‘Evita, Tuqlaq, and Jesus Christ  Super Star’.
Feroz Khan:
Ferozkhan is another accomplished playwright who has to his credit several outstanding plays like ‘Tumhari, Amrita, Saalgirah, Mahatma Vs Gandhi and Salesman Ramlal.’
Girish Karnad:
Girish Karnad is a very famous and talented playwright, director and an actor. His formi- dable works as a playwright include Yayathi (1961), Tughlaq (1964), Hayavadana (1971), Anjumallige (1977), Hittina Hunja (1980), Naga - Mandala (1988), Tale- danda (1990) and Agni Mattu Male (1995). All these plays were writ- ten originally in Kannada but were translated into other languages including Hindi and En- glish. He has also produced several radio plays and also acted in several renowned films. He had received many honours and awards.
Mahesh Dattani:
One of the leading contemporary playwrights of  India, Dattani has produced 13 plays in- cluding one play called ‘Do The Needful’ for the BBC. He touched upon the sensitive issue of communalism in his play ‘ Final Solutions’ which won him Sahitya Academy Award.  His other important plays include ‘A Muggy Night in Mumbai’, ‘Dance Like a Man and Final So- lutions’ etc.
Pearl Padamsee:
Pearl Padamsee was a noted theatre and film personality. Her notable directorial ventures in theatres include Godspell, Rise and Fall of Arturo Ui, Gieve Patel’s Princes,  Van Italy’s Serpent and Dostoevsky’s The Idiot. She was also a versatile actress. She died in April 2000 at the age of 69.
Vijay Tendulkar:
He is one of the most renowned play wrights of the Marathi theatre. His notable plays in- clude ‘Giddha’, ‘Khamosh’ - Adalat Jari Hai, Sakharam Binder, Ghasiram Kotwal, Kamla and Kanyadaan. Vijay Tendulkar has to his credit 28 full length plays, 25 one - act plays and 16 plays for children.
Zohra Sehgal
She is a well - known stage artist,  renowned for her acting in the famous play Ek Thi Nani
Improvis a tional theatre is a form of theatre in which the improvisational actors use improvisational acting techniques to perform spontaneously. Improviserstypically use audience suggestions to guide the performance as they create dialogue, setting and plot extemporaneously. Improvisational Theatre in India is largely used for educational, interventional and entertainment purposes. The traces of Improvisational theatre in India dates back to the year 1990.
Improvisational Theatre groups in India are your struly Theatre, Janasanskriti, Forum theatre, playback theatre, Mushyara theatre etc.
Ancient Theatre Pe rsonalties
Bharata Muni, Kalidasa, Sudraka, Bhasa, Bhavabhuti
Midieval age Theatre personalities
Bankim Chandra Chatter jee, Dinabandhu Mitra, Michael Madhusudan Dutta, Bharatendu Harischandra, Jai Shankar Prasad.


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Post Independence Theatre In India: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

UPSC Exam Art & Culture

Post Independence Theatre In India: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

In the middle of the 19th Century the western literature and the feelings of nationalism and pride of the glorious past of country equally influenced Indian Theatre. Indian theatre and drama got a new footing, when Sangeet Natak Academy was started in January 1953. Later

the National School of Drama did much for the growth and promotion of Modern Indian Theatre. In the 1960s, by suitable mixing of various styles and techniques from Sanskrit medieval folk and western theatre, the modern Indian theatre was given a new, versatile and broader approach at every level of creativity. The year 1972 turned out to be a landmark for the In- dian Vernacular Theatre when Vijay Tendulkar’s Marathi play ‘ Ghashiram Kotwal’ made waves by its brilliant use of traditional folk forms in modern contemporary theatre.

Manjula  Padmanabhan was the first Indian to earn international acclaim with her play ‘ Bit- ter Harvest’, which won the highest Greek honour. Another talented upcoming play wright is Mahesh Dattani, who has produced thirteen plays. Although the emergence of Cinema had given a set back to the popularity of theatre as the main medium of popular entertainment, several film personalities themselves had con- tributed for the growth and promotion of the- atre. They include, Vijaya Menta, Dr. Shriram Lagoo, Girish Karnad, Pearl Padmasec, Amol Palekkar, Shashi Kapoor, Naseeruddin Shah, Shabana Azmi and some others.

Theatre continues to attract a new bread of young and talented actors, directors and play- wrights. Anahta Uberoi, who is the daughter of the legendary Marathi theatre artist. Vijay Mehta is one such upcoming and talented the- atre personality. Sanjana Kapoor, daughter of Shashi Kapoor, is another such artists who manages the Prithvi Theatre and provides a platform to several newcomers. Chetan Datar is a young and acclaimed playwright and di- rector of   Marathi Theatre. Rajat Kapoor is one of the famous theatre personality who is associated with Chingari, a leading theatre group of Delhi. Rael Padamsee, the daughter of Alyque and Pearl Padamsee, has a fancy for  producing plays targeted at   young kids. She  draws the stars mainly from her im-mensely popular ‘ Little Actors Club’, which trains pre- teens for professional acting.

The All India Radio was instrumental in popularising drama for a long time through its national  and regional broadcasts. The televi- sion also provided much support to the the- atre artists by way of  Tele - serials and Mega - Serials and Soap Operas.   However, today there are   relatively few commercial theatre companies in India. Some serious theatre groups like the Indian National Theatre, the Prithvi Theatre, Chingari and others are con- tributing greatly to popularise theatre. Some of these companies, like the Prithvi Theatre have  gone online, making themselves known globally by utilizing the explosion in the infor- mation technology.


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(VIDEO) Institutes of National Excellence: Do they need autonomy? - Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

(VIDEO) Institutes of National Excellence: Do they need autonomy? 

- Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

Topic of Discussion: Institutes of National Excellence : Do they need autonomy? - Rajya Sabha TV Big Picture Debate

Expert Panel Name : Prof. Rajvir Sharma(RSS Thinker),Vinod Sharma (Political Editor, Hindustan Times)), Dr. Rakesh Batabyal (Associate Professor, JNU), Frank Rausan Pereira (Anchor)


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(VIDEO) AGRARIAN Crisis - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

(VIDEO) AGRARIAN Crisis - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

Topic of Discussion: AGRARIAN Crisis - Lok Sabha TV Insight Discussion

Expert Panel Name : Radha Singh (Former Secy, Agriculture & Cooperation), Dr. Amit Kar (Scientist, IARI) , Sudesh Verma(Spokes person,BJP), Natasha Jha Bhaskar (Anchor)


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Theatre In India: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

UPSC Exam Art & Culture

Theatre In India: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

Theatre In India

India has longest and richest tradition in the- atre. The origin of Indian theatre is closely re- lated to ancient rituals and seasonal festivities of  the country. Theatre of India began with Rigvedic dialogue hymns during the vedic pe- riod. Bhartamuni’s Naya Shastra describes ten classification of drama ranging from one act to ten acts. To Bharata Muni the playwright, the director and the actor were inseparable in the  creation of a drama. The Indian theatre can be divided into three distinctive kinds. the classical or the Sanskrit theatre, the traditional or the folk theatre and the Modern theatre.

It is difficult to determine the precise origin of the Sanskrit theatre. Fragments of the earliest known plays have been  traced to the Ist cen- tury AD. The earliest phase of  Sanskrit the- atre includes the writing and practice of the- atre upto about 1000 AD. Sanskrit theatre is an amalgamation of the religious, educational and entertaining elements.

Folk or traditional theatre was the   second phase of the evolution of theatre in India.  The Folk theatre was mainly narrative or vocal without any complicated gestures or move- ments and elements of dance. Indian Folk Theatre was broadly divided into Ritual The- atre and Theatre of Entertainment. The two forms thrived together, mutually influencing each other.

Puppet Theatre

In Puppet Theatre various forms, known as Puppets are used to illustrate the narratives. There are different kinds of puppets of glove string, rod and shadow. The glove puppets are found mainly on Orissa, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. These puppets are worn on the hand and the puppeteer manipulates their heads and arms with his fingers. String puppets are found in Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Orissa, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. In this, the stress is more on the manipulative skill of the puppeteer.

Shadow Theatre

Shadow Theatre is a unique kind of perform- ing art which is close to puppetry. In puppet theatre the audience directly sees the puppet figures but in shadow theatre they only see the shadow cast on the screen. There is light source and a screen and in between the ma- nipulator inserts the flat figures by lightly pressing them on the screen so that the sharp shadow is formed . Usually the figure in the shadow theatre are made of leather. They are carefully stenciled so that their shadows sug- gest their clothing,   Jewellery etc. Shadow theatre is prevalent in the states of Orissa, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

Modern Theatre in India

The Modern Theatre developed when the po- litical set up in India changed.  The seeds of modern theatre were sown with the  coming of British in India. They introduced their brand of  theatre in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. The initial purpose of the British was to pro- vide entertainment for the British soldiers and citizens trying to acclimatize themselves to a foreign country. Initially most dramatic works were composed in three languages - Bengali, Tamil and Marathi. But later plays began to be written in other languages.

Bengali Theatre

The beginning of modern Indian Theatre can be traced to the building of the Calcutta the- atre  in 1779. The foundation of modern the- atre in India was laid by the efforts  of many theatre lovers in Calcutta. By the mid 19th cen- tury, the rich young Bengals of Calcutta started to write  plays based on British. naturalistic models,   interweaving them with Indian mu- sic and songs. By the last quarter of the 19th Century, public theatres managed by Indian art- ists were established. Private theatre came into being in Calcutta. The Bengali stage assimi- lated the western ideas by adapting freely from Greek,  English and  French  sources . Belagachia Natyashala built in 1858 became the centre of theatrical activity in Calcutta and produced great  plays.   The period between 1830 - 1872 can be rightly termed as the age of   amateur theatricals of Bengal.   With the founding of Indian People’s Theatre Associa- tion (IPTA), theatre became even close to the people by focussing on contemporary politi- cal and social issues of concern to them. The- atre continued to flourish in Bengal as a result of  the dedicated efforts of Girish Chandra Ghosh, D.L. Roy, Rabindranath Tagore, Utpal Dutt, Balraj Sahani, Habib Tanvir and several others. In the post independence period the Bengal theatre witnessed a marked change in style with the coming on to scene of great play wrights like Badal Sarkar, Mohit Chatterjee, Arun Mukherjee and others.

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Literary Organisations: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

UPSC Exam Art & Culture

Literary Organisations: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams

Literary Organisations

"   National Book Trust

Set up in 1957, its work is to produce and encourage the production of good literature and make it available at cheaper rates. It subsidizes the publication of university level text book written by Indian authors. It organizes national book fairs and regional book fairs.

"   National Educational Resources Centre (NER C)   The centre was establ ished in 1972  and  is   also   known   as   

Raja Rammohan Roy National Educational Resource Centre. Its main function is to promote Indian Authorship, Indigenous pro- duction of University Level Books and to provide Documentation and  Statistical analysis of printed material. It ranks 3rd in the world after USA and UK in the publish- ing of English books.

"   Asiatic Society Asiatic Society, Kolkata, was founded in 1776 by

Sir William Jones (1764 - 1794) an eminent indologist, with the objective of inquiring into the History, Science, Arts and Literature of Asia. It has contributed to the growt h a nd development of mos t of the major Antiquarian, Scientific and Literary in- stitutions of India. Its historic importance was recognized and the government declared it an institution of ‘‘National Importance’’ in 1984.

The society maintains a museum which con- tains approx. 47000 manuscripts in various languages. With its library of printed books, archives and the collection of manuscripts, it  is one of the leading centres of study of indology in the world.

National Library, Kolkata

The National Library, Kolkata was established in 1948 with the passing of the imperial Li- brary (Change of Name) Act, 1948. The basic functions of the Library, which enjoys the sta- tus of an institution of national importance, are: (1) Acquisition and conservation of all signifi- cant production of printed material as well as of  manuscripts of national importance, (ii) Collection of printed material concerning the country, no matter where this is published; (iii) Rendering of bibliographical and documentary services of current and retrospective material, both general and specialised (iv) Acting as re- ferral centre, purveying full and accurate knowledge of all sources   of bibliographical information and Participation in  international bibliographical activities; and (v) Acting as a centre for international book exchange and in- ternal loan.

Central Reference Library, Kolkata The  Central Reference Library is a subordi- nate  office of the Department of Culture at present  under the ministry of Culture, Gov- ernment  of  India. This institution has been carved out of the National Library in order to compile the Indian National Bibliography after the promulgation of the delivery of books act, 1954.

State Central Library, Mumbai Established in 1804, the Asiatic Society focuses on study and research in languages, philoso- phy, arts and natural & social sciences on Asia in general and India in particular. Besides a mu- seum, the Asiatic Society maintains a state central library. The Asiatic Society of: Bombay is a public state library in the city of Mumbai. It was established in 1803 as 'The Royal Asi- atic Society,  Bombay  Branch." The society, founded by Sir James Mackintosh was known as the Literary Society of Bombay, and first met on November 26, 1830. It was later moved to the present Tower Hall building which was built in 1804. The library is currently run on an annual grant by Maharashtra.

Central Secretariat Library, Delhi The Central Secretariat Library (CSL) origi-nally known as Imperial Secretariat Library, Kolkata was established in 1891. Since 1969 the Library has been housed at Shastri Bhawan, New Delhi. It has a collection of over seven lakh documents mainly on Social Sciences and Humanities. It is a depository of Indian Offi- cial Documents, Central Government and has a strong collection of State Government: docu- ments also.

Connemara Public Library, Chennai Connemara Public Library at Chennai is one of the four National Depository libraries, which receive a copy of all books, newspapers and periodicals published in India. Established in 1890 the libray is a repository of centuries old publications, wherein lie some of the most re- spected works and collections in the country. It also serves as a depository library for the UN.

Saraswati Mahal Library, Thanjavur The Thanjavur Maharaja Serfoji's Sarasvati Mahal Library is one of the few medieval Li- braries that exist in the world. It is an un- bounded repository of culture and inexhaust-ible treasure-house of knowledge built up by t he s uccess ive dynasties  of Nayaks  and Marathas of Thanjavur. It contains very rare and valuable collection of manuscripts on all aspects of art, culture and literature The En-

Some Important Institutes

#  Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manava Sangrahalaya, Bhopal

#  National Mission for Manuscripts, Delhi

#  Allahabad Museum, Allahabad

#  Asiatic Society, Kolkata

#  Central Institute of Buddhist Studies, Jarnmu and Kashmir

#  Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies (CIHTS)

#  Centre for Cultural Resources and Training, New Delhi

#  Delhi Public Library, Delhi

#  Gandhi Samriti and Darshan Samiti, New Delhi

#  Indian Museum, Kolkata

#  Kalakshetra Foundation, Thiruvanmayur Chennai

#  Khuda Baksh Oriental Public Library, Patna

#  Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Institute of Asian Studies (MAKAIAS), Kolkata

#  National Council of Science Museums, Kolkata

#  National Museum Institute of History of Art, Conservation and Museology (MMIHACM), Delhi

#  Nav Nalanda Mahavihara, Nalanda, Bihar

#  Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, New Delhi (Teen Murti Bhavan)

#  Raja Ram Mohan Roy Library Foundation, Kolkata

#  Raza Library, Rampur

#  Salar Jung Museum, Hyderabad

#  Saraswathi Mahal Library, Tanjore

#  Victoria Memorial Hall, Kolkata

cyclopedia Brittanica in its survey of Libraries of world mention this as "the most remarkable library in India."

Raza Library, Rampur

The Rampur Raza Library is a treasure house of  Indo Islamic lear ning and Art. It was founded by Nawab Fatzullah Khan in 1774 AD. His descendants continued to enrich the col- lection. After the independence and merger of Rampur State in the Union of India, the library was brought under the management of a Trust till the Govt. of India took over the library on 1st July 1975 under the Act of Parliament which declared it as an institution of National impor- tance. Its affairs are managed by the Rampur Raza Library Board whose Chairman is the Governor of U.P.

Printed Study Material for UPSC PRELIMS EXAM

Printed Study Material for UPSC MAINS EXAM

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