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(The Gist of Kurukshetra) E-GOVERNANCE IN RURAL INDIA-october-2017

(The Gist of Kurukshetra) E-GOVERNANCE IN RURAL INDIA-october-2017


What is e-Governance and what is its importance in India? There are about 6.5 lakhs ofvillages in India that represent more than 72 percent of the total population. The rural mass in the nation comprises the core of Indian society and also represents the real India. There was a time in the past when people lost their faith on governance system because of the hardship they had to endure in the form of expenses, inconvenience, multiple visits, demotivating. For rural mass, these hardships were more adverse. In order to develop these rural mass, Government of India already considered the key growth areas from various economic & social sectors in the right policy formation.

The key strategy of rural development mainly focuses on poverty alleviation, better livelihood opportunities, provision of basic amenities and infrastructure facilities through innovative programmers of wage and selfemployment etc. For such developments, a need was felt to improve the overall trust relationship between the Government and citizens. It was realized that the challenges like poor public services, unemployment, housing, crime and violence, health, education for all etc. could be successfully addressed through extensive use of ICTapplications for the improvement in the processes of government functioning to bringSMAET, i.e. Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent Governance.

National e-Governance Plan (NeGP)

The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) was launched in 2006 with a vision to make all government services accessible to the common man in his/her locality, through delivery outlets named common services centers (CSCs) and ensure efficiency, transparency & reliability of such services at affordable costs to realize the basic needs of the common man.

31 Mission Mode projects covering a wide range of domains, viz. agriculture, land records, health, education, passports, police, courts municipalities, commercial taxes, treasuries, etc. were initiated. Most of these projects have been made operational and have started providing services. However, despite the successful implementation of many e-governance projects across the country, e-governance as a whole has not been able to make the desired impact and fulfill all its objectives especially in ensuring anytime anywhere availability of services and their seamless integration. Even though India is known worldwide as a powerhouse of software, the availability of electronic governance services to citizens is still comparatively low.

Digital India

In order to transform the entire ecosystem of public services through the use of Information Technology, the Government of India has launched the ‘Digital India’ programme in 2015
with the vision to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy.

Vision Areas of Digital India

The Digital India programme is centered three key vision areas:

1. Digital Infrastructure as a core utility of every citizen

2. Governance & services on demand

3. Digital Empowerment of citizens. It is a fact that transforming the entire rural populace into a digitally empowered society under Digital India flagship programme is a huge challenge in case of remote & rural areas. Butdelivery of e-Governance services to the remote corners in a meaningful & locally relevant manner may result in a successful building of rural India with the advent of the most advanced ICT and by leveraging various existing infrastructures and integrated manner. As we know that e-Governance deals with the ways political & social powers are organized & used, it has enormous capacity to transform relations with citizens, business and other arms of the Governments.

Growth of eServices and eTransactions

after Launch of Digital India After the launch of Digital India, the number of eServices has grown from 2,221 in 2014 to 3,433 at present. That shows that Average monthly count of eTransactions per month has grown up from 29.80 crores to 90.82 crores, which is 205 percent growth.

Vision and Objective of CSC

“ The primary objective of the CSC is provide e-governance services within the reach of the citizen, by creating the physical service delivery ICT infrastructure.” It helps in making a transparent service delivery mechanism and eliminating citizens’ effort is visiting government offices. The CSCs also aim to provide individual access to internet and access devices to citizens in rural India where the ICT intervention is very low, thereby, creating a digital divide. CSCs being well equipped ICT enabled centres necessarily play a significant role in enabling universal access to plethora of eServices for citizens and acting as cornerstone for the citizens’ digital empowerment, hence creating a transparent governance ecosystem.

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After 17 of marathon journey of the most crucial tax reform in the country, entailing rounds of debates, discussions, meetings, consolations and disagreements, the goods and services tax (GST) came into effect in India on July 1, 2017. The journey started in 2000 during the Atal Bihar Vajpayee government with the setting up of a committee to suggest a GST model, followed by the formation of a task force under the chairmanship of Vijay Kelkar in 2003. There has been no looking back since then and the central government has been working consistently along with the state governments to ensure its earliest implementation.

Understanding the GST

GST is a destination-based single tax on the supply of goods and services from the manufacture to the consumer, which has replaced multiple indirect taxes levied by the Central and state governments, thereby converting the country into a unified market among other benefits, GST is expected to improve the ease of doing business in tax compliance, reduce the tax burden by eliminating tax-on-tax, improve tax administration, mitigate tax evasion, broaden the organized segment of the economy and boost tax revenues for the exchequer. It has also lowered the taxes paid for industrial products from an earlier average rate of 25-28 percent to 18 percent now.

GST seeks to replace 17 indirect taxes (8central + 9 state levels) and 23 Cesses of the Centre and states, eliminating the need for filing multiple returns and assessments and rationalizing the tax treatment of goods and services along the supply chain from producers to consumers. GST comprises of Central GST (CGST) and the state GST (SGST), subsuming levies previously charged by the Centre and state governments respectively.

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By giving away their constitutional ability to tax, states have bet big time on the success of the new all-India tax goods and Services Tax.

However, to guard themselves against GST failing to deliver the promised increase in revenues, states had fought long and hard to get the Centre to bring in a cess which is expected to raise about Rs. 50000 crore to be divided among states to compensate for any loss in revenues.

The problem with GST is that, the tax, like all taxes, is dependent on the economy doing will. Conceptually, the GST should broaden the tax base. The tax GDP ratio could increase to 16 per cent from the current 10 percent. However, whether this would be achieved, would depend on the next year or so.Specially on how the government and industry manage to work in tandem to smoothen the overall transaction and rate of compliance.

Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has reported that the debt-to-state GSP ratio of as many as 17 Indian states increased in the past year. The RBI report said “The consolidated finances of states has deteriorated in recent years….. information on 25 states indicates that improvement in fiscal metrics budgets by states for 2016-17 may not materialize.”

The Gross Fiscal Deficit-GDP ratio in 2015- 16 has already breached the 3 percent ceiling considered fiscally prudent for the first time since 2004-5.

The GST Bill promises that in time the GST Council will move these items into the GST fold. However, it is more than likely that states will in time realize that they do need to have some measure of financial independence. This, coupled with the need to build a financial cushion, would possibly see them working actively to retain these items of taxation in their portfolio.

Entry taxes by municipal bodies, entertainment tax levied by local bodies, stamp duties, products such as alcohol and fuels, and electricity cesses are still not covered by GST. This gives them the right to increase or decrease these taxes and thus build greater financial independence from state governments. While the reverse would be the case for states, who would be bounded by the decision of this GST Council as far as the build of their revenues in concerned.

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The midnight of Jun 30-July 01 2017 saw history in the making. Though the midnights of 2017 and 1847 are not comparable in euphoria of freedom, but, the setting, the high domed Central Hall of Parliament was virtually recalling history with a Prime Minister and President present in the august precincts. The time it was economic freedom, if it was political emancipation then.

The government of India, following in the credo of “One Nation and One Tax”, and wanting an unified market that could make the movement of goods freer across the country making life easier for manufactures, producers and investors.

The new tax that seeks to usher in a uniform indirect tax regime will not lead to inflation as apprehended by some sections, the Finance Minister has stated. Successive governments have contributed towards GST and no none person can take credit for it. The bills were cleared by the Rajya Sabha after negation of a host of amendments moved by the opposition parties. The Lok Sabha had passed these bills on March 29. In mid-May the government gave final approval to rules and rates.

The implement GST, Parliament had cleared the (1) Central GST Bill, 2017; (2) The Integrated GST Bill, 2017; (3) The GST (Compensation toStates) Bill, 2017; (4) The Union Territory, GST Bill, 2017.

GST will be levied on all transactions such as sale, transfer, purchase, barter, lease, or import of goods and/or services. India will adopt a dual GST model, meaning that taxation is administrative by both the Union and State Governments. Transactions make within a single state will be levied with Central GST (CGST) by the Central Government and State GST (SGST) by the government of that state. For inter-state transaction and imported goods or services, an Integrated GST (IGST) is levied by the Central  Government.

As a parallel development, a “Goods and Services Tax” Network (GSTN), a non-profit organization has been formed to create a platform for all the concerned parties i.e. stakeholders
government, taxpayers to collaborate on a single portal. The portal will be accessible to the central government which will track down every transaction at its end while the taxpayers will be having a vast service to return/file their taxes and maintain records. The IT network will be developed by private firms which will tie up with the central government and will take its share of stake accordingly. The known authorized capital of GSTN is Rs. 10 crore (US$1.6 million) in which Central government holds 24.5 percent of shares while the state government holds 24.5 percent and rest are with private banking firms.

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The Good and Services Tax (GST) was launched in India on July 1, 2017 in a midnight function at the Central Hall of Parliament by the Prime Minister in the august presence of the president of India. It was indeed a historic occasion and paradigm shift as India moved towards ‘One Nation, One Tax, One Market.’ The global experience has shown that implementation of GST results in numerous benefits for all stakeholders. In the Indian GST regime, the consumers will benefit from lower prices due to removal of cascading in taxes and efficiency gains. The trade and industry will benefit because of uniform single indirect tax throughout the country, seamless flow of input tax credit, removal of tax related barriers at inter-state borders, reduced logistic costs, and to end IT enabled system and minimal interface with the tax authorities.

Need for the Constitutional Amendment

 In the countries where GST has been  introduced, barring rare exceptions, GST is unitary in character and is levied either by the Central Government or by the State Governments.
The introduction of GST in India required amendment in the constitution as prior to the Constitutional amendment is fiscal powers between Centres and the states were clearly demarcated as per the entries in the Union List and the state list. The centre had the powers to levy tax on the manufacture of goods (except alcoholic liquor for human consumption, opium, narcotics etc.) while the states had the power to levy tax on the sale of goods. In case of inter-state sales, the centre had the power to levy a tax (the central sales Tax) but the tax was collected and
retained entirely by the states. As for services, only the Centre was empowered to levy the services tax.

Journey to launch of GST in Iida

The GST has already been introduced in nearly 160 countries and France was the first introduce GST in the year 1954. In view of numerous benefits GST brings in to the economy,
introduce into GST has been on the political agenda of the country for quite some time. The journey to introduction of GST in India has been long and is a culmination of the efforts of many political leaders, economic thinkers and officers of the Centre and the state governments. The idea of GST was first mooted in the year 2000 during the Prime Ministership of Shri Atal Bihar Bajpayee and a committee was set up headed by the then West Bengal Finance Minister Shri Asim Dasgupta to design a GST model. In 2003, the Vajpayee government set up another task force under Shri Vijay Kelkar to recommend tax reforms. On February 28, 2006, the then union finance minister in his budget for 2006-7 proposed that GST would be introduced from April 1, 2010. The empowered Committee of state finance ministers (EC), which had formulated the design of State VAT, was requested to come up with a roadmap and structure for the GST.

As introduction of GST required constitutional amendment, the political consensus could not be garnered for a long time. The efforts to introduce GST in India picked up momentum after the formation of the present Government. The constitution (122nd amendment) Bill, 2014 was introduced in Lok Sabha on December 19, 2014 and was passed by Lok Sabha in May 2015. The bill was taken up in the Rajya Sabha and was then referred to the Joint Select Committee of the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha on May 14, 2005.

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Current Affairs MCQ for UPSC Exams – 6 November 2017

Current Affairs MCQ for UPSC Exams – 6 November 2017

Ques1) Match the GI tag products with their origin

a) Banganapalle Mangoes 1) Nagaland
b) Tulaipanji rice 2) Andhra Pradesh
c)Chakshesang shawl 3) West Bengal
d) Pochampally Ikat 4) Telangana

i) a-2; b-3, c-1, d-4
ii) a-4; b-3, c-1, d-2
iii) a-2; b-1, c-3, d-4
iv) a-3; b-2, c-1, d-4

Ques2) Global circumnavigation expedition with an all-woman crew called Navika Sagar Parikrama is set out in


Ques3) Ukraine shares border with which of the following sea

a) Black Sea
b) Meditteranean Sea
c) North Sea
d) Caspian Sea

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1, (a) 2. (a) 3. (a)


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Shankar IAS Academy, Bangalore

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Bengaluru 1707, Service Rd, Govindaraja

Nagar Ward, Govindarajanagar,

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Indian Language (Hindi Compulsory) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Indian Language (Hindi Compulsory) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains Indian Language (Hindi) Exam Paper

Year: 2016

Exam Date: 7-12-2016

1. निम्नलिखित में से किसी एक विषय पर 600 शब्दों में निबन्ध लिखिए : 100 marks

(a) संस्कृति क्यों महत्त्वपूर्ण है
(b) स्मार्ट नगर एवं अनस्मार्ट नागरिक
(c) न्यायिक सक्रियता (Activism) बनाम न्यायिक असीमितता (Overreach)
(d) हमारी विरासत और स्कूली बच्चे !

2. निम्नलिखित गद्यांश को ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़िए और उसके आधार पर नीचे दिये गये प्रश्नों के उत्तर स्पष्ट, सही और संक्षिप्त भाषा में दीजिए : 12x5=60 marks

यह कहा जाता है कि स्त्रियाँ आधे आकाश पर छाई हुई हैं । हम इसमें संशोधन कर कह सकते हैं कि वे इससे अधिक स्थान की अधिकारी हैं। लेकिन तो भी प्रत्येक देश के इतिहास के सभी कालों, संस्कृति और परम्परा, क्षेत्र, धर्म जाति, वर्ग, श्रेणी, नस्ल, वर्ण, वैविध्यपूर्ण अतीत एवं वर्तमान में स्त्रियों को जीवन के प्रत्येक क्षेत्र में पुरुषों से कमतर आँका जाता रहा है। उनके साथ एक तरतीब से भोजन, कार्य, शिक्षा, स्वास्थ्य एवं विकास में प्रतिभागी होने के अवसरों, नेतृत्व और अपने स्वप्नों को साकार करने में भेदभाव बरता जाता रहा है । वे सच्चे अर्थों में विश्व की सबसे बड़ी ‘अल्पसंख्यक कही जा सकती हैं।

पितृसत्ता-व्यवस्था स्त्रियों को ऐसे व्यक्तियों के रूप में नहीं देखती जिनकी अपनी एक पहचान हो । वे इस रूप में भी नहीं देखी जातीं कि वे अपने आप में सम्पूर्ण हैं कि उनका अपना सम्मान और स्वायत्तता है कि वे सम्मान की अधिकारिणी हैं कि सामाजिक व्यवस्था में, कानून में एवं संस्थाओं में उनके समान अधिकार हैं । इसके बजाय वे पुरुषों के मात्र औज़ार के रूप में देखी जाती हैं । उन्हें पीढ़ी को आगे ले जाने वाले प्रतीक के रूप में, सेवाभाव रखने वाली, यौन-तृप्ति की पूर्ति का साधन और परिवार की सामान्य सम्पन्नता के वाहक के रूप में माना जाता रहा है। उनकी सांस्कृतिक स्वीकृति केवल इस रूप में है कि वे किसी पुरुष की पुत्री, पत्नी या माँ हैं । इसके अतिरिक्त उनकी कोई और पहचान नहीं है और उपर्युक्त पहचान के न रहने पर वे हेय दृष्टि से देखी जाती हैं ।

एकल स्त्रियाँ इस वृत्त के बाहर खड़ी दृष्टिगोचर होती हैं । इनमें वे शामिल हैं जो सांस्कृतिक रूप से स्वीकार्य विवाह योग्य अवस्था की हैं लेकिन अभी तक विवाहित नहीं हैं अथवा वे जो विधवा हैं, तलाक़शुदा हैं या अलग हो चुकी हैं । पुरुष के सुरक्षावृत्त की अनुपस्थिति समाज द्वारा अच्छी नहीं मानी जाती । यह तब और भी बढ़ जाती है जब एक स्त्री इस सुरक्षा-वृत्त को अस्वीकार कर देती है।या अपने साथी को दुर्घटना या बीमारी के कारण खो देती है । पुरुष को सर्वाधिक द्वेष उस स्त्री से है। जो न केवल अकेले रहती है बल्कि पुरुष की छाया के बाहर अपनी अस्मिता के साथ जीवन व्यतीत करती है ।

महिलाएँ सर्वाधिक विकसित देशों में भी 60 से 80 प्रतिशत तक भोजन का उत्पादन करती हैं। और विश्व के आधे भोजन-उत्पादनकर्ता होने का श्रेय भी उन्हें ही है । सांस्कृतिक रूप से भी यदि देखा जाए तो अधिकांश घरों में स्त्रियाँ ही भोजन-प्रदाता हैं । तथापि भारतवर्ष में सामाजिक-सांस्कृतिक रीतियाँ यह सुनिश्चित करती हैं कि घरों में स्त्रियाँ न केवल बाद में खाएँगी और कम खाएँगी बल्कि कभी-कभी तो ऐसा भी हो सकता है कि उनके खाने के लिए कुछ न बचे । ऐसे घरों में जहाँ पर्याप्त मात्रा में भोजन है, वहाँ भी स्त्रियों को पोषणयुक्त भोजन नहीं मिल पाता । एकल स्त्रियाँ भी सामाजिक बन्धनों और अतिरिक्त भेदभाव के चलते इस श्रेणी में आ जाती हैं जबकि वे अकेले अपने दम पर दुनिया में संघर्ष करती हैं।

भारत उन देशों में से एक है जहाँ पुरुषों की तुलना में स्त्रियों की संख्या कम है । देश की जनसंख्या में उनका प्रतिशत पिछली शताब्दी से लगातार गिर रहा है । 2001 की जनगणना से यह ज्ञात हुआ कि प्रत्येक 1000 पुरुषों के समानान्तर 933 स्त्रियाँ हैं । यदि पुरुषों की तरह स्त्रियों को समान जीवन-अवसर मिलें और साथ ही उनके स्वास्थ्य और पोषण का ध्यान रखा जाए तो यह संभावना बलवती हो जाएगी कि पुरुषों और स्त्रियों की संख्या बराबर हो जाए । फिलहाल 2001 में पुरुषों की तुलना में स्त्रियाँ 3 करोड़ 50 लाख कम थीं । ये अनुपात 2011 की जनगणना में थोड़ा सुधरा अर्थात् 933 की तुलना में 940 हो गया। एक बड़ी चिंता का विषय यह है कि 2001 में 6 साल तक के बच्चों में लड़कों की तुलना में लड़कियों की जन्म-दर 927 ही रह गयी और 2011 में और गिर कर 914 रह गयी । ये आँकड़े बताते हैं कि सामाजिक और सांस्कृतिक विसंगतियों एवं बढ़ती तकनीक के चलते लगातार स्त्रियों के जीवन-अवसर कम होते जा रहे हैं। कहा जा सकता है। कि भारतीय समाज में नियमित रूप से लाखों लड़कियाँ एवं स्त्रियाँ मारी जा रही हैं।

(a) जनगणना के आँकड़े लड़कियों एवं स्त्रियों के बारे में क्या सन्देश देते हैं ?  12 marks
(b) भोजन एवं स्त्रियों के संदर्भ में मिलने वाली असमानता की विडम्बना क्या है ? 12 marks
(c) इस कथन से लेखक का क्या अभिप्राय है कि स्त्रियाँ आधे से अधिक आकाश में छाई हैं 12 marks
(d) पितृसत्तात्मक समाज में स्त्रियाँ कैसे “मात्र औज़ार” बनकर रह गयी हैं  12 marks
(e) लेख़क के अनुसार एकल स्त्री को कैसे हमारे समाज में आसानी से क्षति पहुँचाई जा सकती है ?  12 marks


Q3. निम्नलिखित अनुच्छेद का सारांश लगभग एक-तिहाई शब्दों में लिखिए । इसका शीर्षक लिखने की आवश्यकता नहीं है । सारांश अपने शब्दों में ही लिखिए । 60 marks

हममें से अधिकांश लोग इस बात से सहमत होंगे कि वफ़ादार होना प्रशंसनीय है । हम अपने परिवार के प्रति, मित्रों के प्रति तथा अपने देश के प्रति वफ़ादारी की अनुशंसा करते हैं । वास्तव में उन सभी व्यक्तियों तथा समूहों के प्रति हमें वफ़ादार होना भी चाहिए जिनके प्रति हम आभारी होते हैं । जब हम वफ़ादारी की बात करते हैं तो हमारा अभिप्राय यह होता है कि जब वे कठिनाइयों में अथवा किसी विपदा में हों तो हम उनकी सहायता के लिए प्रस्तुत रहें । साथ ही हर समय उनकी भलाई हमारी अभिरुचि हो ।

आमतौर पर यह भी स्पष्ट रूप से पाया जाता है कि कोई व्यक्ति बेवफ़ा तब होता है जब वह अपने माता-पिता के प्रति उदासीन रहता है या वह अपने देश की सेना के विरुद्ध विद्रोह करता है और अपने देश के लोगों को अंधाधुंध मौत के घाट उतारता है । इस प्रकार के लोगों को हममें से अधिकांशत: अनुमोदित नहीं करते । | लेकिन, अनेक बार ऐसी स्थिति भी पैदा होती है कि जब यह निर्णय करना कठिन हो जाता है। कि कौन वफ़ादार है और कौन नहीं । एक चतुर बच्चा शिक्षा छोड़ कर धन कमाने के अपने माता-पिता के आग्रह का विरोध कर सकता है । उसका यह विश्वास हो सकता है कि वह अपनी शिक्षा को कुछ और वर्ष ज़ारी रखते हुए भविष्य में अपने माता-पिता को और बेहतर ढंग से कुछ लौटा सकता है । यदि वह अपनी शिक्षा को अभी स्थगित कर देता है तो उसकी प्रतिभा विनष्ट हो जाएगी और उसका लाभ किसी को भी नहीं मिल पाएगा ।

कुछ कल्पनाहीन लोग ही इस प्रकार का निर्णय लेने वाले लड़के या लड़की की निंदा करेंगे। किंतु आमतौर पर इस प्रकार का बच्चा यदि कर्त्तव्यनिष्ठ एवं संवेदनशील हो तो उसकी मदद की जानी चाहिए और उसे प्रोत्साहित भी किया जाना चाहिए, बजाए इसके कि उसकी आलोचना की जाए । दूसरी तरफ कुछ विशिष्ट परिस्थितियों में यदि कोई बच्चा अपने ग़रीब माता-पिता के मदद सम्बन्धी आग्रह को ठुकरा देता है तो उसे बेवफ़ा समझा जाता है । यदि वह भविष्य में सफलता हासिल करता है तो वह अपनी युवावस्था की बेवफ़ाई पर प्रायश्चित करता है।

कभी-कभी यह समस्या तब और बड़ी हो जाती है जब किसी व्यक्ति को अपने देश की सरकार से जोड़ कर इस सम्बन्ध में देखा जाता है। अपने देश में गंभीरता और दायित्व-निर्वाह के साथ रहने वाले व्यक्तियों का वह समूह, जो अपने देश को खुशहाल तथा समृद्ध देखना चाहता है, कभी-कभी सरकार के विरुद्ध यह सोचकर विद्रोह कर देता है कि वह सरकार निकम्मी है, उसके पास

उस सरकार के विरुद्ध सशस्त्र विद्रोह करने के अतिरिक्त कोई अन्य विकल्प नहीं बचा । ऐसे लोगों को सरकार तत्काल विद्रोही और प्रवंचक घोषित कर देती है। हो सकता है कि वे विद्रोही हों, किन्तु उन्हें प्रवंचक कहना उचित नहीं लगता । हो सकता है कि वह समूह अपने देशवासियों के प्रति अधिक वफ़ादार हो, बजाए इसके कि वह सरकार के प्रति वफ़ादार हो ।

दुर्भाग्य से तब तक यह कहना बहुत कठिन है कि उस समूह का विद्रोह देश के प्रति वफ़ादारी के कारण प्रेरित है अथवा उसके निजी स्वार्थों के कारण, जब तक कि वह विद्रोह सफल न हो जाए । तब यह प्रश्न उठता है कि अब जब विद्रोही सफल हो गए हैं और उन्होंने नई सरकार बना ली है तो क्या वे यह स्वीकार करेंगे कि देश की समस्त जनसंख्या और उनके राजनीतिक शत्रुओं के भी कुछ अधिकार तो अवश्य हैं; जैसे अपने विचारों को पूरी आज़ादी के साथ प्रस्तुत करने का अधिकार और जन-समर्थन जुटाने के प्रयत्न का अधिकार । या वे समूह अपनी शक्तियों का उपयोग राजनीतिक शत्रुओं को समाप्त करने में कर रहे हैं । यदि वे पहला आचरण कर रहे हैं तो समझो कि वे अपने देश के प्रति पूरी तरह वफ़ादार हैं, न कि वे अपने समूह के लाभ के प्रति वफ़ादार हैं और यदि वे दूसरे प्रकार का आचरण कर रहे हैं तो हमें यह समझना चाहिए कि वे जिस सरकार को गिरा कर आए हैं, उससे अधिक वफ़ादारी देश के प्रति वे भी नहीं कर रहे हैं । इसका बोध हमें अत्यधिक देरी से जाकर ही होता है । (686 शब्द)


Q4. निम्नलिखित गद्यांश का अंग्रेज़ी में अनुवाद कीजिए : 20 marks

एक अमीर अपने जहाज़ पर समुद्री यात्रा कर रहा था, उसी समय एक तूफ़ान आया । जहाज़ पर एक गुलाम जो पहली बार समुद्री यात्रा कर रहा था, आतंकित हो कर रोने-चिल्लाने लगा । यह कुछ देर तक चलता रहा और कोई भी उसे चुप नहीं करा सका । क्रोधित हो कर अमीर ने पूछा क्या यहाँ कोई भी ऐसा नहीं है जो इस नीच कायर को चुप करा सके ?”

एक दार्शनिक भी उस जहाज़ पर यात्रा कर रहा था। उसने अमीर से कहा – “मैं इस आदमी को चुप करा सकता हैं । महोदय, आप मुझे बस इस बात की अनुमति दें कि मैं जो चाहें, इसके साथ करूँ ।” अमीर ने कहा – “आपको अनुमति दी जाती है, आप जो चाहें, करें ।”

दार्शनिक ने कुछ नाविकों को बुलाया एवं उन्हें आदेश दिया कि इस गुलाम को समुद्र में फेंक दिया जाए । नाविकों ने ऐसा ही किया । निरुपाय हो कर उस ग़रीब आदमी ने भयवश चिल्लाते हुए अपने हाथ-पाँव बड़ी तीव्रता से चलाने शुरू कर दिए । लेकिन कुछ ही समय में दार्शनिक ने नाविकों को यह आदेश दिया कि वह उस गुलाम को जहाज़ पर वापस ले आएँ । जहाज़ पर आते ही पस्त और भयभीत गुलाम बिल्कुल चुप हो गया । अमीर इस आकस्मिक परिवर्तन पर चकित हो गया । उसने दार्शनिक से इसका कारण पूछा । दार्शनिक बोला – “हम कभी यह नहीं समझते कि हम किसी भी स्थिति में कितने ठीक-ठाक हैं जब तक कि हम किसी बदतर स्थिति में नहीं पहुँच जातें ।”

5.निम्नलिखित गद्यांश का हिंदी में अनुवाद कीजिए : 20 marks

Man has always been fascinated by dreams. He has always tried to find explanations for his dreams. Perhaps dreams tell us about the future or the past, perhaps they tell us about our deepest fears and hopes. I don't know. Today, I want to give you a completely different explanation. But before I do so, I must give you one or two facts about dreams. First of all, everybody dreams. You often hear people say, 'I never dream,' when they mean, 'I can never remember my dreams. When we dream, our eyes move rapidly in our sleep as if we were watching a moving picture, following it with our eyes. This movement is called 'REM', that is Rapid Eye Movement. REM sleep is the sleep that matters. Experiments have proved that if we wake people up throughout the night during REM, they will feel exhausted the next day. But they won't feel tired at all if we wake them up at times when they are not dreaming. So the lesson is clear : it is dreaming that really refreshes us, not just sleep. We always dream more if we have had to do without sleep for any length of time.

If that is the case, how can we explain it ? I think the best parallel I can draw is with computers. After all, a computer is a very primitive sort of brain. To make a computer work, we give it a program. When it is working, we can say it is 'awake'. If ever we want to change the program, that is to change the information we put into the computer, what do we do? Well, we have to stop the computer and put in a new program or change the old program.


6.(a) निम्नलिखित मुहावरों का अर्थ स्पष्ट करते हुए उनका वाक्यों में प्रयोग कीजिये : 2x5=10 marks

(i) अंगारो पर लौटना 2 marks

(ii) ईट का जवाब पत्थर से देना 2 marks

(iii) खटाई  में पड़ना 2 marks

(iv) घोड़े बेच कर सोना 2 marks

(v) जूते चाटना 2 marks

(b) निम्नलिखित वाक्यों के शुद्ध रूप लिखिए : 2x5=10 marks

(i) गलीमत है कि मैं गिरते गिरते बच गया  2 marks
(ii) हम जाता हूँ। 2 marks
(iii) लड़की खाता है 2 marks
(iv) हमने स्कूल जाना है 2 marks
(v) उसने मुझे दिल्ली बुलाई  2 marks

(c) निम्नलिखित शब्दों के दो-दो पर्यायवाची लिखिए :  2x5=10 marks

(i) पंकज  2 marks
(ii) ईर्ष्या 2 marks
(iii) आदित्य 2  marks
(iv) अर्जुन 2 marks
(v) आकाश 2 marks

(d) निम्नलिखित युग्मों को इस तरह से वाक्य में प्रयुक्त कीजिए कि उनका अर्थ स्पष्ट हो जाए और उनके बीच का अंतर भी शब्दार्थ में लिखित रूप में वर्णित हो : 2x5=10 marks

(i) प्रमाण - प्रणाम  2 marks
(ii) अक्षर - अक्षत  2 marks
(iii) आभास - आवास 2  marks
(iv) प्रतिज्ञा - प्रतीक्षा 2 marks
(v) अधम - अधर्म 2 marks


(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Zoology (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Zoology (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains

Year: 2016

Subject: Zoology

Zoology (Paper -1)

1. Answer the following in about 150 words each: 10x5=50 marks

(a) Explain phenomenon of Torsion and detorsion in gastropods and also write their significance. 10 mark
(b) Define migration and its causes. Discuss the migration of Anadromous Catadromous fishes.  10 marks
(c) Give an account of mutable connective tissue.  10 marks
(d) Give an account of Conjugation in Paramecium and its significance.  10 marks
(e) Give an account of calcium homeostasis in mammals. 10 marks

2.(a) Explain various types of canal systems in Porifera. Also give their importance. 20 marks
(b) Give general characters of phylum platyhelminthes. Classify it giving the main features and examples of each class. 15 marks
(c) Give an account of Social behavior in Termites. 15  marks

3.(a) Draw labelled diagrams of basic echinoderm larval forms and describe their evolutionary importance. 20 marks
(b) Describe with the help of a suitable diagram, the major structures in the mammalian ear involved in hearing and balance. 15 marks
(c) Describe various hormones secreted by Pituitary gland and their role in humans. Also explain feedback mechanisms of hormonal regulation.  15 marks

4.(a) Give an account of Asexual and sexual life phases of Plasmodium vivax in their hosts.  20 marks
(b) Explain parental care in amphibians and its significance.  15 marks
(c) Define coclome Write the general features and examples of an acoelomate, a pseudocoelomate and acoelomate animal. 15 marks


5. Answer the following in about 150 words each: 10x5=50  marks

(a) List different human-induced changes in the atmosphere. Describe greenhouse effect and its impact. 10  marks
(b) Write the principle, working and uses of spectrophotometer. 10  marks
(c) Define a pest. Describe the life cycle of Pyrilla perpusilla. Add notes on the damage caused by it and its control measures. 10 marks
(d) Describe kinship and altruistic behavior in animals. 10  marks
(e) What is correlation? Explain its various types and methods of calculating correlation analysis. 10 marks

6.(a) Define ecological succession. Differentiate between primary and secondary succession. Explain various steps involved in the mechanism of ccological succession. 20 marks
(b) Give an account of biological rhythms and discuss the mechanism of their regulation. 15  marks
(c) What is meant by Vermiculture ? Enlist various species suitable for vermiculture. Also explain techniques and importance of vermicomposting. 15  marks

7.(a) Enlist the various biomes of the biosphere and discuss the problems and adaptations of the animals of marine and desert biomes. 20  marks
(b) Define remote sensing. Explain how it can be used as an effective tool for sustainable development. 15  marks
(c) What is medical biotechnology? Discuss its role in human welfare. 15  marks

8.(a) With the help of suitable examples explain conditioning and imprinting in animals. 20 marks
(b) Describe the measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion. What is their use in biology ?  15 marks
(c) What is ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay)? Write its principle and procedure. Add a note on its applications. 15 marks

Shankar IAS Academy, Trivandrum

Shankar IAS Academy

Thiruvananthapuram 2nd floor, Condor Plaza, TC 2/2421

Pattom Palace P.O.

Shankar IAS Academy, Trichy

Shankar IAS Academy

N.R.Towers, A9( N), Salai Road

Thillai Nagar, Trichy ‐ 620018

Phone : 0431-4976911

Shankar IAS Academy, Chennai

Shankar IAS Academy

Anna Nagar

Door No 18, Old Plot No 109, New

Plot No 259, AL Block,

Shankar IAS Academy, Delhi

Shankar IAS Academy

Delhi Upper ground floor, 25, Pusa Road,


Mobile : 8899180180

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Sociology (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Sociology (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains

Year: 2016

Subject: Sociology

Sociology (Paper -1)

1. Write short answers of the following questions in about 150 words each : 10x5=50 marks

(a) "Sociology is pre-eminently study of modern societies." Discuss.
(b) What is 'value-free sociology"? Clarify.
(c) Analyze the importance of qualitative method in social research.
(d) Evaluate Marx's ideas on mode of production.
(e) "Vertical mobility brings structural change even in a closed social system." Comment.

2.(a) Elucidate the basic premises of Davis' structural-functional theory of social stratification. How far is it relevant in understanding contemporary Indian society? 20 marks
(b) Describe the functional prerequisites of social system as given by Talcott Parsons. Examine in the context of a university as a social system. 20 marks
(c) Is sociology common sense? Give reasons in support of your argument. 10 marks

3.(a) Analyze the manifest and latent functions of security of the tenure of bureaucrats' in the light of Merton's theory. 20 marks
(b) Describe the basic postulates of scientific method. How far are these followed in sociological research? 20 marks
(c) "Hypothesis is a statement of the relationship between two or more variables." Elucidate by giving example of poverty and illiteracy. 10 marks

4.(a) Examine Max Weber's method of maintaining objectivity in social research. 20 marks
(b) "Participant observation is the most effective tool for collecting facts." Comment. 20 marks
(c) Discuss the relationship between poverty and social exclusion. 10 marks


5. Write short answers of the following questions in about 150 words each : 10x5=50 marks

(a) Describe the nature of social organization of work in industrial society.
(b) Discuss the importance of power elite' in democracy,
(c) Is religion playing an important role in increasing fundamentalism? Give reasons for your answer.
(d) To what extent is patriarchy a cause for the problems of women? Discuss.
(e) “Social conflict is both a cause and a consequence of social change." Explain,

6.(a) "Globalization has pushed the labour into informal organization of work." Substantiate your answer with suitable examples. 20 marks
(b) "Social change can be brought about through development." Illustrate from the contemporary situation of India.  20 marks
(c) Examine the role of protest movements in changing the status of Dalits in India. 10 marks

7.(a) "Religious pluralism is the order of present-day societies." Explain by giving suitable examples.  20 marks
(b) Discuss the contemporary trends in family as a response to social change in modern society. 20 marks
(c) To what extent revolution replaces the existing order of society? Discuss. 10 marks

8.(a) "Education is a major source of social mobility in contemporary society." Explain. 20 marks
(b) How is Durkheim's theory of religion different from Max Weber's theory of religion? 20 marks
(c) Distinguish between family and household as sociological concepts. 10 marks





Sociology Mains Optional Study Notes

UPSC Exam Complete Study Materials (Pre, Mains, Interview COMBO Study Kit)

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Psychology (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Psychology (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains

Year: 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Political Science (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Political Science (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains

Year: 2016

Exam Date: 9-12-2016

Political Science Paper -1

1. Comment on the following in about 150 words each : 10x5=50 marks

(a) "How would I and my fellow human beings behave if we were to find ourselves in a state of nature, and what does this behaviour tell us about our innate predispositions ?" (Thomas Hobbes) 10 marks
(b) The Post-Behavioural Approach. 10 marks
(c) Affirmative Action. 10 marks
(d) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar's idea of state socialism. 10 marks
(e) Gramsci's concept of Hegemony. 10 marks

2.(a) "The Political ideology of Globalization is Neo-liberalism." Comment. 20 marks
(b) Discuss Feminist theory of the State. 15 marks
(c) Critically examine John Rawl's argument for democratic equality. 15 marks

3.(a) Discuss Sri Aurobindo's views on Cultural Nationalism. 20 marks
(b) Explain Marx's understanding of Human Essence and Alienation. 15 marks
(c) "The implementation of human rights is regarded as a matter of changing the conduct of States." Comment. 15 marks

4.(a) Discuss Hannah Arendt's analysis of the role of Ideology in modern totalitarian regimes.20 marks
(b)  Explicate the features of Representative Democracy. 15 marks
(c) Examine Gandhi's critique of Modernisation 15 marks


5. Comment on the following in about 150 words cach: 10x5=50  marks

(a) Critically examine the Radical Humanist perspective on Indian National Movement. 10 marks
(b) Cultural and Regional differences are the enduring bases on which politics is played out in India. 10 marks
(c) Article 368 does not enable Parliament to alter the basic structure or framework of the Constitution'. 10 marks
(d) The purpose of the 42nd Constitutional Amendment was to make the economic and social democracy explicitly visible. 10 marks
(e) The philosophy and administration of the distribution of powers between Centre and State is required to be re-assessed. 10 marks

6.(a) Critically examine the politics of Economic growth in India.  20 marks
(b) Comment on the emergence of Backward classes in the Indian Politics. 15 marks
(c) Discuss the pattern of Political Parties from one dominant party system to coalition politics in national politics. 15 marks

7.(a) Land reforms have failed in the eradication of rural poverty. Comment. 20 marks
(b) Critically examine the role of Governor in recent times. 15 marks
(c) Discuss the Right to Information and underline challenges being posed before it. 15 marks

8.(a) The goal of Good governance will be achieved only by strengthening the grass root level democracy. 20 marks
(b) Examine the objective and role of the National Human Rights Commission. 15  marks
(c) Critically examine the provisions made in the Constitution for the protection of Environment. 15 marks

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Law (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional Law (Paper -1 & Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains

Year: 2016

Subject: Law

Law  Paper-1

1.(a) Explain the concept of Federalism'as incorporated in the Indian Constitution. 10 marks
(b) "The procedure adopted for amending the Constitution is unique; it is not rigid yet difficult." Elaborate. 10 marks
(c) The rule against bias strikes at such factors which may improperly influence in arriving at a decision. Comment. 10 marks
(d) What do you understand by the term "Eminent Domain'? Discuss its relevance in the present-day context. 10 marks
(e) Discuss thc relationship between "Fundamental Rights' and 'Directive Principles of State Policy in the light of the constitutional amendments and decided cases. 10 marks

2.(a) Discuss the legislative powers of the Union and States as provided in the Constitution on the basis of subjects and territory. 20 marks
(b) Discuss 'Residuary Powers' of the Parliament to legislate. 15 marks
(c) "The need for administrative rule making entails delegated legislation." Comment. 15 marks

3.(a) Briefly enumerate the executive powers of the President, especially when two or more States are involved in non-observance of an inter-State agreement. 15 marks
(b) While discussing the underlying principle of the 99th Amendment Act, 2014, comment on the present system of appointment of judges to the Higher Judiciary in the country. 20 marks
(c) Discuss the powers and functions of the Union Public Service Commission. Also explain how it has maintained its impartiality. 15 marks

4.(a) "The 'Rule of Law is based on the principle of legality and is opposed to exercise of arbitrary powers." Discuss. Explain whether failure to give reasons amounts to exercising power arbitrarily. 20 marks
(b) The role of 'Ombudsman' is to correct the administrative faults which are troubling the rights of a person in view of proliferation of trading entities. Discuss. 15 marks
(c) "The Policy and Guideline Theory' presupposes delivery of justice by quasi-judicial authority." Elaborate it. 15 marks






5.(a) Discuss the nature and basis of International Law. 10 marks
(b) Discuss the status of individual in International Law especially with respect to Human Rights Treaties. 10 marks
(c) A treaty is void if it conflicts with an existing or new or emerging peremptory norin of International Law or jus cogens' at the time of its inclusion. Comment. 10 marks
(d) Discuss whether the trend of convention providing a special clause prohibiting all kinds of reservations or some or specific or special kind of reservation or prohibiting reservations totally will hinder the growth of International Law. 10 marks
(e) International Law cvidences the evidentiary theory of recognition. Discuss. 10 marks

6.(a) Discuss how International Law becomes part of the law of the land in India. In case of conflict between the International Law and Municipal Law, which one would be applied by the Municipal Courts of this country? Explain. 20 marks
(b) Can India invoke the India-UK Mutual Legal Assistance Agreement for extraditing an Indian national who has run away to UK in spite of an Indian Court order in respect of fraud and money laundering against him? Explain. 15 marks
(c) What are the essential differences between the International Humanitarian Law and International Human Rights Law? Explain. 15 marks

7.(a) Discuss the legal regime of right of innocent passage' through the territorial waters (including international straits) of a State. 20 marks
(b) Discuss the law of delimitation of the continental shelf of a State including the continental shelf common to two or more States. 20 marks
(c) Discuss the functions, powers and jurisdiction of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) established under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sca, 1982. 10 marks

Law  Paper-2

1. Answer the following in about 150 words each. Support your answer with legal provisions and judicial pronouncements. 10x5=50 marks

(a) "In determining the quantum of criminal liability, the law takes into account the motive, magnitude and character of the offender." Examine this statement in the light of absence of mens rea in statutory offences. 10 marks
(b) "The Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 prevents the public servants from misuse and abuse of their official capacity." Comment. 10 marks
(c) "No fault liability rule has undergone a drastic change in the recent past." Comment. 10 marks
(d) "Malice is not to be inferred merely from the acquittal of the plaintiff. The plaintiff must prove independently of the acquittal that his prosecution was malicious and without reasonable and probable cause." Comment. 10 marks
(e) Critically examine the Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Act, 2005 especially with reference to plea bargaining. 10 marks

2.(a) "Section 124A of the IPC dealing with sedition is ultra-vires of the Constitution insofar as it seeks to punish merely bad feelings against the Government. It is an unreasonable restriction on freedom of speech and expression guaranteed under Article 19(1)(a) and is not saved under Article 19(2) of the Constitution by the expression "in the interest of public order"." Comment.20 marks
(b) "Culpable homicide is not murder, if it is committed without premeditation, in a sudden fight in the heat of passion." Critically examine the statement with leading case law. 15 marks
(c) "A man is not criminally responsible for unintended and unknown consequences of his lawful acts performed in a lawful manner, by lawful means with proper care and caution." Elucidate. 15 marks

3.(a) "Harm suffered voluntarily does not constitute a legal injury and is not actionable." Elaborate along with its limitations. 20 marks
(b) "Direct evidence of negligence, however, is not always necessary and the same may be inferred from the circumstances of the case." Elucidate with cases. 15 marks
(c) "It is immaterial whether the defendant intended the defamatory statement to apply to the plaintiff or knew of the plaintiff's existence if the statement might reasonably be understood by those who knew the plaintiff, to refer to him." Elucidate with case law. 15 marks

4.(a) "Provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 shall be in addition to and not in derogation of the provisions of any other law for the time being in force." Critically examine the statement. 15 marks
(b) "The law making conspiracy a crime is designed to curb immoderate power to do mischief which is gained by a combination of the means." Explain. 15 marks
(c) "Every confinement of the person is an imprisonment, whether it be in a common prison or in a private house, or in the stocks or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Explain with the help of case law. 20 marks


5. Answer tho following in about 150 words each. Support your answer with relevant legal provisions and decided cases. 10x5=50 marks

(a) "An offer is to an acceptance what a lighted match-stick is to a train of gunpowder. It produces something which cannot be recalled or undone" — Anson. Explain. 10 marks
(b) "Every contract contains a 'core' or 'fundamental obligation' which must be performed. If one party fails to perform this fundamental obligation, he will be guilty of a breach of contract whether or not any exempting clause has been inserted which purports to protect him." Critically examine the statement with case law. 10 marks
(c) "In determining whether a group of persons is or is not a firm, or whether a person is or is not a partner in the firm, regard shall be had to the real relations between the parties, as shown by all relevant facts taken together." Comment. 10 marks
(d) A owed B ३ 1,000, but the debt is barred by the Limitation Act, 1963. Subsequently A signs a written promise to pay 1,000 on account of the previous debt. Decide the validity of this agreement. 10 marks
(e) "Every sole maker, drawer, payee or endorsee, or all of joint makers, drawers, payees, or endorsees, of a negotiable instrument may endorse and negotiate it." In the light of the above statement, distinguish between endorsement and negotiation and also explain different kinds of fendorsements'. 10 marks

6.(a) "The Right to Information Act, 2005 was enacted in order to promote transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority." How far has this goal been achieved by the Right to Information Act, 2005 in the last ten years ? Critically analyse your answer with the support of exceptions and case law. 15 marks
(b) “Though there is no law for media trial, however, in freedom of expression and speech under fundamental rights, media has the freedom to express its views based on evidence. This trial has no authority before the court of law." Critically examine the statement with case law. 15 marks
(c) “There can be a mistake of identity only when a person bearing a particular identity exists within the knowledge of the plaintiff, and the plaintiff intends to deal with him only. If the name assumed by the swindler is fictitious, there will be no mistake of identity." Examine the statement with leading case law. 20 marks

7.(a) Highlight the important amendments made in the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 by the Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act, 2015. 15 marks
(b) “The revocation of agent's authority can be made by the principal subject to certain rules." Examine these rules in the light of protection to agent. 15 marks
(c) "The rights of unpaid seller do not depend upon any agreement, express or implied, between the parties. They arise by implication of law." Elucidate. 20 marks

8.(a) "The object of awarding damages for a breach of contract is to put the injured party in the same position, so far as money can do it, as if he had not been injured." In the light of the above statement, explain the various kinds of damages that the court can award. Also explain the rules relating to assessment of damages. 20 marks
(b) Explain the salient features and your views on the Information Technology Act, 2000 as amended in 2008 by the Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2008. 15 marks
(c) "The object of Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 is to provide relief to the victims of accidents in hazardous industries in addition to any other right to claim compensation." Explain with case law. 15 marks

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional History (Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Optional History (Paper -2) Exam Paper - 2016

  • Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains
  • Year: 2016
  • Exam Date: 9-12-2016


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