trainee2's blog

GS Mains Model Question & Answer: Discuss the importance of subsidiary alliance in making British company the supreme sovereign authority in India? Comment

 GS Mains Model Question & Answer: Discuss the importance of subsidiary alliance in making British company the supreme sovereign authority in India? Comment

Q.  Discuss the importance of subsidiary alliance in making British company the supreme sovereign authority in India? Comment

Model Answer:

Discuss the importance of subsidiary alliance in making British company the supreme sovereign authority in India?

It was framed by Lord Wellesley, British Governor-General in India from 1798 to 1805. Early in his governorship, Wellesley adopted a policy of non-intervention in the princely states, but he later adopted the policy of forming subsidiary alliances, which played a major role in the expansion of British rule in India.

Important feature of Subsidiary Alliance are:

a) princely rulers were not allowed to have an independent armed force.

b) protected by the East India Company but had to pay for the subsidiary forces that the company was to maintain for protection. If Indian rulers failed to make the payment, part of their territory was taken away as penalty

c) The ruler would accept a British Resident in his state.

d) The ruler who entered into a subsidiary alliance would not join any alliance with any other power or declare war against any power without the permission of the British.

e) The ruler would dismiss any Europeans other than the British and avoid employing new ones.

f) The ruler would let the British rule on any conflict any other state.

g) The ruler would acknowledge the East India Company as the paramount power in India.

h) The ruler would have his state be protected by the Company from external dangers and internal disorders.

i) If the rulers failed to make the payments that were required by the alliance, part of their territory would be taken away as a penalty.

With these features like control of foreign policy of subordinate states and control of their security and defence made them sovereign authority in India.

Join General Studies Test Series for IAS Mains Examination

Printed Study Kit for UPSC Mains GS Exam

Printed Study Kit for UPSC Pre Cum Mains GS Combo

<< Go Back to Main Page

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Indian Languages Malayalam (Compulsory) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Indian Languages Malayalam (Compulsory) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains

Year: 2016

Subject: Malayalam

File Type: PDF

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Indian Languages Maithili (Compulsory) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Indian Languages Maithili (Compulsory) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains

Year: 2016

Subject: Maithili

File Type: PDF

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Indian Languages Konkani (Compulsory) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Indian Languages Konkani (Compulsory) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains

Year: 2016

Subject: Konkani

File Type: PDF

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Indian Languages Kannada (Compulsory) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Indian Languages Kannada (Compulsory) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains

Year: 2016

Subject: Kannada

File Type: PDF

(Current Affairs) Economy & Energy | July: 2017


New oil and gas block licensing policy

  • Petroleum Minister Dharmendra Pradhan introduced a new oil and gas block licensing policy that is expected to open up 2.8 million square kilometres of sedimentary basins to exploration and production activities.
  • The lack of seismic sedimentary basin data had been hampering the oil and gas exploration and production sector, the minister said, adding that 52% of India’s sedimentary basins had not been appraised as yet.
  • The National Data Repository was expected to improve this situation, he said.
  • The OALP, a part of the government’s Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy (HELP), gives exploration companies the option to select the exploration blocks on their own, without having to wait for the formal bid round from the Government.
  • The company then submits an application to the government, which puts that block up for bid.
  • The new policy will open up 2.8 million square kilometres of sedimentary basins for exploration and eventual production.
  • Mr Pradhan said that initially the applications and related bids for the blocks would be held twice a year —in January and July — but said this could become more frequent as the industry becomes used to the new model.
  • Mr. Pradhan added that the recently-concluded discovered small field (DSF) bid round, though small, was encouraging as it gave an insight into the investment appetite of the sector.
  • The new policy environment has already started attracting investment into India’s upstream sector, which could help reduce imports and increase the share of gas in the country's energy mix.
  • During his speech, Mr. Pradhan said that his Ministry was working on developing a gas trading hub to support a robust marketing network.
  • About 52% of India’s sedimentary basins are unappraised, with the last appraisal taking place 25 years ago,” Mr. Pradhan said during his speech.
  • The lack of seismic sedimentary basin data was hampering the exploration and production (E&P) sector of the oil and gas industry.

New regulator for coal and gas mooted

  • Niti Aayog has suggested creation of regulators for coal as well as oil and gas.
  • “Coal and upstream petroleum sectors have lacked independent, statutory regulators. Due to several reasons, including strong presence of PSUs and limited number of private operators, it was so far not found useful to place the latter in position,” it said in a draft National Energy Policy.
  • “But, now with increased private activity, the time is appropriate,” it said in the new licensing policy unveiled.
  • “Ideally, there ought to be a single regulator to govern the energy market,” the Aayog said, pointing out that in India, the market has not fully developed.
  • Hence, the regulators need to devote considerable attention to development of supply.
  • The think-tank said that at the level of electricity, all fuels ultimately converge into a common product which is rightly governed by a single regulator.

RBI has asked banks to resolve 55 high value cases of bad loans

  • RBI has asked banks to resolve 55 high value cases of bad loans within six months or face the prospect of being directed to go in for the new insolvency resolution mechanism as part of the strategy to rein in unacceptable level of NPAs.
  • Earlier this month, Reserve Bank of India identified 12 accounts for insolvency proceedings with each of them having over Rs. 5,000 crore of outstanding loans, accounting for 25% of total NPAs of banks.
  • RBI has asked banks to find solution for 55 identified NPA accounts within 6 months otherwise the central bank would examine those cases and refer for resolution under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC), official sources said.
  • RBI is of the view that banks should expedite the NPA resolution process for these cases as soon as possible.
  • In cases where a viable resolution plan is not agreed upon within six months, banks would be asked to file insolvency proceedings against the defaulters under the IBC, sources added.
  • The banking sector is saddled with NPAs of over Rs. 8 lakh crore, of which Rs. 6 lakh crore is with public sector banks (PSBs). The 12 identified cases account for 25% or about Rs. 2 lakh crore of NPAs.
  • IBC has defined time-frame for the resolution and there is 14-day time period for admission or rejection of a case by National Company Law Tribunal.
  • After a case is accepted by NCLT, the creditor would get 30 days to hire insolvency practitioners and then the entire process to be completed in 180 days which will look at various possibilities including revival of projects or liquidation.

(Current Affairs) India and The World | July : 2017

India & The World

  • India and Israel celebrate 25 years of their diplomatic relations (Free Available)
  • Highly protected marine reserves can help mitigate the effects of climate change (Only for Online Coaching Members)

India and Israel celebrate 25 years of their diplomatic relations

  • As India and Israel celebrate 25 years of their diplomatic relations, Tel Aviv has quietly emerged as one of the largest and trusted suppliers of defence equipment to the Indian armed forces, which rely heavily on imports.
  • After protracted negotiations, the two countries are close to concluding a deal for Spike Anti-Tank Guided Missiles. This will be the latest in a series of big-ticket defence deals approved recently.
  • The purchase of Spike missiles was approved by the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) in October 2014, but negotiations on the contract ran into trouble over cost and technology transfer.
  • The Rs. 3,200-crore deal includes 8,000-plus missiles, 300-plus launchers and technology transfer. The deal is likely to expand as the Army intends to equip its 382 infantry battalions and 44 mechanised regiments with new missiles.
  • After New Delhi established full diplomatic ties with Tel Aviv on January 29, 1992, Israel has made inroads into the Indian defence sector, earning praise for reliability and technological sophistication.
  • It is well entrenched in the areas of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, air defence systems, special forces equipment and electronic warfare equipment.
  • Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) approved a Rs. 17,000-crore deal to jointly develop a Medium Range Surface to Air Missile (MR-SAM) system for the Army.
  • In the case of mouse models, the 5g molecule was able to arrest tumour growth without causing significant side-effects.
  • The inhibitor was able to arrest the cancer cells from proliferating by elevating the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which, in turn, causes DNA damage by breaking the DNA’s double-strands.
  • The molecule also activated the cell death pathway when higher concentration was used. However, the molecule did not cause any damage to normal blood cells. The results were published in the journal Scientific Reports.
  • At a dosage of 50 micromolar, about 70% of leukaemia cells were killed, compared with 25% of normal blood cells. This suggests that the 5g molecule could be “less toxic” to normal cells compared with cancer cells.
  • Even when the dosage was reduced to 10 micromolar, the molecule was able to arrest the cell cycle, particularly after 36 hours of treatment.
  • However, at the end of 48 hours, the cells were either dead or repaired their DNA damage and proceeded with normal cell cycle of division and proliferation.
  • A majority of the cancer cells were killed but some reverted to normal cell cycle. The reason for this is not known.
  • In mouse models, the molecule was able to arrest cancer cells’ cell cycle when 60 and 120 mg per kg of body weight dosages were used. Also, “significant” reduction in tumour volume and “moderate” increase in life-span were observed when treated with 60 mg per kg of body weight for 14 days. The molecule was able to reduce the tumour burden by arresting the cell cycle than by causing cell death, the researchers found.
  • Since on its own the molecule did not bring about cell death in mouse models, it cannot be used as a standalone therapy.

Highly protected marine reserves can help mitigate the effects of climate change

  • Evaluating 145 peer-reviewed studies, a research team has concluded that “highly protected” marine reserves can help mitigate the effects of climate change.
  • Around the world, coastal nations have committed to protecting 10% of their waters by 2020, but so far, only 3.5% of the ocean has been set aside for protection, and 1.6%, or less than half of that, is strongly protected from exploitation, Xinhua reported.
  • The study also notes that ocean surface waters have become on average 26% more acidic since pre-industrial times.
  • By the year 2100, under a “business-as-usual” scenario, they will be 150% more acidic, while coastal wetlands, including mangroves, seagrasses and salt marshes have demonstrated a capacity for reducing local carbon dioxide concentrations because many contain plants with high rates of photosynthesis.

Click Here to Join Online Coaching for IAS (Pre.) Exam

<< Go Back To India & The World Main Page

(Current Affairs) National Events | July : 2017

National Events

Govt took the first step towards divesting its stake in Air India

  • The Narendra Modi government took the first step towards divesting its stake in ailing national carrier Air India, with an ‘in-principle’ approval from the Cabinet and the formation of a ministerial group under Finance Minister Arun Jaitley to work out the fine print for the airline’s strategic sale.
  • Sixty-four years after the airline was nationalised and over a decade after the previous NDA government put a proposed sale of Air India in cold storage, the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs gave its nod for its disinvestment.
  • Plans to privatise the airline resurfaced when Mr. Jaitley told Doordarshan last month that the government would prefer investing money in social welfare sectors instead of financing the national airline’s debt of over Rs. 50,000 crore.
  • The Cabinet also approved hikes in allowances for Central government staff based on modified recommendations of the Seventh Pay Commission. This will benefit over 48 lakh employees and cost the exchequer Rs. 30,748 crore a year.

Multi-disease testing devices for Tuberculosis, HIV and Hepatitis

  • The World Health Organization (WHO) on released new advice to countries, recommending the use of multi-disease testing devices for Tuberculosis, HIV and Hepatitis.
  • A single device called the GeneXpert can be used to diagnose TB and HIV infections, and quantitatively measure HIV and hepatitis C viral loads. India recently procured 600 GeneXpert machines for the National Tuberculosis programme.
  • The WHO is recommending use of these state-of-the-art portable machines the size of a microwave oven, which can run molecular tests. However, most countries do not use them for multi-disease testing.
  • “With the power and adaptability of molecular technologies, we are in an era of great advancement for the rapid diagnosis of many diseases using single platforms,” said Dr Mario Raviglione, Director of WHO’s Global TB Programme.
  • The Petya/Notpetya ransomware is the second major global ransomware since WannaCry hit over 3,00,000 computers across 200 countries in May.
  • Petya, like the recent WannaCry ransomware that infected over 300,000 computers worldwide, uses the Eternal Blue exploit as one of the means to propagate itself. However, experts have warned of bigger damage this time.

GSAT-17, the country’s newest communication satellite to be ched

  • GSAT-17, the country’s newest communication satellite to be launched, will soon join the fleet of 17 working Indian communication satellites in space and augment their overall capacity to some extent.
  • The 3,477-kg spacecraft was set to be launched on June 29 from the European space port of Kourou in French Guiana at the time of writing this report.
  • GSAT-17 is the second passenger on the European booster, Ariane-5 ECA VA-238, according to ISRO and the European launch company Arianespace.

India’s first underwater metro tunnels completed

  • On June 20, the Kolkata Metro Rail Corporation (KMRC) completed the construction of India’s first set of underwater transportation tunnels.
  • The two tunnels, 16.1 metres apart, with a diameter of 5.5 metres each, link the two banks of the Hooghly river — Howrah Maidan and Sealdah on one side with Kolkata on the other.
  • The tunnels are at a depth of 13 metres below the riverbed, and 30 metres from the land surface.
  • With the completion of the tunnels, India has joined a select group of nations that have underwater transport, he said, adding that the feat comes almost 33 years after the first metro train in the country opened its doors for the public in Kolkata in 1984.
  • The tunnels are part of the 16.6 km East West Metro route, a major transport project in the city with an estimated cost of Rs. 8,996 crore, of which about 5.8 km traverses an elevated corridor and 10.8 km will run underground.
  • The 520 metre-long tunnels under the river are part of the 10.8 km underground stretch.
  • Interestingly, the two bridges over the Hooghly — connecting Kolkata with Howrah — took a longer time.
  • While it took six years for the iconic Howrah Bridge to be completed since its commissioning in 1943, for Vidyasagar Setu the time taken was much longer — about 13 years.
  • National Monument Authority and competent authority Nandini Bhattacharya Sahu said all construction above the ground, including the Mahakaran Metro Station, shall be beyond the 100-metre prohibited area of Centrally Protected Monuments.
  • While the city will have to wait till 2020 for train services between Howrah Maidan and Salt Lake, the first phase of the East-West Metro between Salt Lake and Phoolbagan in the city will start next year.

Disabled people hired in good numbers by IT companies

  • Information Technology companies, 4% of which had made their office buildings employment friendly, have started hiring disabled people in good numbers.
  • Thanks to a Union government initiative where it contributes to the provident fund of physically challenged employees with salary over Rs. 25,000, Hyderabad’s IT industry has hired close to 132 new staff in various posts.
  • The government of India will pay the PF of these employees for a period of three years. National Association of Software and Service Companies’ Foundation has been mooting the disabled friendly move for over a three years now.
  • The foundation had also popularised the scheme by interfacing between national and local government partners.
  • NASSCOM has been holding career guidance drives for physically challenged for almost three years. In a recent career motivation workshop held in the city where NASSCOM partnered with Microsoft, a good 3% of young girls who attended were physically challenged.
  • The foundation has also been conducting closed-door leadership roundtables in the city to get more employers on board. Such meets are meant to be a key advocacy tool when it comes to people with disability.
  • In fact, a group of 10 to 15 companies which already remodelled their buildings to make them more disability friendly are also leading the advocacy for employing physically challenged people.
  • The city’s IT area is expected to be completely disabled friendly by the year 2022, a handout given by the State IT department had ascertained in 2016.
  • The 5,700-kg Hellas Sat 3-Inmarsat S EAN shared by two satellite operators was also put on the same booster as co-passenger. It was a pre-dusk launch in the South American space port.
  • The spacecraft was approved in May 2015 with an outlay of Rs. 1,013 crore, including its launch fee and insurance. GSAT-17, built mainly for broadcasting, telecommunication and VSAT services, carries over 40 transponders.
  • Designed and assembled at the ISRO Satellite Centre in Bengaluru, GSAT-17 has been at the Kourou space port since May 15, undergoing pre-launch checks and tests. Project Director Prakash Rao and a rotating team of over 20 ISRO engineers have been attending to it during the period.

Thirty more cities have been added to the Centre’s Smart Cities Mission

  • Thirty more cities from across the country have been added to the Centre’s Smart Cities Mission, with a proposed investment of Rs.57,393 crore in various projects under the scheme.
  • Marking the second anniversary of the launch of the Smart Cities Mission, Union Urban Development Minister announced the new cities added to the scheme in the third round.
  • It takes the total number of cities to 90. With the addition of the 30 cities, 23 States and four Union Territories have been included in the Mission.
  • As in the previous two rounds, the cities were picked on the basis of the proposals they submitted for the Smart Cities Challenge.
  • Tamil Nadu emerged as the State with the highest number of cities selected in this round, with Tirupur, Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi and Tiruchi making it to the Mission.
  • Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat had three cities each selected for the Mission.While Jhansi, Allahabad and Aligarh made it from U.P., Rakjot, Gandhinagar and Dahod were the picks from Gujarat.
  • Among the 11 State capitals selected were Bengaluru in Karnataka, Shimla in Himachal Pradesh, Aizawl in Mizoram and Gangtok in Sikkim.
  • Mr. Naidu said that the proposed investment in these 30 cities was Rs.57,393 crore under various smart city plans. With that, the total investment for smart infrastructure development for the 90 cities had gone up to Rs.1.91 lakh crore.
  • Of the 30 cities added to the Mission, 26 had proposed affordable housing projects, 26 cities would take up school and hospital projects, and 29 would carry out redesign and redevelopment of roads.

Pakistan says execution of Kulbhushan Jadhav to stay till ICJ process

  • Pakistan will not carry out the death sentence of Kulbhushan Jadhav, the former Naval officer convicted on terror charges, until the process in the ICJ is over, even if that takes two to three years, Pakistan’s High Commissioner has said
  • India went to the ICJ at The Hague on May 8 this year to appeal against the death sentence handed to Mr. Jadhav.
  • In the appeal India urged the court to call Pakistan’s military court trial against Mr. Jadhav, who was arrested in March 2016, “illegal” on the grounds that Pakistan had not granted India consular access, nor accepted his family’s appeals.
  • The ICJ has set the next dates for India and Pakistan to present their written submissions, or ‘memorials’ on September 13 and December 13 respectively.
  • Confirming that Mr. Jadhav has some steps to go in the appeal process in Pakistan as well, Mr. Basit said he would be able to appeal for clemency first to Army Chief General Qamar Bajwa and President Mamnoon Husain if his appeal was rejected by the Court of Appeals.

GJM decided to pull out of the Gorkhaland Territorial Administration

  • The Gorkha Janmukti Morcha (GJM) decided to pull out of the Gorkhaland Territorial Administration (GTA) after a meeting of 14 political parties and social organisations in the Darjeeling Hills.
  • The parties unanimously decided to continue the shutdown, and proposed an all-India coordination committee to take up the issue of Gorkhaland.
  • The GTA is an autonomous body, created after an agreement signed by the GJM, the West Bengal government and the Centre in 2011. The GJM has administered it so far.
  • The meeting, which was attended by almost all parties in the hills, including the Jan Andolan Party, the Gorkha National Liberation Front and the All India Gorkha League, all considered the rivals of the GJM, put the onus of restoring normality on the State government.
  • A large number of Gorkhaland supporters gathered at Gymkhana Club, where the meeting began with homage to the three GJM supporters who were killed in a violent agitation on June 17.
  • Tension prevailed on the sixth day of the strike. Rallies and processions were taken out.

India and Afghanistan inaugurated a dedicated air freight corridor service

  • Adding a new dimension to bilateral ties, India and Afghanistan inaugurated a dedicated air freight corridor service.
  • The corridor which passes through the airspace of Pakistan was launched with a cargo aircraft flight flagged off by Afghanistan President Dr. Ashraf Ghani.
  • The dedicated air corridor was planned during the meeting of Prime Minister Narendra Modi and President Ghani in Kabul in September 2016.
  • The norms for no-fly list to rein in unruly passengers are expected to be ready early next month, the government said amid a parliamentarian being barred by domestic airlines for allegedly creating ruckus.
  • A revised Civil Aviation Requirement (CAR) is being finalised after receiving comments from the stakeholders.
  • The Civil Aviation Ministry has already come out with draft rules for a ‘national no-fly list’ of unruly passengers for all domestic carriers, under which the flying ban could extend from at least three months to an indefinite period.
  • Lok Sabha member from TDP J.C. Diwakar Reddy was barred by major airlines after he allegedly created a ruckus at the Vizag airport when he was denied boarding by IndiGo.
  • This is the second incident involving a Lok Sabha member after Shiv Sena’s Ravindra Gaikwad was banned by carriers for some time after he had assaulted an Air India staffer.

Central India to receive monsoon by 22nd June

  • The monsoon system, forecast to establish itself over Central India by June 15, will be delayed by a week. This is unlikely to affect the overall rainfall in June and is seen as a part of the monsoon’s natural variability.
  • There is moisture in the air and thunderstorm along with rain…but the monsoon has been delayed [over Central India] because of strong rain in the east.
  • As of June 17, the country got 79.6 mm of rain, 9% more than the average 72.8 mm it receives in the first fortnight of June. Rain in Central India is 21% more than what is normal for this time.
  • IMD said rainfall was likely to be 96% of the historical average in northwest India, 100% of the LPA (the 50-year average of the monsoon rains) over central India, 99% of the low pressure area (LPA) over the south peninsula, with a model error of plus or minus 8%.

Challenges of linking Aadhaar with Pan card

  • The simple act of paying your income tax to the government — an article of citizens’ faith that is not exercised by enough Indians with incomes over Rs. 2.5 lakh a year if you go by India’s low direct tax base — will never be the same again.
  • Having a PAN (permanent account number) card from the Income Tax department will no longer be enough to file your returns.
  • Starting July 1, the government has made it mandatory for taxpayers to link their Aadhaar number to their PAN cards in order to be able to file returns. Aadhaar numbers have also been made mandatory for all those applying for a new PAN card after July 1.
  • Among several changes appended to this year’s Finance Bill that did not figure in the budget speech, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley introduced a new Section, 139 AA, in the Income Tax Act of 1961.
  • This new Section stipulates that all PAN cardholders share their Aadhar number with the tax authorities so that the two documents can be linked, and makes quoting of Aadhaar mandatory for all PAN card applications and to file income tax returns.
  • The new provision also states that the existing PAN cardholders who fail to link their Aadhaar numbers will have the legal status of their PAN card revoked and those cards will be held invalid for all other purposes.
  • However, petitions were filed in the Supreme Court, challenging the move with the argument that it runs foul of the court’s earlier decision on Aadhaar-related petitions that the unique ID number cannot be made mandatory.
  • PAN cards are mandatory not just for filing income tax returns, but also for deposits above Rs. 50,000 into bank accounts as well as purchasing property, among other things. The universe of taxpayers in India is smaller than the number of PAN cardholders.
  • Aadhaar was introduced as a unique identification system that would pay off the government’s investment in capturing people’s biometric information by plugging leaks and benefit-cheating in welfare programmes for the poor through real-time authentication of the beneficiary’s identity.
  • Most taxpayers, barring those earning up to Rs. 10 lakh a year who still get cheaper LPG cylinders, are not eligible for subsidies.
  • Effectively, the Centre has managed to expand the ambit of Aadhaar beyond subsidy beneficiaries, thus making it a more universal identification system.
  • Those who already have an Aadhaar number must ensure they quote it in their returns as tax experts warn that any attempt to conceal the same would be tantamount to providing false information and invite prosecution under the income tax law, with punishment that could include imprisonment and fines.
  • The Supreme Court may have offered limited relief to taxpayers, but the bigger battle over the Aadhaar programme will continue in its corridors as and when a Constitutional Bench is formed to examine Aadhaar-related concerns about right to privacy and human dignity as limbs of Article 21 of the Constitution.

(Current Affairs) International Events | July : 2017

International Events

First local elections in Nepal in two decades

  • Millions of Nepalis voted in the country’s first local elections for two decades, a key step in its post-war transformation from feudal monarchy to federal democracy.
  • The government had deployed troops and sealed the border with India, fearing violence in second phase of voting. Police said a small bomb exploded in the west of the country, but there were no casualties and the polls passed off peacefully.
  • The elections began last month in other parts of the nation but were repeatedly delayed in the southern plains, which were shaken two years ago by deadly ethnic protests.
  • Voting was taking place across around half the country of 26 million people, including large swathes of the south.
  • The local elections are supposed to be the final step in the peace deal that ended a 10-year civil war in 2006. Since then the country has suffered persistent instability, cycling through nine governments.
  • The government had repeatedly postponed the polls in the south due to objections from the local Madhesi ethnic minority, who say federal boundaries laid out in a new national constitution will leave them under-represented in Parliament.
  • The Rastriya Janata Party-Nepal, the main party representing the Madhesi community, has said it will boycott this phase, raising doubts about the legitimacy of the vote.
  • More than 50 people died in 2015 when the Madhesi and Tharu ethnic minorities took to the streets. Most of the victims were killed when police fired at the demonstrators, a response condemned by rights campaigners, and tensions persist.

Colombia’s leftist FARC rebel force declared its disarmament complete

  • Colombia’s leftist FARC rebel force declared its disarmament complete on Tuesday after half a century of war against the state, bringing Latin America’s oldest civil conflict close to an end.
  • “Farewell to war. Farewell to arms, welcome to peace!” said commander Rodrigo Londono, alias Timochenko, in a speech in the central town of Mesetas, site of one of the group’s demobilisation camps.
  • The move is a key part of efforts to end the long territorial and ideological conflict under a 2016 peace accord. The accord was at first narrowly rejected by Colombians in a referendum last year before it was redrafted and pushed through Congress.
  • Since then, the process has been blighted by ongoing violence involving other armed groups.United Nations monitors said they “have the entirety of the FARC’s registered individual arms stored away”.
  • That excluded some arms that were exempted for transitional security at rebel demobilisation camps until August 1.
  • A global wave of cyber attacks brought havoc on govt and corporate systemsMr. Modi addressed the gathering ahead of his first meeting with President Donald Trump.
  • The Prime Minister’s pitch before the CEOs of prominent American companies was a prelude to extensive interactions he is expected to have with Mr. Trump and senior members of his cabinet.
  • America's economic and employment recovery is the topmost political priority for the Trump admin

Intergovernmental financial watchdog has slammed Pakistan

  • A leading intergovernmental financial watchdog has slammed Pakistan for continued complicity in financing terrorist entities, saying certain UN-designated terror groups in the country receive money due to lack of control by the authorities.
  • At its meeting in Valencia, Spain, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), a Paris-based organisation which sets standards for banks globally, closely scrutinised Pakistan’s record on terror financing.
  • A report on Pakistan’s complicity in terror financing was discussed at the FATF Plenary, the group’s highest decision-making body, that took place from June 18-23.
  • As per the report, certain entities designated under UN Security Council Resolution 1267 continue to receive and disperse funds without controls being applied by the competent authorities in Pakistan.
  • As a consequence, the International Cooperation Review Group of FATF has requested its regional arm Asia Pacific Group to provide the revised follow-up report on Pakistan.
  • The ICRG asked APG to provide the report following the discussion over it at the APG annual meeting in July. In February, the ICRG had requested the APG to provide its analysis report on Pakistan.
  • Al Jazeera, the royal family-funded television station, continued its sympathetic coverage of the Muslim Brotherhood. When the political leadership of Hamas, the Palestinian militant group that rules Gaza, fled crisis-hit Damascus, Qatar offered them refuge.
  • Moreover, despite conflicting interests elsewhere in the region, Sheikh Tamim retained good diplomatic ties with Iran, Saudi Arabia’s main regional rival.
  • Within a year of his rule, Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Bahrain temporarily suspended diplomatic ties with Qatar over Doha’s support for the Muslim Brotherhood. But Sheikh Tamim stayed the course on foreign policy.
  • Things started changing after King Salman took power in Saudi Arabia and his young son, Mohammed bin Salman, was appointed Defence Minister. The new Saudi rulers took a tougher line towards Qatar.
  • The Saudi attempt to isolate the emirate is certainly the biggest foreign policy crisis. For now, Iran and Turkey have offered him support, including food supplies.

Trump wants to change the deal with Cuba

  • U.S. President Donald Trump vowed to overhaul Barack Obama’s deal to restore ties with Cuba, promising to instead support the Cuban people against Raul Castro’s government.
  • Mr. Trump flew to Miami’s Little Havana, spiritual home of the Cuban-American community, to denounce his predecessor’s “one-sided” settlement and pledge to work for Cuba’s freedom.
  • In practical terms, Mr. Trump’s review of the deal was limited. He will not break the diplomatic ties Mr. Obama worked so carefully to restore, nor does he plan to impose new trade sanctions.
  • But he did tighten rules for Americans travelling to Cuba, ban ties with a military-run tourism firm and reaffirm the existing U.S. trade embargo, which will be firmly enforced.
  • The Cuban government response was restrained. In a statement on state television it denounced the measures, but said Havana “reiterates its willingness to continue the respectful dialogue and cooperation.”
  • That may have been overstating his case. Mr. Trump’s new measures mainly relate to stricter enforcement of existing laws that had begun to loosen as Mr. Obama sought a rapprochement.
  • The new measures prohibit financial transactions with Cuba’s military-backed tourism conglomerate GAESA, which had hoped for a windfall from a new surge in American visitors.
  • Signing a new National Security Presidential Memorandum, Mr. Trump announced stricter application of the rules under which Americans can travel to Cuba.
  • American citizens will still be able to take commercial flights to Cuba, but once again only for 12 specific reasons, ranging from journalism to educational activities.

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Indian Languages Dogri (Compulsory) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Indian Languages Dogri (Compulsory) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains

Year: 2016

Subject: Dogri

File Type: PDF

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Indian Languages Bodo (Compulsory) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Indian Languages Bodo (Compulsory) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains

Year: 2016

Subject: Bodo

File Type: PDF


Subscribe to RSS - trainee2's blog