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Police Reforms in India : Important Topics for UPSC Exams

Police Reforms in India

Max Weber defined 'State' as an organisation that has a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force.

  • The police are the instrument of physical force of the State.
  • They have to bear the burden of failure of other instruments of governance as well.

Due to Poor infrastructure and lack of trained officials incidents like Dimapur lynching (where mob entered the prison) occur. The Supreme Court has issued directives for police reforms in 2006 under Prakash Singh Badal Judgement, but the directives were not effectively implemented by the respective state Governments.

The Existing Policing System in India

  • 'Public order' and 'Police' figure in the State list in the VII schedule of our constitution.
  • The Police Act, 1861 is still the basic instrument governing the functioning of the Indian police.
  • The Director General and Inspector General of Police is the head of a state police.
  • States are divided into districts and a Superintendent of Police heads the district police.

Issues in Policing

  • NHRC has made it very clear that “with every passing year, the evidence before the Commission mounts that there must be major police reforms in the country if the human rights situation is to be improved”
  • Political authorities have a stronghold over police this nexus affects the credibility of the police too.
  • Most of the times the State Police Training Schools where a large majority of policemen undergo training are ill equipped, starved of funds and staffed by unwilling instructors.
  • It is general observation that the intelligence gathering efforts are devoted mainly to gathering information about major law and order problems, while adequate attention is not paid to collection of intelligence relating to commission of crimes.
  • Since the police is the primary agency of the criminal justice system which protects human rights, it is essential to sensitise police personnel to gender issues.
  • Gender disparity is another issue as in the criminal justice system, the representation of women is low in all wings and especially the police.

Various expert Bodies on Police Reforms

  • National Police Commission (1977-81)
  • Ribeiro Committee (1988)
  • Padmanabhaiah Committee (2000)
  • Malimath Committee (2002-03)
  • Supreme Court Directives on Prakash Singh vs Union of India (2006)
  • Second Administrative Reform Commission recommendation on Police Reform

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India - Israel Relationship : Important Topics for UPSC Exams

India - Israel Relationship

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu visited India during 14 Jan to 19 Jan. It was a 6-day visit. During this PM Netanyahu visited Delhi, Agra, Ahmedabad and Mumbai. It is remarkable in the sense that its 2nd visit by any Israeli PM (Fist was by Ariel Sharon who visited India in 2003). The visit has further importance as it commemorates the completion of 25 years since the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries.

Relationship in the past

  • India formally recognised Israel post-independence in September 1950. India valued its relationship with Israel, but not at the expense of its friendships with Arab and other Muslim states.
    Indian President Pranab Mukherjee visited Israel in 2015 he was the first head of state from India to do so.
    PM Modi’s visit last year to Israel was the first such visit of any Indian PM to Israel.

Prospects for India- Israel Relationship

  • Previous two decades have witnessed a steady strengthening of the India–Israel Relationship, especially in the defence and security areas where the two countries’ shared concerns about Islamic extremism, have offered common ground for cooperation.
  • Government of various states in India have sent agricultural delegations to Israel, and India can learn from Israel’s ability to make its deserts bloom through water management and conservation techniques.
  • Both India and Israel are pledged to further deepening and diversifying the relation in space, science and technology.
    Israeli tourism to India has increased remarkably in the last two decades, Israeli vacationers are frequently visiting places like the Kullu valley and Dharamsala, Goa (whose beaches have become favourite of Israeli tourists).
  • The migration of members of a ‘lost tribe’ from India’s North-East, the Beni Menashe, (identified as a Jewish group), has strengthened the relationship.
    Public opinion polls project high regard in each nation for the other, with India often seen as the world’s most pro-Israeli country after the United States.
    Recent findings of huge oil and gas deposits in the Mediterranean Sea can make Israel a potential exporter and India being a major importer can get the benefits out of it.

MoUs/Agreements signed during the visit of Prime Minister of Israel to India (Jan 2018)

  1. MoU on Cyber Security Cooperation.
  2. MoU on Cooperation in Oil and Gas Sector.
  3. Protocol on Amendments to the Air Transport Agreement.
  4. Agreement on Film-co-production.
  5. MoU on Cooperation in the field of Research in Homeopathic Medicine.
  6. MoU for cooperation in the field of space.
  7. Memorandum of Intent between Invest India and Invest in Israel.
  8. Letter of Intent for cooperation in metal-air batteries.
  9. Letter of Intent for cooperation in concentrated solar thermal technologies.

To promote Innovation and entrepreneurship “International Centre for Entrepreneurship and Technology” (iCreate), was inaugurated in Ahmedabad, by Indian PM Narendra Modi and his Israeli counterpart Benjamin Netanyahu.

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Jobless growth in India : Important Topics for UPSC Exams

Jobless growth in India --

  • Job creation is the single most important issue that the nation is facing in this decade. India has a leverage of largest young population in the world. However, this demographic dividend need to be exploited.
  • As we know that nearly 49% of Indian working population involve in agriculture, though the sector contributes very less in overall GDP of India. The tertiary sector in India is the largest contributor in the overall GDP of India, but the job created by this sector are mostly of formal kind. The chances of inclusion of informal workforce in this sector is very limited.
  • As the nation is striving hard for Make in India, the manufacturing sector has the capacity to create jobs that can include large semi-skilled working population of the country. In manufacturing itself, there is a need to focus on certain industries or manufacturing firms like apparel, footwear, furniture, toys and other similar light manufacturing activities. In this chart we can observe that textile sector alone contribute nearly 15% of total GDP. In this way, light industries have the potential for GDP growth along with creating large chunk of jobs with relatively low investment.

  • India has two sided benefits of switching to these light manufacturing activities. First of all, these industries can provide employment to large unskilled and semi-skilled labor of India. Secondly, there is also a vacancy exists in these industries due to the shifting of China towards more wage-earning industries. Previously, China was the largest contributor, particularly in apparel industries.
  • Besides all these benefits, these light industries are also solving the gender disparity in employment to some extent. Facts show that women are provided with large employment in light manufacturing industries.


  • Despite all these benefits, India is lacking in developing a strong base for these particular light manufacturing Industries. The reason lies in our policies of bringing these industries, particularly the apparel industry, under the MSME sector. Because of this, our apparel industries remain too small and the product quality is also not at par with big multinational apparel makers.
  • However, after the LPG reforms of 1991, the small-scale industries reservation was withdrawn. In spite of this, the investment in these sector remains meagre.

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Way Forward--

Although we try to remove policy and bureaucratic constraints, there remains direct or indirect challenges that need to be addressed soon.

  • India need to attract the big international firms that are exiting China. However, it has to face competition from other nations like Vietnam and Bangladesh. These big firms have the best technologies and management know-how of operation in larger scale.
  • On policy side, India should make its labor market more flexible in order to attract the big firms in these light manufacturing sectors. In India, the formal sector jobs are highly protected. In conditions like these, firm choses to remain under MSME category in order to avoid these kinds of hindrances.
  • There is also a need to increase the movement of imported items and final products that are to be exported. Unnecessary clearance requirements need to be eliminated and the coastal regions should also reduce the delay within hours as occur in exporting giants like Singapore and Hongkong.
  • It is also needed that all form of taxes in these industries need to be rationalized. It is required in order to improve the competitiveness of light industries.
    At the management level, RBI needs to manage the foreign exchange in India.




Ministry of water resources, river development and Ganga rejuvenation will now make optimal use of latest geo-spatial technologies to rejuvenate river Ganga. For this, National mission of Clean Ganga (NMCG), national remote sensing centre and survey of India will work in an integrated manner to take all steps to clean Ganga and execute it in a time-bound
National remote setting centre (NRSC), which is a part of Indian space research organisation (ISRO) has been supporting NMCG to use geospatial technology for water quality monitoring, hydrological monitoring and evaluation, geomorphologic monitoring and evaluation, bio-resources monitoring and evaluation, comprehensive geospatial database, develop mobile application for enabling community participation and to co-ordinate necessary linkages with other agencies. The support is aimed at achieving the objective of monitoring of pollution in rive Ganga. NMCG also strives to achieve GIS mapping of the entire Ganga river basin for effective execution and decision-making.

Some of the tasks enlisted by NRSC as part of support of NMCG are generation of comprehensive GIS database, water quality assessment using satellite data of main Ganga from Kannauj to Varanasi, real time water equality data visualization, high quality multispectral satellite image, aerial topographical survey, urban sprawl change mapping, non-point source pollution assessment etc. A holistic approach is being adopted by NMCG to keep river Ganga clean pollution assessment etc. A holistic approach is being adopted by NMCG to
keep river Ganga clean by identifying five km. stretches from the edge of the bank/ flood plain to the nearest main road for a comprehensive planning approach.

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