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(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional History (Paper -1) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional History (Paper -1) Exam Paper - 2016

  • Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains
  • Year: 2016
  • Exam Date: 9-12-2016


1. Identify the following places marked on the map supplied to you and write a short note of about 30 words on each of them in your Question-cum-Answer Booklet. Locational hints for each of the places marked on the map are given below seriatim: 2.5x20=50 marks

(i) A Mesolithic site
(ii) A Neolithic site
(iii) A Megalithic Chalcolithic site
(iv) A Neolithic site
(v) A Neolithic site
(vi) A Megalithic site
(vii)A site known for Buddhist remains
(viii) A Harappan site
(ix) A Harappan site
(x) A Harappan site
(xi) A Neolithic site
(xii)A Harappan site
(xiv) A capital city
(xiv) A rock-cut cave site
(xv) A late Harappan site
(xvi) An educational centre
(xvii) A terra-cotta art centre
(xviii) A seaport
(xix) A capital city
(xx) A capital city.


2.(a) Delineate and account for the regional characteristics of the Neolithic period in India. 15 marks
(b) Explain why the majority of the known Harappan settlements are located in the semi-arid areas with saline groundwater. 20 marks
(c) In what way was the egalitarian character of the carly Vedic society changed during the later Vedio poriod? 15 marks

3.(a) Examine the relationship among economic growth, urbanization and State formation from c. 7th century BCE to 3rd century BCE. 15 marks
(b) How does the numismatic evidence of the period reflect the political and economic outlook of the Kushanas and the Satavahanas? 15 marks
(c) The changes in the field of art from the Kushana period to early medieval period arc incre reflection of changing outlook." Comment. 20 marks

4.(a) Critically evaluate the theory and practice of land revenue system in ancient India. 20 marks
(b) The copious references to the preservation of Varnashrama system by the kings eulogized in inscriptions are mere reflection of the Smriti tradition." Discuss. 15 marks
(c) How did the temples of South India, as financial institutions, have deep impact on the social institutions of carly mcdicval period? Critically examine. 15 marks

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Study Notes for UPSC MAINS HISTORY Optional

Printed Study Material for IAS PRE cum Mains General Studies

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Geology (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Geology (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains

Year: 2016

Subject: Geology

Geology Paper-1


1. Answer the following in about 150 words each : 10x5=50 marks

(a) Describe the significance of unconformities in establishing stratigraphic record. 10 marks
(b) Explain the utility of establishing seismic zones. 10 marks
(c) Explain the nature and effects of seismic waves. 10 marks
(d) Describe the importance of cleavage in geological studies. 10 marks
(e) Write briefly on Global Positioning System (GPS). 10 marks

2.(a) Explain the concept of Davis on geomorphic cycles. 15 marks
(b) Describe the genetic classification of faults, aided with neat sketches. 15 marks
(c) Discuss the classification and global distribution of volcanoes and describe various volcanic products. 20 marks

3.(a) Discuss the applications of remote sensing in Geology. 20 marks
(b) What are valley glaciers ? Describe the major landforms produced due to glacial erosion. 15 marks
(c) Describe strain markers and their significance. 15 marks

4.(a) Enumerate the tools and equipments required to undertake geological mapping. Explain the importance of geological mapping. 20 marks
(b) Give an account of the application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). 20 marks
(c) Explain the major discontinuities within the Earth's interior. 10 marks


5. Write notes on the following in about 150 words each: 10x5=50 marks

(a) Bagh beds 10 marks
(b) Importance of index fossils in establishing correlation 10 marks
(c) Significance of biostratigraphy and its utility 10 marks
(d) Types of forces acting on a dam 10 marks
(e) Subsurface distribution of water 10 marks

6.(a) Give an account of seismic refraction method in the exploration for groundwater. 20 marks
(b) Explain the evolutionary trends of Hominidae. 20 marks
(c) Describe the significance of trace fossils. 10 marks

7.(a) What are landslides? Explain the causes of landslides and the measures that can be taken to overcome this phenomenon. 20 marks
(b) Give an account of the stratigraphy, lithology and environment of deposition of the Jurassic rocks of Kutch. 20 marks
(c) Explain the process of separation of micro-fossils from the matrix. 10 marks

8.(a) What are springs ? Give an account of various types of springs. 15 marks
(b) Describe the evolution of the Himalayas. 20 marks
(c) Give an account of the evolutionary changes noticed in the glabella of trilobites. 15 marks

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Geography (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Geography (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains

Year: 2016

Subject: Geography

Geography (Paper-1)


1. Answer the following in about 150 words each : 10x5=50

(a) Describe the “Basket of eggs topography". 10 marks
(b) Differentiate between insolation and temperature and explain anomalous temperature. 10 marks
(c) Discuss Maritime Zones. 10 marks
(d) Bring out the ecological significance of Tropical Rainforest Biome. 10 marks
(e) Explain the hydro-meteorological hazards in the Himalayas. 10 marks

2.(a) "In explaining the concept of 'Pediplanation', King combined the ideas of Davis, Penck and Wood with his own." Elaborate. 20 marks
(b) Compare the origin and weather conditions associated with the tropical and temperate cyclones.15 marks
(c) Give a reasoned account on how the impact of Global Warming differs from one part of the Earth to the other. 15 marks

3.(a) Discuss the significance of World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and its core projects in the understanding of climatic change. 20 marks
(b) "The relationship between the winds and the currents is best seen in the Indian Ocean." Justify. 15 marks
(c) Write a critical note on the tendency of use and throw" in the context of economic status and environment. 15 marks

4.(a) Bring out the various ecological problems associated with the exploitation and use of oceans and their resources. 20 marks
(b) "Geological structure has a dominant control on landforms and is reflected on them." Discuss. 15 marks
(c) Describe Newbigin's scheme of Floristic regions of the world and explain the Mediterranean Floristic region. 15 marks


5. Answer the following in about 150 words each : 10x5=50

(a) "Areal differentiation forms the core theme in Geography." Explain. 10 marks
(b) Explain 'Isodapane'. 10 marks
(c) Discuss the major characteristics of CBD'. 10 marks
(d) Elaborate the idea of "Compage'. 10 marks
(e) Discuss the application of Gravity model in Geographical studies, 10 marks

6.(a) Trace the origin and progress of Quantitative Revolution in Geography and bring out its merits and demerits. 20 marks
(b) Discuss the role of site in determining the types and patterns of rural settlements.15 marks
(c) What is a "region' ? Describe "Thiessen' polygon method of regional delimitation. 15 marks

7.(a) Describe the regional pattern of Life Expectancy in the world and bring out the challenges faced by developing countries due to increasing life expectancy. 20 marks
(b) Discuss the relevance of 'Stop and Go Determinism' in the present day context. 15 marks
(c) Define and differentiate between boundaries and frontiers. Describe the geometrical boundaries with suitable examples. 15 marks

8.(a) Give a critical account of Losch's theory of central places. 20 marks
(b) "Linkages between resource-endowed regions and resource-utilizing regions determine the pattern of international trade." Elaborate with suitable examples. 15 marks
(c) In what ways can geographers contribute towards optimal land use planning in a region ? 15 marks

Geography (Paper-2)


1.(a) On the outline map of India provided to you, mark the location of all of the following. Write in your QCA Booklet the significance of these locations, whether physical/commercial/economic/ecological/Environmental/cultural, in not more than 30 words for each entry : 2x10=20 marks

(i) Pir Panjal Range
(ii) River Indravati
(iii) Nathu La Pass
(iv) Jog Falls
(v) Pulicat Lake
(vi) Kudankulam
(vii) Nalanda
(viii) Kudremukh
(ix) Headquarters of N-E Railways
(x) Farakka Barrage


(b) Explain the shifting of river courses and river capturing in the Himalayas. (In about 150 words) 10 marks
(c) Mention the space relationship of India with neighbouring countries. (In about 150 words) 10 marks
(d) Define agricultural intensity and bring out its regional distribution in India. (In about 750 words) 10 marks

2.(a) Discuss the role of spatial pattern of rainfall and temperature in the delimitation of climatic regions of India especially with reference to Stamp's climatic regionalization. (In about 250 words) 20 marks
(b) Describe the flood-prone areas and their management problems in the Ganga Plains. (In about 200 words) 15 marks
(c) Explain the New Industrial Policies in India. (In about 200 words) 15 marks

3.(a) Identify the important biotic resource regions of India and highlight their problems. (In about 250 words) 20 marks
(b) Point out the ethnic disparities in the N-E India. (In about 200 words) 15 marks
(c) Give an account of the development of renewable resources of India. (In about 200 words) 15 marks

4.(a) Bring out the development of river water transport in India and its role in regional development. (In about 250 words) 20 marks
(b) Explain the impact of economic development on environmental degradation in India. (In about 200 words) 15 marks
(c) Describe the distribution of black soils in India and their specific use for agriculture. (In about 200 words) 15 marks


5. For Question Nos. 5(a) to 5(e), write on each in about 150 words: 5x10=50 marks

(a) Discuss the factors influencing the distribution of sex ratio in India. 10 marks
(b) "The Bokaro Iron and Steel Plant is an example of Industrial Complex." Explain. 10 marks
(c) How do slums develop? Give concrete suggestions for their improvement. 10 marks
(d) Explain the role of India in the geo-politics of South Asia. 10 marks
(e) Analyze the pattern of India's trade with the S-E Asian countries. 10 marks

6.(a) Present a comparative analysis of geographical factors responsible for distribution of human settlements in Rajasthan desert and North-Eastern regions of India. (In about 250 words) 20 marks
(b) Explain with suitable examples the role of road transport in agricultural development in India. (In about 200 words) 15 marks
(c) Evaluate the impact of technology on resource utilization in India. (In about 200 words) 15 marks

7.(a) Analyze the location, distributional pattern and problems of cotton textile industries in India. (In about 250 words) 20 marks
(b) Describe the major tribal regions of India and their problems. (In about 200 words) 15 marks
(c) Examine the causes of regional disparities in economic development in India. (In about 200 words) 15 marks

8.(a) Describe the causes and effects of urbanization in India and explain its impact on rural landscape and urban ecology. (In about 250 words) 20 marks
(b) "India has paid heavily for achievement of Green Revolution in the form of economic, social and ecological cost." Discuss. (In about 200 words) 15 marks
(c) Explain the origin, dimension and implications of Sino-Indian border dispute. (In about 200 words) 15 marks





(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Economics (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Economics (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains

Year: 2016

Subject: Economics

Economics Paper-1


1. Answer the following questions in about 150 words cach : 10x5=50 marks

(a) State Marshallian and Walrasian stability condition of market equilibrium. Do you think that existence of Marshallian stability necessarily ensures Walrasian stability and vice versa? Explain.
(b) State Bain's limnit price theory.
(c) Explain kinked demand curvc theory with the help of diagram.
(d) What are the fiscal and monetary implications of vertical Is and vertical LM curves?
(e) Examine Kaldor and Kalecki theory of distribution.

2.(a) "The advent of New Classical Macro-economics has tended to upset the applecart of Keynesian and to a great extent, that of the Monetarists." Discuss. 20 marks
(b) Write on Prisoners' dilemma and Nash equilibrium, 15 marks
(c) Discuss in brief Friedman's restatement of the quantity theory of money and find its similarity/difference with the classical quantity theory. 15 marks

3.(a) Distinguish between Monetarist and Neo-Keynesian approaches expectation-augmented Phillips curve. 20 marks
(b) Should inflation targeting be main plank of monetary policy of a central bank in emerging market economics like India? Show its implications on investment and growth. 15 marks
(c) What is a Lemon Market? What is the role of signalling and screening in it? Explain. 15 marks

4.(a) What is asymmetric information? How could it lead to adverse selection and market failure? Discuss. 20 marks
(b) Illustrate the notion of perverse subsidy in the context of natural resource sector. 15 marks
(c) Examine the effects of public expenditure on the development process of an economy. 15 marks


5. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each : 10x5=50 marks

(a) Differentiate between inter-Industry and Intra-Industry trade. Can standard H-O model explain intra industry trade? Discuss.
(b) Explain Dunning's eclectic theory of FDI.
(c) Explain Brander-Krugman model of intra-industry trade in an oligopolistic market.
(d) Explain Kuznets' inverted 'U'hypothesis. Is growth good for the poor? Explain.
(e) Under what conditions economic growth reduces employment growth? Discuss. 20

6.(a) Describe the growth path, which once the economy attains it, will give a higher level of per capita consumption than any other growth path for all time. 20 marks
(b) "Technical progress in capital-intensive sector almost invariably reduces the real wage rate and increases the real return to capital. Technical progress in labour-intensive sector will lead to increase in real wage rate and decrease in the real return to capital." Explain. 15 marks
(c) What is the stalemate in the WTO about subsidies in less-developed economies? Discuss. 15 marks

7.(a) "The argument that export-biased growth may turn the terms of trade unfavourable to the country and hence may not be beneficial, is applicable in the case of a large country and not a small country." Explain. 20 marks
(b) With the help of Salter-Swan diagram, define the zones of disequilibrium and assign policy prescriptions for the situations pertaining to unemployment and inflation vis-à-vis BOP deficit. 20 marks
(c) To counteract under-development stagnation, discuss Leibenstein's critical minimum effort theory. 10 marks

8.(a) What are the elasticity and absorption approaches to BOP adjustment? Discuss. 20 marks
(b) "Pollution-income progression of agrarian communities (clean) to industrial economics (pollution intensive) to service economies (cleaner) would appear to be false if pollution increases again at the end due to higher levels of income and consumption of the people at large.” Discuss. 15 marks
(c) Indicate the Ricardo legacy which is inherent in the Lewis model of economic development 15 marks

Economics Paper-2


1. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each. 10x5=50 marks

(a) Explain the salient features of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments in India and elaborate the impact of its implementation. 10 marks
(b) Do you agree with the view that an increase in the productivity of agriculture as a result of Green Revolution was only short-term ? Give reasons. 10 marks
(c) What were the economic and non-cconomic rationale for adopting mixed-economy model in India? 10 marks
(d)Discuss the basic features of the IInd five year plan in India. 10 marks
(e) What were the economic consequences of discriminating protection in the trade policy during British Regime ? 10 marks

2.(a) Discuss the manufacturing condition prevailed during pre-independence period. Do you feel that private sector did not come forward for investment due to fear of Nationalisation ? Give reasons. 20 marks
(b) Critically examine condition of Agriculture and rural economy during the pre independence era. 15 marks
(c) Discuss the Wage-Goods model of development as given by C.N. Vakil and P. R. Bramhanand. 15 marks

3.(a) Critically examine the difference between absolute poverty and relative poverty. Between the two which is more appropriate ? Give reasons. 20 marks
(b) Explain the major tools for measuring in equality. Highlight the more appropriate method of measuring inequality 15 marks.
(c) Examine the implications of Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) on Indian Economy 15 marks

4.(a) What is 'Crony Capitalism'? Is it true that almost all Developing Countries are facing the threat of 'Crony Capitalism' in their development efforts ? 20 marks
(b)Examine the process of introducing and passing GST Bill in Parliament. How it helps in Fiscal Consolidation in the country? 15 marks
(c) What were the major hurdles to development as experienced in India during first decade after independence ? Discuss them and what steps were taken to remove them? 15 marks


5. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each. 10x5=50 marks

(a) "Partial Capital Account Convertibility cannot serve the purpose of integrating Indian Economy with World Economy". Critically examine. 10 marks
(b) Critically examine the salient features of Fiscal Responsibility Act. 10 marks
(c) Examine the basic features of the National Food Security Act 2013. 10 marks
(d) Bring out the salient features of New EXIM policy of Government of India. 10 marks
(e) Write short notes on "Skill India" and "Make in India”. 10 marks

6.(a) Monetary Policy in India is often criticised as ineffective because large part of the country is not yet monetised. Do you agree with the view ? Give reasons. 20 marks
(b) Trace the development of Non Banking Financial Companies in India since the liberalisation cra and comment on their impact on the effectiveness of the interest rate policies of the RBI. 15 marks
(c) Explain how Railways played an important role in unifying the people of India during pre-independence period. 15 marks

7.(a) During post-independence era India assigned the role of 'Commanding Heights' to the public undertakings. Should this policy be continued ? Give reasons for your answer. 20 marks
(b) Explain the contribution of V.KR.V. Rao in the estimation of National Income.15 marks
(c) Critically examine the major changes in FDI policies of the Government of India sirice 1991. 15 marks

8.(a) What are the basic features of new national rural employment guarantee scheme? What are the impediments in their implementation ? 20 marks
(b) "Agriculture Subsidy is both an Economic as well as Social issue, hence the Government finds it difficult to take a decisive decision". Comment on the above statement. 15 marks
(c) Discuss the changes in the sectoral composition of GDP in recent years. 15 marks

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Botany (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Botany (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains

Year: 2016

Subject: Botany

Exam Date: 9-12-2016

Botany  Paper-1


1. Briefly describe the following in not more than 150 words each: 10x5=50 marks

(a) Role of microbes in mining and pharmaceuticals 10 marks
(b) Ultrastructure of flagella in Algae 10 marks
(c) Role of soil solarization in disease control 10 marks
(d) Lytic cycle of bacteriophage  10 marks
(e) Physiological relationship of two partners in Lichens 10 marks


2.(a) Explain the molecular basis of infection and disease resistance in plants. 15+5=20  marks
(b) Describe the characteristic features of Cyanobacteria and mention its role in nitrogen fixation. 10+5=15 marks
(c) Write down the characters of pteridophytes resembling bryophytes and gymnosperms. 7.5+7.5=15 marks

3.(a) Discuss the evolution of Sporophyte in Bryophytes. 20 marks
(b) Trace the transition from multisporangia to conidia in Mucorales with illustrations and suitable examples. 8+7=15 marks
(c) Describe the different stages in the development of female gametophyte within the ovule in Cyeus. 15  marks

4.  Give the name of the causal organism, symptoms and control measures of any four important crop diecaces caused respectively by 12.5x4=50 marks

(a) a fungus
(b) a bacterium
(c) a virus
(d) a mycoplasma


5. Briefly describe the following in about 150 words each : 10x5=50 marks

(a) Forensic application of palynology  10 marks
(b) Procedure and maintenance of Herbarium 10 marks
(c) Tumour cells and their culture  10 marks
(d) Xylem and phloem differentiation 10 marks
(e) Energy plantations  10 marks

6.(a) Describe the principles and application of embryo culture techniques, mentioning the protocol for embryo culture. 15+5=20 marks
(b) Write an account of the following families in regard to their floral structures. Give the botanical names of three important plant species belonging to each of the families and specify their uses : 10x3=30  marks

(i) Asclepiadaceae
(ii) Musaceae
(iii) Apiaccac

7.(a) Discuss the principle and application of Numerical Taxonomy 5+10=15  marks
(b) Give the botanical names of latex yielding plants with narcotic properties and also write the names of the plant-parts used therein. 7.5+7.5=15 marks
(c)  How anthers and pollens are cultured in vitro ? Discuss its importance in the production of haploid plants. 12+8=20 marks

8.(a) Compare and contrast the systems of classification of angiosperms proposed by Hutchinson and Takhtajan. 10+10=20 marks
(b) Differentiate between normal and abnormal secondary growth in dicot stem. Discuss with suitable examples. Draw labelled diagrams. 10+5=15 marks
(c) Write notes on the following: 7.5+7.5=15 marks

(i) Heart wood and Sap wood
(ii) Different types of trichomes

Botany  Paper-2


1. Explain the following:  10x5=50 marks

(a) Polyteny differs from polyploidy 10 marks
(b) Factors affecting recombination frequencies  10 marks
(c) Chi-square test as a test of goodness of fit 10 marks
(d) C-value paradox 10 marks  
(e) Chemical mutagens 10 marks

2. (a) Explain and describe the tools and techniques of FISH.  20 marks
(b) Describe the basic structure of a nucleosome. 15 marks
(c) "The consequences of translocations are profound. They lead not only to a change in gene linkage in the translocated sections but also to easily incurred meiotic abnormalities." Discuss. 15 marks

3.(a) Citing suitable evidences, explain plastid inheritance in four o'clock plant.  15 marks
(b) Discuss Inbreeding depression versus Heterosis. 15 marks
(c) How does the Ins P3/DAG pathway participate in the process of translocation of cellular signals ? 20 marks

4. Briefly describe the characteristics and applications of the following: 10x5=50 marks

(a) Back cross method  10 marks
(b) Restriction endonucleases 10 marks
(c) Transgenic plants as living Lioruuclor's 10 marks
(d) Molecular markers  10 marks
(e) Retroviruses as vectors 10 marks


5. Explain the following: 10x5=50

(a) Apoenzyme  10 marks
(b) Ethylene as a volatile hormone 10 marks
(c) Soil salinity also restricts the growth of plants  10 marks
(d) Taiga or Boreal forests 10 marks
(e) "The pyramid of energy always takes a true upright shape." Why? 10 marks

6.(a) Describe the role of glyoxysomes in conversion of fats into more mobile molecules. 15 marks
(b) Distinguish between phloem loading and phloem unloading.15 marks
(c) What is Niche overlap ? Narrate the biogeographic classifications of India. 5+10=15 marks

7.(a) What are the functions of the enzymes which need copper, zinc and molybdenum as their co-factors ? 15  marks
(b)  Enumerate the effects of oil spillage and suggest the control and remedial measures of it. 5+5+5=15 marks
(c) Define ecological succession. Describe the causes and basic types of ecological succession. 5+10+5=20 marks

8. Briefly describe the given terms and emphasize their importance/ significance 10x5=50 marks

(a) Recycling is an integral part of solid waste management  10 marks
(b) 0TEC 10 marks
(c) Allosteric enzymes and Feedback control 5+5=10 marks
(d) Biosafety and Bioremediation 5+5=10 marks
(e) Solar pond 10 marks

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

  • Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains
  • Year: 2016
  • Subject: Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science
  • Exam Date: 9-12-2016
  • File Type: PDF

Animal Husbandry Veterinary Science Paper-1


Q1. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each : 10x5=50 marks

(a) Many non-nutritive substances are often being mixed in animal and poultry ration as growth-promoters. Discuss the uses and abuses of these growth-promoters. 10 marks
(b) Enlist different blood-proteins and describe their functions in brief. What organs of the body play a crucial role in blood-protein biosynthesis ?  10 marks
(c) Why is the precise detection of oestrus very crucial in animal reproduction ? What are the various methods of oestrus detection ? 10 marks
(d) What role is played by pulmonary circulation in the body ? How are oxygen and carbon dioxide gases exchanged in this process ? 10 marks
(e) Why are broilers and layers fed different types of rations ? What are the similarities and dissimilarities in these two rations ? 10 marks

Q2.(a) How will you design an economic ration of pigs for production of lean meat ? Explain. 15 marks
(b) What is silage ? Discuss in brief about the anti-nutritional factors commonly found in animal feeds. 20 marks
(c) Discuss at least two methods that are utilized in formulating animal rations.15 marks

Q3.(a) Why is maintenance of blood pressure vital ? What are the various factors that influence blood pressure ? Explain. 15 marks
(b) How is urine formed ? Discuss the role of aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in this process. 20 marks
(c) Briefly discuss different types of hormone receptors and their role in signal transduction. 15 marks

Q4.(a) Explain how carbohydrates and proteins are digested in ruminant and non-ruminant animals.20 marks
(b) Give the schematic representation of partitioning of feed energy in the body of lactating cows. 10 marks
(c) Discuss the dilucnta uocd in cattlo comon proeorvation. What are the precautions that are necessary during semen preservation and thawing? 20 marks


Q5. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each : 10x5=50  marks

(a) The demand for milk and milk products is constantly increasing in India. What are the various constraints that discourage many entrepreneurs in venturing in this sector?10 marks
(b) Why is green fodder considered as an essential constituent of ration for young and mature livestock ? How will you ensure round the year supply of green fodder for dairy animals? 10 marks
(c) What advanced preparations should be made to ensure milk production during natural disasters like drought and flood ? 10 marks
(d) What are the fundamental objectives of extension ? Write the aims of extension in accordance with National Commission on Agriculture. 10 marks
(e) How is recombinant DNA technology influencing the livestock production ? Explain.10 marks

Q6.(a) For a long time in India, mixed farming has been advocated more than the specialized farming. However, recent trends indicate that specialized farming is also gaining ground. What could be the reasons behind this changed mindset ? 15 marks
(b) What is the importance of extension programme in the Indian farming system ? What are the different methods utilised by extension workers in training farmers ? 20 marks
(c) Plan a dairy farm to produce approximately 500 kg milk per day year round. Indicate the feed and fodder requirements and the breeding programme to maintain the constancy of milk production.15 marks

Q7.(a) How do somatic and germ cells divide ? What is the role of division processes in maintaining the phenotype of individual and its progeny ? Outline the division process diagrammatically. 15 marks
(b) What is the molecular basis of Mendelian genetics? What are the reasons for variations in observed and in theoretical ratios of the segregating population ?20 marks
(c) What do you understand by genetic code'? Discuss the important features of genetic code. 15 marks

Q8.(a) Define inbreeding coefficient and write its utility. What are the consequences of inbreeding depression in large and small herds ? 20 marks
(b) What is the importance of progeny testing ? Compare the traditional and modern methods of progeny testing in cattle. 15 marks
(c) Why is Hardy-Weinberg law considered as the backbone of population genelius ? What are the different factors that lead to a drift from Hardy-Weinberg law? 15 marks

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Agriculture (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Agriculture (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains

Year: 2016

Subject: Agriculture

Exam Date: 9-12-2016

File Type: PDF

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains English Compulsory Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains English Compulsory Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains

Year: 2016

Exam Date: 7-12-2016

1. Write an essay in about 600 words on any one topic : 100 marks

(a) Majoritarianism conflicting with the constitutional spirit, an unhealthy trend in true democracy.
(b) The Indian girl child — still a victim of exploitation.
(c) Industrialization should not affect but contribute to agricultural growth in India.
(d) Mass media has great responsibility in transforming the society.

2. Read carefully the passage given below and write your answers to the questions that follow in clear, correct and concise language : 15x5=75 marks

The thought of Young Bengal (Peary Chand Mitra, one of the circle, called it in 1877 "Young Calcutta) flowed through the fourth decade of the 19th century, arising in the late twenties and ebbing away after the mid-forties. Its inspirer was Derozio (1809-31), competent scholar, gifted writer, radical thinker, and the most famous of our teachers in the new education. It will be unusual to link with Young Bengal a second name, that of David Hare (1775-1841) who seems so different from Derozio in So many ways. Hare was indeed no professional instructor or intellectual, no man of letters or of academic learning. Ile had neither the brilliance nor the waywardness of his contemporary; unlike him he had become in diet and habits alınost a half-Hindu. Yet between the two may be detected an underlying resemblance which furnishes a key to a proper estimation of Young Bengal. Common to both was the passionate conviction that for India nothing was more essential than a dissemination of European learning and science among her people." Both encouraged freedom of thinking and discussion and inspired a courage and personal integrity in their followers to throw off the fetters of that antiquated bigotry which still clung to their countrymen." And unlike other leaders around thcm, both were 'godless' secularists with little faith in denominations or religious instruction, and yet staunch idealists. Nor can one forget that in the hour of trial Hare tried to stand by Derozio and his maligned pupils about whom he declared - "your countrymen look upon you as - their reformers and instructors": while the Derozians were the first to honour Hare publicly, and after his death they were in the forefront in the endeavour to perpetuate his memory, in the unique First of June anniversaries for 25 years without a break. Henry Louis Vivian Derozio was a Calcutta Eurasian of Portuguese-Indian ancestry, the son of an officer in an Englishı mercantile firin. (In the Hindu College Records of 1831. the name is occasionally spell as De Rozio; Max Muller wrote D. Rozario). Ile was educated in one of the pioneer English-teaching private schools of the early 19th century, run by the Scotsman Drummond in the Dharmatala arca. Drummond was a scholar-poet, and as a notorious free-thinker an exile from his native land. It may safely be conjectured that Derozio derived from Drummond his taste in literature and philosophy, his love of Burns, his faith in the French Revolution and English Radicalism.

Derozio's youthful critique on Kant was considered as something which would not disgrace even gifted philosophers"; his translation of a French essay on Moral Philosophy was printed posthumously. The fame already won secured him an appointment as teacher to the senior classes in the Hindu College before he had .. ended his teens'.

Derozio's personality brought "a ncw cra in the annals of the College", the youthful teacher drawing the senior boys like a magne" round him. According to his biographer "neither before, nor since his day has any teacher, within the walls of anly native educational establishment in India, ever exercised such an influence over his pupils." Not alone in the classrooms, but outside the hours as well, he strove with success "to broaden and deepen the knowledge of his pupils" in Western thought and literature, the new fountain which constipated and intoxicated. The College students clustered round him and very many of them carried down to their last days the deep impress Stamped on them by their Master. This was the cementing link which held together the Young Bengal group. the memory which made a close-knit fellowship of affection and friendship even in later life. Unlike most teachers, Derozio encouraged his students to debate freely and question authority. He urged them to think for themselves, to be in no way by any of the idols mentioned by Bacon-to live and dic for truth." One of his pupils, Radhanath Sikdar, said of him : he has been the cause and the sole cause of that spirit of enquiry after truth, and that contempt of vice – which cannot but be beneficial to India." Another, Ramgopal Ghosh, held up the motto: "He who will not reason is a bigot; he who cannot is a fool, and he who does not is a slave."

(a) Which was the period when the thought of Young Bengal, the youthful band of reformers flourished in Bengal? Who were the two main teachers of the new education and in what ways were they different from each other?
(b) What was common to both these teachers ? How did they support each other?
(c) Comment on the education of Derozio. Did Drummond have any influence on him ? Justify your answer.
(d) What kind of influence did Derozio have on his pupils i.e., the Young Bengal group?
(e) "He has been the cause and the sole cause of the spirit of enquiry after truth." Explain the significance of the statement by Radhanath Sikdar.

3. Make a précis of the following passage in about one-third of its length. Do not give a title to it. The précis should be written in your own language. 75 marks

India is essentially a land of knowledge and it must rediscover itself in this aspect. Once this rediscovery is done, it will not require much struggle to achieve the quality of life, strength and sovereignty of a developed nation.

Knowledge has many forms and it is available at many places. It is acquired through education, information, intelligence and experience. It is available in academic institutions, with teachers, in libraries, in research papers, seminar proceedings and in various organizations and workplaces with workers, managers, in drawings, in process sheets and on the shop floors. Knowledge, though closely linked to education, comes equally from learning skills such as those possessed by our artists, craftsmen, hakims, vaidyas, philosophers and saints, as also our housewives. Knowledge plays a very important role in their performance and output too. Our heritage and history, the rituals, epics and traditions that form part of our consciousness are also vast resources of knowledge as are our libraries and universities. There is an abundance of unorthodox, earthy wisdom in our villages. There are hidden treasures of knowledge in our environment, in the oceans, bio reserves and deserts, in the plant and animal life. Every state in our country has a unique core competence for a knowledge society.

Knowledge has always been the prime mover of prosperity and power. The acquisition of knowledge has therefore been the thrust area throughout the world. Additionally, in India, there has been a culture of sharing it, not only through the traditions of guru-shishya but also by its spread to neighbouring countries through travellers who came to Nalanda and other universities drawn by their reputation as centres of learning. India is endowed with natural and competitive advantages as also certain distinctive competencies. But these are scattered in isolated pockets and the awareness of these is inadequate. During the last century the world has changed from being an agricultural society, in which manual labour was the critical factor, to an industrial society where the management of technology, capital and labour provide the competitive advantage. In the twenty-first century, a new society is emerging where knowledge is the primary production resource instead of capital and labour. Efficient utilization of this existing knowledge base can create wealth for us in the form of better health, education and other indicators of progress. The ability to create and maintain the knowledge infrastructure, to enhance skills and increase productivity through the exploitation of advances in various fields will be the key factors in deciding the prosperity of this society.

The knowledge society has two very important components driven by societal transformation and wealth generation. The societal transformation is in respect of education, healthcare, agriculture and governance. These will lead to employment generation, high productivity and rural prosperity.

The task of wealth generation for the nation has to be woven around national competencies. The TIFAC task team has identified core areas that will spearhead our march towards becoming a knowledge society. The areas are: information technology, biotechnology, space technology, weather forecasting, disaster management, telemedicine and tele-education, technologies utilizing traditional knowledge, service sector and infotainment which is the emerging area resulting from convergence of information and entertainment. These core technologies, fortunately, can be interwoven by IT, a sector that took off only due to the enterprising spirit of the young Thus there are multiple technologies and appropriate management structures that have to work together to generate a knowledge society. With India carving a niche for itself in information technology, the country is uniquely placed to fully capitalize on the opportunity to quickly transform itself into a knowledge society. The Planning Commission has taken a lead in generating a roadmap for transforming India into a knowledge society Evolving suitable policy and administrative procedures, changes in regulatory methods, identification of partners and most important, creation of young and dynamic leaders are the components that have to be put in place. In order to generate wealth, which is the second component for establishing a knowledge society, it is essential that simultaneously a citizen-centric approach to shaping of business policy, user-driven technology generation and intensified industry-academia linkages have also to be established.

A knowledge society has a two-dimensional objective of societal transformation and wealth generation, and a third dimension emerges if India is to transform itself into a knowledge superpower. This is knowledge protection and it entails a tremendous responsibility. It is very important that our communication network and information generators are protected from electronic attacks through surveillance and monitoring. There should be a focussed approach to intellectual property rights and related issues, and our ancient knowledge and culture too are part of our resource basc and need to be protected as such. (776 words)

(E-Book) UPSC MAINS English (Compulsory) Question Papers (2009-2020) PDF



UPSC Mains English (Compulsory) Study Material

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(Download) UPSC IAS Mains General Studies (Paper-4) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains General Studies (Paper-4) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains General Studies (Paper-4)

Year: 2016

Exam Date: 6-12-2016



1. (a) Explain how ethics contributes to social and human well-being. (150 words) 10 marks
(b) Why should impartiality and non-partisanship be considered as foundational values in public services, especially in the present day socio-political context? Illustrate your answer with examples. (150 words) 10 marks

2.(a) What do you understand by the terms 'governance', 'good governance and 'ethical governance'? (150 words)  10 marks
(b) Discuss Mahatma Gandhi's concept of seven sins. (150 words) 10 marks

3.(a) Analyse John Rawls's concept of social justice in the Indian context.(150 words) 10 marks
(b) Discuss the Public Services Code as recommended by the 2nd Administrative Reforms Commission. (150 words) 10 marks

4.(a) "Corruption causes misuse of government treasury, administrative inefficiency and obstruction in the path of national development." Discuss Kautilya's views. (150 words) 10 marks
(b) How could social influence and persuasion contribute to the success of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan ? (150 words) 10 marks

5. Law and ethics are considered to be the two tools for controlling human conduct so as to make it conducive to civilized social existence.

(a) Discuss how they achieve this objective. “
(b) Giving examples, show how the two differ in their approaches. (150 words) 10 marks

6. Our attitudes towards life, work, other people and society are generally shaped unconsciously by the family and the social surroundings in which we grow up. Some of these unconsciously acquired attitudes and values are often undesirable in the citizens of a modern democratic and egalitarian society.

(a) Discuss such undesirable values prevalent in today's educated Indians.
(b) How can such undesirable attitudes be changed and socio-ethical values considered necessary in public services be cultivated in the aspiring and serving civil servants ? (150 words) 10 marks

7. Anger is a harmful negative emotion. It is injurious to both personal life and work life.

(a) Discuss how it leads to negative emotions and undesirable behaviours.
(b) How can it be managed and controlled ? (150 words) 10 marks

8. "Max Weber said that it is not wise to apply to public administration the sort of moral and ethical norms we apply to matters of personal conscience. It is important to realise that the Stato bureaucracy might possess its own independent bureaucratic morality." Critically analyse this statement. (150 words) 10 marks


9. A fresh engineering graduate gets a job in a prestigious chemical industry. She likes the work. The salary is also good. However, after a few months she accidentally discovers that a highly toxic waste is being secretly discharged into a river nearby. This is causing health problems to the villagers downstream who depend on the river for their water needs. She is perturbed and mentions her concern to her colleagues who have been with the company for longer periods. They advise her to keep quite as anyone who mentions the topic is summarily dismissed. She cannot risk losing her job as she is the sole bread-winner for her family and has to support her ailing parents and siblings. At first, she thinks that if her seniors are keeping quiet, why should she stick out her neck. But her conscience pricks her to do something to save the river and the people who depend upon it. At heart she feels that the advice of silence given by her friends is not correct though she cannot give reasons for it. She thinks you are a wise person and seeks your advice.

(a) What arguments can you advance to show her that keeping quiet is not morally right?

(b) What course of action would you advise her to adopt and why? (250 words) 20 marks

10. Land needed for mining, dams and other large-scale projects is acquired mostly from adivasis, hill dwellers and rural communities. The displaced persons are paid monetary compensation as per the legal provisions. However, the payment is often tardy. In any case, it cannot sustain the displaced families for long. These people do not possess marketable skills to engage in some other occupation, They end up as low paid migrant labourers. Moreover, their traditional ways of community living are destroyed. Thus, the benefits of development go to industries, industrialists and urban communities whereas the costs are passed on to these poor helpless people. This unjust distribution of costs and benefits is unethical.

Suppose you have been entrusted with the task of drafting a better compensation-cum-rehabilitation policy for such displaced persons, how would you approach the problem and what would be the main elements of your suggested policy ? (250 words) 20 marks

11. Suppose you are an officer in-charge of implementing a social service scheme to provide support to old and destitute women. An old and illiterate woman comes to you to avail the benefits of the scheme. However, she has no documents to show that she fulfils the eligibility criteria. But after meeting her and listening to her you feel that she certainly needs support. Your enquiries also show that she is really destitute and living in a pitiable condition. You are in a dilemma as to what to do. Putting her under the scheme without necessary documents would clearly be violation of rules. But denying her the support would be cruel and inhuman.

(a) Can you think of a rational way to resolve this dilemma ?

(b) Give your reasons for it. (250 words) 20 marks

12.You are a young, aspiring and sincere employee in a Government office working as an assistant to the director of your department. Since you have joined recently, you need to learn and progress. Luckily your superior is very kind and ready to train you for your job. He is a very intelligent and well informed person having knowledge of various departments. In short, you respect your boss and are looking forward to learn a lot from him.

Since you have a good tuning with the boss, he started depending on you. One day due to ill health he invited you at his place for finishing some urgent work.

You reached his house and before you could ring the bell you heard shouting noises. You waited for a while. After entering the house the boss greeted you and explained the work. But you were constantly disturbed by the crying of a woman. At last, you inquired with the boss but his answer did not satisfy you.

Next day, you were compelled to inquire further in the office and found out that his behaviour is very bad at home with his wife. He also beats up his wife.

His wife is not well educated and is a simple woman in comparison to her husband. You see that though your boss is a nice person in the office, he is engaged in domestic violence at home.

In such a situation, you are left with the following options. Analyse each option with its consequences.

(a) Just ignore thinking about it because it is their personal matter.

(b) Report the case to the appropriate authority. Your own innovative approach towards the situation. (250 words) 20 marks

13. ABC Ltd. is a large transnational company having diversified business activities with a huge shareholder base. The company is continuously expanding and generating employment. The company, in its expansion and diversification programme, decides to establish a new plant at Vikaspuri, an area which is underdeveloped. The new plant is designed to use energy efficient technology that will help the company to save production cost by 20%. The company's decision goes well with the Government policy of attracting investment to develop such underdeveloped regions. The Government has also announced tax holiday for five years for the companies that invest in underdeveloped areas. However, the new plant may bring chaos for the inhabitants of Vikaspuri region, which is otherwise tranquil. The new plant may result in increased cost of living, aliens migrating to the region, disturbing the social and economic order. The company sensing the possible protest tried to educate the people of Vikaspuri region and public in general that how its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policy would help overcome the likely difficulties of the residents of Vikaspuri region. In spite of this the protests begin and some of the residents decided to approach the judiciary as their plea before the Government did not yield any result.

(a) Identify the issues involved in the case.

(b) What can be suggested to satisfy the company's goal and to address the residents' concerns ? (300 words) 25 marks

14. Saraswati was a successful IT professional in USA. Moved by the patriotic sense of doing something for the country she returned to India. Together with some other like-minded friends, she formed an NGO to build a school for a poor rural community.

The objective of the school was to provide the best quality modern education at a nominal cost. She soon discovered that she has to seek permission from a number of Government agencies. The rules and procedures were quite confusing and cumbersome. What frustrated her most was the delays, callous attitude of officials and constant demand for bribes. Her experience and the experience of many others like her has deterred people from taking up social service projects.

A measure of Government control over voluntary social work is necessary. But it should not be exercised in a coercive or corrupt manner. What measures can you suggest to ensure that due control is exercised but well meaning, honest NGO efforts are not thwarted ? (300 words)  25 marks

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains General Studies (Paper-3) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains General Studies (Paper-3) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains General Studies (Paper-3)

Year: 2016

Exam Date: 6-12-2016

Answer all the following questions. Each question is to be answered in not more than 200 words. Each question carries equal marks.

  1. How globalization has led to the reduction of employment in the formal sector of the Indian economy? Is increased informalization detrimental to the development of the country? 12.5 marks

  2. Women empowerment in India needs gender budgeting. What are the requirements and status of gender budgeting in the Indian context? 12.5 marks

  3. Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) is necessary for bringing unbanked to the institutional finance fold. Do you agree with this for financial inclusion of the poorer section of the Indian society? Give arguments to justify your opinion. 12.5 marks

  4. What are 'Smart Cities'? Examine their relevance for urban development in India. Will it increase rural-urban differences? Give arguments for 'Smart Villages' in the light of PURA and RURBAN Mission. 12.5 marks

  5. Justify the need for FDI for the development of the Indian economy. Why there is gap between MOUs signed and actual FDIS? Suggest remedial steps to be taken for increasing actual FDIs in India. 12.5 marks

  6. Comment on the challenges for inclusive growth which include careless and useless manpower in the Indian context. Suggest measures to be taken for facing these challenges. 12.5 marks

  7. What is water-use efficiency? Describe the role of micro-irrigation in increasing the water-use efficiency. 12.5 marks

  8. What is allclopatlıy? Discuss its role in major cropping systems of irrigated agriculture.  12.5 marks

  9. Discuss the role of land reforms in agricultural development. Identify the factors that were responsible for the success of land reforms in India. 12.5 marks

  10. Given the vulnerability of Indian agriculture to vagaries of nature, discuss the need for crop insurance and bring out the salient features of the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY). 12.5 marks

  11. Give an account of the current status and the targets to be achieved pertaining to renewable energy sources in the country. Discuss in brief the importance of National Programme on Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). 12.5 marks

  12. Discuss India's achievements in the field of Space Science and Technology. How the application of this technology has helped India in its socio-economic development? 12.5 marks

  13. Why is nanotechnology one of the key technologies of the 21st century? Describe the salient features of Indian Government's Mission on Nanoscience and Technology and the scope of its application in the development process of the country. 12.5 marks

  14. Rehabilitation of human settlements is one of the important environmental impacts which always attracts controversy while planning major projects. Discuss the measures suggested for mitigation of this impact while proposing major developmental projects.  12.5 marks

  15. The frequency of urban floods due to high intensity rainfall is increasing over the years. Discussing the reasons for urban floods, highlight the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events. 12.5 marks

  16. With reference to National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) guidelines, discuss the measures to be adopted to mitigate the impact of the recent incidents of cloudbursts in many places of Uttarakhand. 12.5 marks

  17. The terms 'Hot Pursuit' and 'Surgical Strikes' are often used in connection with armed action against terrorist attacks. Discuss the strategic impact of such actions. 12.5 marks

  18. "Terrorism is emerging as a competitive industry over the last few decades." Analyze the above statement. 12.5 marks

  19. Border management is a complex task due to difficult terrain and hostile relations with some countries. Elucidate the challenges and strategies for effective border management. 12.5 marks

  20. Use of Internet and social media by non-state actors for subversive activities is a major security concern. How have these been misused in the recent past? Suggest effective guidelines to curb the above threat. 12.5 marks

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains General Studies (Paper-1) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains General Studies (Paper-1) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains General Studies (Paper-1)

Year: 2016

Exam Date: 5-12-2016

Answer all the following questions. Each question is to be answered in not more than 200 words. Each question carries equal marks.

  1. Early Buddhist Stupa-art, while depicting folk motifs and narratives successfully expounds Buddhist ideals. Elucidate. 12.5 marks

  2. Krishnadeva Raya, the King of Vijayanagar, was not only an accomplished scholar himself but was also a great patron of learning and literature. Discuss. 12.5 marks

  3. Explain how the Uprising of 1857 constitutes an important watershed in the evolution of British policies towards colonial India. 12.5 marks

  4. Discuss the role of women in the freedom struggle especially during the Gandhian phase.  12.5 marks

  5. Highlight the differences in the approach of Subhash Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi in the struggle for freedom. 12.5 marks

  6. Has the formation of linguistic States strengthened the cause of Indian Unity? 12.5 marks

  7. The anti-colonial struggles in West Africa were led by the new elite of Western-educated Africans. Examine. 12.5 marks

  8. To what extent globalization has influenced the core of cultural diversity in India? Explain. 12.5 marks

  9. "An essential condition to eradicate poverty is to liberate the poor from the process of  deprivation." Substantiate this statement with suitable examples. 7+5.5=12.5 marks

  10. Why are the tribals in India referred to as 'the Scheduled Tribes? Indicate the major 1 in the Constitution of India for their upliftment. 4.5+8=12.5 marks

  11. With a brief background of quality of urban life in India, introduce the objectives and strategy of the 'Smart City Programme'. 4+8.5=12.5 marks

  12. What is the basis of regionalism? Is it that unequal distribution of benefits of development on regional basis eventually promotes regionalism? Substantiate your answer. 3.5+9=12.5 marks

  13. Discuss the concept of air mass and explain its role in macro-climatic changes. 12.5 marks

  14. "The Himalayas are highly prone to landslides." Discuss the causes and suggest suitable measures of mitigation. 12.5 marks

  15. The effective management of land and water resources will drastically reduce the human miseries. Explain. 12.5 marks

  16. South China Sea has assumed great geopolitical significance in the present context. Comment. 12.5 marks

  17. Major cities of India are becoming more vulnerable to flood conditions. Discuss. 12.5 marks

  18. Present an account of the Indus Water Treaty and examine its ecological, economic and political implications in the context of changing bilateral relations. 12.5 marks

  19. Enumerate the problems and prospects of inland water transport in India. 12.5 marks

  20. In what way micro-watershed development projects help in water conservation in drought-prone and semi-arid regions of India? 12.5 marks

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains 2009 : English (Compulsory Paper)


IAS Mains 2009
English (Compulsory Paper)

Time Allowed : Three hours
Maximum Marks : 300


(Download) UPSC IAS Mains 2010 : English (Compulsory Paper)


IAS Mains 2010
English (Compulsory Paper)

Time Allowed : Three hours
Maximum Marks : 300


Gist of The Hindu: March 2017

Gist of The Hindu: March 2017

Well-oiled diplomacy

In nominating Rex Tillerson, Chief Executive of the oil and gas conglomerate ExxonMobil, to the post of Secretary of State, U.S. President-elect Donald Trump has provided another glimpse into his world view and decision-making process. Similar to Mr. Trump, Mr. Tillerson has no formal experience in political office, yet brings impressive heft in terms of deal-making across 52 countries over six continents. On his watch, the stock market value of ExxonMobil, the U.S.'s largest oil company, soared to over $360 billion. Yet the vast global reach of Mr. Tillerson's work and the sheer complexities involved in drilling for oil, especially the sometimes messy geopolitics at play, have meant he has often been at odds with the agenda of the U.S. State Department. In Nigeria, for example, his company faced flak for lack of transparency in dealings with the government. Nowhere is the potential divergence from the hallowed traditions of Foggy Bottom's diplomatic norms more visible than in Mr. Tillerson's decade-plus engagement with Russia to secure oil drilling rights. Under him, ExxonMobil since 2006 signed a plethora of drilling agreements including through partnerships with the Russian oil behemoth Rosneft. Yet, as Mr. Tillerson's star rose in the eyes of the Kremlin, U.S. President Barack Obama's fell, especially since early 2014 when he authorised sanctions against certain Russian individuals and entities for violating the territorial integrity of Ukraine.

(Answer Key) UPSC Engineering Services Examination - 2016

(Answer Key) UPSC Engineering Services Examination - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC Engineering Services Examination

Year: 2016


  • GAT
  • Civil Engineering Paper I
  • Civil Engineering Paper II
  • Mechanical Engineering Paper I
  • Mechanical Engineering Paper II
  • Electrical Engineering Paper I
  • Electrical Engineering Paper II
  • Electrical & Electronics Engineering Paper I
  • Electrical & Electronics Engineering Paper II

Current & future prospect of Indian Economy : Important Topics for UPSC Exams

Current & future prospect of Indian economy.


  • After witnessing sluggish growth for five successive quarters, GDP growth in July-September was 6.3%, up from 5.7% in the previous quarter.
  • The Gross Value Added (GVA) growth accelerated to 6.1% from 5.6% in the first quarter.
  • The positive result has been impacted significantly by growth in manufacturing sector which was failing in previous quarter.
  • The economic slowdown has been reversed, but the task of sustaining the trend remains matter of concern.

Recent Improvements in Indian economy

  • India now ranks at 23rd among all countries in the Global Competitiveness Index compared to 39th rank in 2016-17.
  • Moody Upgraded India’s sovereign ratings from Baa3 to Baa2).
  • India now rank 100th in the World Bank’s ‘ease of doing business’ index which is jump of 30 as compared to 130th rank in 2016.

Future Prospects of Indian economy

  • India is 2nd fastest growing major economy after China.
  • it is projected that by 2050, India’s economy will be the world’s second-largest, behind only to China.
  • Demand in the domestic market as well as international market is picking up, which should help the Indian economy.

Reasons for fall in private sector investment

  • Low capacity utilization- current capacity of private sector is not fully utilized due to slowdown in market so there is no incentive for private for fresh investment.
  • Reducing loan burdens: as companies are reducing loan burdens so they are not very enthusiast to take fresh loan.
  • Poor insolvency resolutions: Although Insolvency and bankruptcy code has been passed but still process of insolvency have not become smooth.
  • Large influx of imports, especially manufactured goods which further decreases private investment.
  • Incompetency of banking system: The present banking system does not have core competency for efficient project appraisal and manage long-term project loans.
  • Stalled projects, both in terms of value and number, is a cause of concern.
  • Clearance issue: Issues like land acquisition, environmental clearances and other market conditions.
  • Falling exports: also seriously affected investment as in absence of export production will fail to pick up to its potential.
  • NPA problem: due to growing NPA banks are in difficult position to give loan to private sector.

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Hindi Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains

Year: 2016

Subject:    पशुपालन एवं पशुचिकित्सा विज्ञान (Hindi)

Exam Date: 9-12-2016

File Type: PDF

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional कृषि (प्रश्न-पत्र -1&प्रश्न-पत्र -2)Hindi Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional कृषि (प्रश्न-पत्र -1&प्रश्न-पत्र -2)Hindi Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains

Year: 2016

Subject: Agriculture (Hindi)

Exam Date: 9-12-2016

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