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(IAS PLANNER) UPSC : Examination Tacties

Union Public Services Commission


A tactic is a specific action taken to address a specific situation. It is part of a specific plan or strategy. It is subjective in nature one tactics will work for one and at the same time it won’t work for the other. Tactics take different shapes and forms in different situation. It is when you think about a plan to do something and make a strategy for a big one. The very nature of Civil services exam the tactics must be applied at every level of preparation and it should be focus on greater and intensive coverage. Civil Services examination syllabus has a vast area of syllabus one is expected to know various disciplines at the same time like history, polity, geography, economy, science apart from other curriculum. However, one need not to be master on each disciplines only basics of each of the disciplines is needed. Hence, here the full examination tactics will help you out.

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Current Public Administration Magazine (October-2017) Different Types of Public Private Partnerships

Sample Material of Current Public Administration Magazine

Public Private Partnerships

Different Types of Public Private Partnerships

Public private partnerships or P3s can best be described as the future of infrastructure projects. Viable alternatives for promoting better infrastructures using just a small amount of money from local governments were sought and studied during the construction crisis. Public private partnerships can provide a solution to problems of financing, job completion, and investing in large projects without sacrificing government finances.

There are several types of public private partnerships. They depend on the needs, the options available, and the size of the project being considered. Power generator projects and infrastructure projects appear to be options that are best suited to public private partnerships.

Operation and Maintenance P3s

The private component of the partnership operates and maintains installation of the project, while the public agency acts as the owner of the project.

Traditional P3s

The public component of the partnership acts as a contracting officer. It looks for funding and has overall control of the project and its assets.

Design-Build P3s

The private partner designs and builds the facility while the public partner provides the funds for the project. The public partner has control over possession of the project and assets generated.

Design-Build-Operate P3s

The private partner designs, builds, and operates the facility or project. The public partner acts as the owner of the installation and gets the funds for construction and operation.

Design-Build-Operate-Transfer P3s

The private partner designs, builds, and operates the project for a limited time, then the facility is transferred to the public partner.

Design-Build-Finance-Operate P3s

The private sector provides financing and design, then builds, possesses, and operates the project. The public partner only provides funding while the project is being used or is active.

Build-Transfer-Operate P3s

The private partner builds and transfers the project to the corresponding public partner. The public partner then leases operation of the facility to the private sector under a long-term lease agreement.

Build-Own-Operate-Transfer P3s

The public partner builds, possesses and operates the project for a limited time until the installation is transferred, free of charge and including ownership, to the public agency.

Build-Own-Operate P3s

The private sector must build, possess, and operate the facility and has control over profits and losses generated by the facility through time. This is similar to a privatization process.

Lease P3s

The public owner leases the facility to a private firm. The private company must operate and provide maintenance for the facility per specified terms, including additions or a remodeling process.

Concession P3s

The public agency partners with a private company, conceding all exclusive rights to operate and maintain the facility for a specific period of time under certain contract terms. The public partner has power over the ownership, but the private partner possesses owner rights over any addition incurred while it's being operated under its domain.

Divestiture P3s

The public partner makes a complete or partial transference of the installation to the private sector. The government might include specific clauses in the sales agreement requiring investment and modernizations of the facility and a continuation of the services being provided.

The World is Moving into P3

With limited funding and increasing constraints, many government agencies are looking into different models of P3s as a way of maintaining updated infrastructures without having to make large investments. These type of projects can be very useful, but their costs must be closely controlled to make them cost-effective solutions.

Source – The Balance

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(IAS PLANNER) UPSC : Use of Internet

Union Public Services Commission

Use of Internet

We are in the era of internet revolution. A recent data shows that the broadband connectivity in India has been on the rising. It is one of the information hub make use of it as much as you can. Most of the aspirants has their own means of Information tools, those who don’t have can  access through it from Internet Café. It is an ever-bulging ocean of information. All the important information is available on the Internet, even you can clear you doubts in this platform. Many important materials are available for instance, NCERT Books are now available on its net. India Year Book published by Indian Govt., Complete Budget and Economic Survey Book and Summary of all bilateral meetings are now available on the Internet. Wikipedia is one of one source of all information it is free and at some extent it is authentic as well.

Current Public Administration Magazine (October-2017) The Future of Public Administration around the World : The Minnowbrook Perspective

Sample Material of Current Public Administration Magazine

Administrative Theory

The Future of Public Administration around the World: The Minnowbrook Perspective

The Minnowbrook Conference, held every twenty years, is one of the most significant academic conferences in public administration in the United States. Minnowbrook I, which took place in 1968 at Minnowbrook, Syracuse University’s conference centre, marked the beginning of the ‘New Public Administration’. Minnowbrook II, which took place in 1988, reflected on the impact of the ‘New Public Administration’. Both Minnowbrook I and Minnowbrook II resulted in significant, historic, publications. This article (and the book of the same title) presents the best of Minnowbrook III, held in late 2008.
Minnowbrook III was organised in two phases on the theme ‘The Future of Public Administration, Public Management and Public Service around the World’. Phase One, a pre-conference workshop that included fifty-five participants at the original Minnowbrook site on Blue Mountain Lake, New York, was for scholars who had completed their PhD programmes within the previous ten years. Phase Two, which directly followed the new scholars’ event, was held in Lake Placid, New York, for scholars and practitioners of all ages and degrees of experience. The Lake Placid group included at least thirty veterans of Minnowbrook I and/or Minnowbrook II. A total of 200 scholars and practitioners from thirteen countries participated in Minnowbrook III. The Minnowbrook III conference was the most demographically and internationally diverse gathering of public administration scholars of the three meetings over the last forty years. Little doubt existed among those in attendance that the next gathering, to be held in 2028, would be even more diverse and internationally representative.

The outcomes of both phases of Minnowbrook III involved analyses of the current state and future direction of the field. The topics explored and debated included: making public administration scholarship relevant; academic-practitioner relations; collaborative governance; democratic performance management; financial management; globalisation/comparative perspectives; information technology and management; law, politics and public administration; leadership; methods of inquiry; interdisciplinary research; networks; public administration values and theory; social equity and justice; transparency and accountability; the training of the next generation of public servants. An example of one output of Minnowbrook III may be found in the ‘Statement of Commitment for New Public Administration Scholars’ (see box).
The two phases of the Minnowbrook III experience provide a useful analytical heuristic for understanding the evolution of the scholarly side of the field, as well as a set of benchmarks against which to measure the relevance of public administration scholarship in the future. Minnowbrook III participants recognised a need to evaluate what works and what does not, before offering broad, untested theories and recommendations. The future, as represented by Minnowbrook III participants, clearly lies in a more global approach to thinking about institutions and the work of public administrators.
Public Administration Going Global

The most prevalent and important issue addressed at Minnowbrook III was the impact of globalisation on the field. This is the most important change since Minnowbrook II, and certainly since Minnowbrook I. Public administration as a field of academic study has gone through several stages since its inception; globalisation has posed unprecedented challenges, and it is not an exaggeration to say that globalisation has caused a revolution in public administration in terms of increased studies in comparative public management, more public policy research that crosses international boundaries, and the increased role of international organisations in governance.
Minnowbrook III participants illustrate concrete examples concerning how comparative public administration research and practice have responded, and continue to respond, to the challenges of globalisation. Some authors propose the integration of a global perspective in public administration scholarship. Other authors contribute to the volume by analysing a growing number of international organisations and regional networks of public administration that influence more comparative studies on good governance, government effectiveness, the New Public Management, government reforms and transparency in developed and developing countries. And a number of scholars underscored the demand for scholarship that emphasises comparative public administration with a global perspective for the twenty-first century.

The insights and analyses presented by these academics call for scholars in public administration to engage in critical dialogue on issues concerning the development of rigorous research methods for comparative studies with a global perspective. This, of course, is nothing new. What is new is how far-reaching the global perspective has become in the field. It is difficult to find a public administration scholar anywhere in the world today who does not have some sort of comparative experience or perspective.

Evolving from Government to Governance

Discussions and debates at Minnowbrook III centred on the fact that governance in many countries is changing from hierarchical and stovepiped orientations with government as the dominant actor to more networked forms of governance. In the latter form, government is an important institutional actor, but not the only or most important one. Governance forms and functions are evolving and they manifest themselves and their connectedness to others through networks, contracts and a range of information technology innovations. At the same time, scholars of public administration are examining new and complex questions about authority, responsibility, the rule of law and citizen engagement. These are representative of current inquiry. What these new forms of governance suggest is that collaboration is the required norm, and that power is becoming diffused through a number of institutional mechanisms and policy instruments. As a result, ‘new’ managerial tools – such as facilitation, negotiation, collaborative problem solving and dispute resolution – are taking on heightened prominence.

Accordingly, a different type of professional training and education will be needed to prepare public administrators to work with a range of institutional and individual actors and across governance domains and sectoral boundaries. Emerging from these governance changes is a field of public administration practice that is becoming more professionalised than in the past in terms of systems, processes and tools. Professionalisation, however, does not connote increased democratisation. Rather, governance is taking shape across political forms, philosophies, cultures and citizenship. Some of those forms seek more active citizen engagement and participation, while others are evolving toward that state in only the most incremental of steps. This is one indication that while governance has become more global, diverse, and represented by complex governing arrangements and values, it is also a departure from the long dominant norms embedded in Western notions of democratic governance. These changes will require more research and engagement between scholars and with practitioners and fundamental changes to teaching the next generation of leaders: They may very well be topics on the agenda at the Minnowbrook IV Conference in 2028.
Looking Forward

(IAS PLANNER) Strategy for Freshers

Strategy for Freshers

At one or another instance everyone has to be fresher. As a fresher one first of all go through the notification of the exam but must  not be panic by seeing the columns and columns of syllabus. Here coaching centre or your seniors or any portal like us will help you out. They could show you the right path. However there will be instances when you will feel that you know nothing other knowing a lot it is the sign to get into the preparation as soon as possible otherwise you might be lead in the another path, a path of frustration. Trust me it is not matter of intellectual but just time, you might be fresher they might have background. During initial phase just concentrate in your self-study and make your concept clear.

There are several myths about the Civil Services Exam it is some sort of hype around the examination. But as a fresher try to ignore such myths. It is commonly seen that a fresher always starts with some “Suggested Reading” here we should take care about who has suggested you, it really matters a lot because the whole examination preparation will depend on it. The real foundation will build here. At many instances he starts his preparation on a high note and works hard in the beginning but gradually he feels exhausted and the momentum slows down. Here is the real problem one need to stop here and is to keep going. Aspirants should be result oriented rather than exam oriented. In some disciplines selective study is helpful but it has its limitation. Try not to take attempt as to check the pattern of examination as it won’t help you in anyways. It may keep you chasing the Civil   service exam at your last attempt. Some aspirants have a funny idea that Civil Services can be cleared only in multiple attempts. Ignore all and take many examples who have cleared the exam in the very first attempt. Here are some suggestions for the freshers, firstly try to understand the whole exam and the very nature of the exam, keep yourself ready the preparation, believe strongly in yourself that you will clear the exam in the first attempt itself and never will compromise at any stage and if required at any time will work harder than ever before, the preparation should be started at least one year ahead of your first attempt, do not take your attempt unless you are confident of qualifying for the it all the way. Make your first attempt as your best one.

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(IAS PLANNER) Role of Coaching Institute

Role of Coaching Institute

Due to the complex exam procedure, the coaching assumes a crucial role. Unfortunately, it is a costly affair. Getting into civil services is really a tough one/ himalayam task. Every individual would like to do something great in life. There are about three lakh applications and 50% really appear in the exam for merely 900 seats (in general). Everyone knows things but don't know how to present it. Here comes, the role of coaching Institute and Portals.

Civil Services coaching Institute and any type of guiding portal like UPSCPORTAL play a crucial role during the course of preparation of the aspirants. However here we should note that it is never been the essential element for the preparation. There are plenty of examples where we can see that an aspirant get through without any help of coaching institution. It is additional component of the preparation rather than essential. Nowadays it has become fashion to join the coaching institute; it is considered that without joining any coaching one hasn’t get success. It is clear that it helps but at one point of preparation their role ends, and the role of aspirants own effort has finally proved. There is a high competition in getting IAS here coaching institute helps to keep you in the right path and will put you in the competition in the right way. Coaching has many advantages, it helps to understand the nature of exam quickly, sometimes reduces the efforts and focused more in the subject, provides environment for the competition, regular classes gives the insight about the competition, many postal courses help in the preparation etc.

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(IAS PLANNER) General Trend of Marks

General Trend of Marks

The general marks is not any standard format it varies from year to year, it all depends on the vacancies in the particular year and standard of questions which has asked in that year. Apart from this the marks also vary from optional to optional. It is known that the first stage of the exam i.e. Prelims doesn’t carry any marks it is only to screen the candidate and select those who are eligible for the next stage i.e. Mains. Mains comprise of Written Test and Personality Test which carries total 2300 marks. The following data about the marks and the ranks will give a general idea about the efforts that are required.

Preliminary Marks

Trend of Qualifying Scores for Prelims with Negative Marking :











The scores for the mains are in the range of 50-55%. Usually, a score of above 1000 is better to ensure a place in the final list.

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Mains Marks

(Notification) Bihar Public Service Commission Preliminary Examination 2017


बिहार लोक सेवा आयोग

Bihar Public Service Commission Preliminary Examination 2017

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Study Kit for Bihar Public Service Commission Preliminary Examination

Bihar Public Service Commission (BPSC) Exam Papers

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(IAS Planner) Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Syllabus of Examination

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

1. When does the notification for the exam come out?
It comes out usually during the first week of December/January every year.The notification is published in Employment News and RozgarSamachar.

2. What is the exam scheme?
It is a three stage exam, with only successful candidates eligible to apply in subsequent stages. The first stage is the Preliminary Exam, open for all applicants. Upon clearing this the successful candidate has to apply again to sit for the Main Exam. Successful candidates at this stage are called for the Personality Test or Interview. Those passing the Personality Test are the ultimate successful candidates.

3. What optionals should be more suitable optionals for me?
It is a highly sensitive issue, and the most crucial too, because choice of optionals goes a long way in deciding your prospects. We have discussed in full details just go through it.

4. I am an engineering graduate. From scoring point of view you suggest the suitable optional for my preparation.
There is an increasing trend that engineering graduates are shifting towards humanities. They preferably take one of the optionals as the science and the other from humanities. As far as popular trend is concerned large number of engineering students find it comfortable to opt either geography or public administration. Both these optionals are having small seep in time and can be comfortably picked up in a short span of time.

5. What is the restriction on number of attempts in Civil services Examinations?
General-4, OBC-7, SC/ST- No restriction

6. Is there any relaxation in number of attempts for physically handicapped?
Yes, physically handicapped candidates belonging to the general category shall be eligible for 7 attempts

7. Can a candidate who has completed his education from an open school/ University apply for Commissions Examination?
Yes, provided it is a recognized University and he possess the educational qualifications prescribed for the exam and is otherwise eligible.

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(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Exam 2017 - English Compulsory

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Exam 2017

English Compulsory

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains English Compulsory

Marks: 300

Time Allowed: 3 Hours

Q1. Write an essay in about 600 words words on any one of the following topics : (100 Marks)

(a) Recent Economic Reforms in India
(b) Threats to Environment
(c) Uses and Abuses of Social Networking
(d) Caring for this Aged

Q2. Read carefully the passage given below and write your answers to the questions that follow in clear, correct and concise language: (15x5=75 Marks)

Man, since antiquity, has been an inveterate traveller. Only the motivations for travel have changed. In ancient times, the main motivations for travel were trade, pilgrimage and conquest. It is not often realised how extensive were the contacts among the people several thousand years ago. For instance, there was considerable interchange of ideas and knowledge between India and West Asia and the Graeco-Roman civilization.

Travel became the means of acquiring culture in Europe. The tradition of the Grand Tour which started in the 17th century was more firmly established in the 18th and the 19th centuries by the emergence of an affluent mercantile class. After the Second World War, Europe lay in ruins. The Marshall plan which was introduced by the United States for the revival of the economies of Europe countries made tourism as one of its planks. It provided large amount of money for the reconstruction of hotels and tourism infrastructure of Western Europe. What was more significant was that for the first time tourism was viewed as an engine for economic development. This made the Governments start assuming responsibility for the promotion of tourism.

Three technological inventions have fuelled the growth of travel on a large scale in successive periods. First, steam engine which made travel by rail and steamship possible before 1914; then the internal combustion engine which popularized travel by automobile in the inter-War years and lastly, the jet propulsion engine which has led to the international tourist explosion of the post-War era.

The Government of India also took note of the new phenomenon of tourism and its economic implications. In 1947, the private sector consisted of a number of hotels and travel agencies in the cities mainly owned and operated by foreign interests. As it happened in other industries after Independence, the control of many of these hotels passed into the hands of Indian entrepreneurs. At the same time, a number of new indigenously owned and operated travel agencies and hotels started being set up. In the last 50 years, the Indian travel industry has shown remarkable enterprise. Some of the leading Indian hotel groups and travel agencies have branched out overseas and their performance is highly regarded in the international tourism, markets.

The tourism revolution which started in full measure 50 years ago has not run its course. There are several reasons for taking a long-term optimistic view of tourism. First, the increase in leisure time in industrialised societies; paid holiday which were introduced as a social welfare measure have now become an accepted feature not only in industrialised countries but also in many developing countries. The length of paid holidays has increased. The working week, both in public and private sectors, has come down to 40 hours, spread over 5 days. Evidently Governments will have to concern themselves with the quality of use of leisure. Tourism has become a preeminent form of recreation for the younger people. This is reflected in the increase in travel in the age group of 18 to 25 years. Second, the rise in literacy and educational standards. Third, better health care has made it possible for retired persons, above 60 years, to undertake travel for pleasure. Fourth, the increase in discretionary incomes in real terms in the last twenty years, partly due to two income families with fewer children. Tourism is highly susceptible to income elasticity. Many research studies have established that increase in income level in real terms results in increase in propensity for travel. And lastly, taking a vacation, generally twice a years, has become a way of life in modern societies.

(a) What, according to the author, were the main motivations for travel in ancient times?
(b) What was the state of tourism in Europe and the United States?
(c) What part did technology play in the growth of tourism?
(d) How does the author describe the state of tourism in the post-Independence India?
(d) Why does the author think that there is a bright future for tourism in modern societies?

Q3. Make a precis of the following passage in about one-third of its length. Do not give a title to it. The precis should be written in your own language : (75 Marks)

The work of a lawyer or a politician must contain in a more delectable form a great deal of the same pleasure that is to be derived from playing bridge. Here, of course, there is not only the exercise of skill but the outwitting of a skilled opponent. Even where this competitive element is absent, however, the performance of difficult feats is agreeable. A man who can do stunts in an aeroplane finds the pleasure so great that for the sake of it he is willing to risk his life. I imagine that an able surgeon, in spite of the painful circumstances in which his work is done, derives satisfaction from the exquisite precision of his operations. All skilled work can be pleasurable, provided the skill required is either variable or capable of indefinite improvement. If these condition are absent, it will cease to be interesting when a man has acquired his maximum skill. A man who runs three-mile races will cease to find pleasure in this occupation when he passes the age at which he can beat his own previous record. Fortunately there is a very considerable amount of work in which new circumstances call for new skill and a man can go in improving, at any rate until he has reached middle age. In some kinds of skilled work, such as politics, for example, it seems that men are at their best between sixty and seventy, the reason being that in such occupations a wide experience of other men is essential. For this reason, successful politicians are apt to be happier at the age of seventy than any other men of equal age. Their only competitors in this respect are the men who are the heads of big businesses.

There is, however, another element possessed by the best work, which is even more important as a source of happiness than is the exercise of skill. This is the element of constructiveness. In some work, though by no means in most, something is built up which remains as a monument when the work is completed. We may distinguish construction from destruction by the following criterion. In construction, the initial stage of affairs is comparatively haphazard, while the final state of affairs embodies a purpose; in destruction, the reverse is the case : the initial state of affairs embodies a purpose, while the final stat of affairs is haphazard, that is to say, all that is intended by the destroyer is to produce a state of affairs which does not embody a certain purpose. Destruction, is of course necessary very often as a preliminary to subsequent construction; in that case it is part of a whole which is constructive. But not infrequently a man will engage in activities of which the purpose is destructive without regard to any construction that may come after. Frequently he will conceal this from himself by the belief that he is only sweeping away in order to build afresh, but is generally possible to unmask this pretence, when it is pretence, by asking him what the subsequent construction is to be. On this subject it will be found that he will speak vaguely and without enthusiasm, whereas on the preliminary destruction he has spoken precisely and with zest. This applies to not a few revolutionaries and militarists and other apostles of violence. They are actuated, usually without their own knowledge, by hatred; the destruction of what they hate is their real purpose, and they are comparatively indifferent to the question of what is to come after it. Now I cannot deny that in the work of destruction as in the work of construction there may be joy. It is a fiercer joy, perhaps at moments more intense, but it is less profoundly satisfying, since the result is one which little satisfaction is to be found. You kill your enemy, and when he us dead your occupation is gone, and the satisfaction that you derive from victory quickly fades. The work of construction, on the other hand, when completed, is delightful to contemplate, and moreover is never so fully completed that there is nothing further to do about is. The most satisfactory purposes are those that lead on indefinitely from one success to another without ever coming to a dead end; and in this respect it will be found that construction is a greater source of happiness than destruction.  (735 words)





Printed Study Material for IAS PRE cum Mains General Studies

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Exam 2017 - POLITICAL SCIENCE (Paper-2)

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Exam 2017

POLITICAL SCIENCE Optional (Paper-2)

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains Political Science Optional (Paper-2)

Marks: 250

Time Allowed: 3 Hours


Q1. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each: (10×5=50 Marks)

(a) Explain the Political-Sociological Approach in the field of comparative politics and discuss its limitations.
(b) Critically examine the Globalisation in the past 25 years from the perspectives of the Western world.
(c) Examine the LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) movement: in developed societies and how it is affecting the political participation in developing societies.
(d) American President: Donald Trump's proposal to withdraw from the ‘NAFTA’ would bring unforeseen consequences to the regionalisation of world politics. Elaborate.
(e) Give an assessment of the Feminist critique of contemporary global issues.


(a) Is Realist Approach the best method to understand International Relations? Examine this in the context or Classical Realism. (20 Marks)
(b) How has the development of Global capitalism changed the nature of socialist economies and developing societies? (15 Marks)
(c) Discuss the changing nature of modem state with reference to transnational actors. (15 Marks)


(a) “The development or advanced missile technology and nuclear threat by North Korea has challenged the American hegemony in South-East Asia.” Evaluate the above statement in the context of recent developments in the region. (20 Marks)
(b) Do you endorse the view that the end of Bipolarity and the rise of multiple regional organisations has made Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) more or less irrelevant? (15 Marks)
(c) Do you agree with the view that despite the limitations in the functioning of the UN, it has distinguished and unique achievements to its credit? (15 Marks)


(a) The recent move of USA to withdraw from the Paris climate Agreement is a setback in the consensus achieved on protecting the world environment. In this context, assess the future prospective on climate control. (20 Marks)
(b) How has ‘BREXIT’ affected the regionalisation process initiated by European Union and what could be its likely impacts in the regionalisation process of world politics? (15 Marks)
(c) Examine the World System Approach as developed by Emmanuel Wallerstein. (15 Marks)

Printed Study Material for IAS PRE cum Mains General Studies

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Exam 2017 - POLITICAL SCIENCE (Paper-1)

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains Exam 2017

POLITICAL SCIENCE  Optional (Paper-1)

Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains Political Science Optional (Paper-I)

Marks: 250

Time Allowed: 3 Hours


Q1. Comment on the following in about 150 words each:  (10×5=50 Marks)

(a) According to Sri Aurobindo, Swaraj is a necessary condition for India to accomplish its destined goal.
(b) Neo-liberal perspective of State
(c) Post-modernism
(d) Eco-feminism
(e) Hobbesian notion of Political Obligation


(a) Rawls' theory of justice is both contractual and distributive. Examine. (20 Marks)
(b) Everywhere, inequality is a cause of revolution - Aristotle. Comment.
(15 Marks)
(c) Define Socialism. Discuss the salient features of Fabian Socialism.
(15 Marks)


(a) What do you understand by Multiculturalism? Discuss Bhikhu Parekh's view on Multiculturalism. (20 Marks)
(b) Deliberative democracy does not have its salience without participation and participatory democracy does not have its credence without deliberations. Comment.
(15 Marks)
(c) Differentiate between Freedom and Liberty. Discuss Marx's notion of freedom.
(15 Marks)


(a) Political democracy could not last unless social democracy lay at its base - B.R. Ambedkar. Comment. (20 Marks)
(b) Write a brief note on The End of History debate.
(15 Marks)
(c) What do you understand by the notion of Statecraft? Discuss the theory of statecraft as given by Kautilya.
(15 Marks)

Printed Study Material for IAS PRE cum Mains General Studies

Jobless growth in India, result of poor economic strategy : Weekly IAS Mains Essay Writing Challenge

Essay Answer Writing Challenge

Weekly IAS Mains Essay Writing Challenge

Write essays from the following Section A & B, in about 1000-1200 words each. Total Marks: 250 (125+125)

Section ‘A’

Topic : Jobless growth in India, result of poor economic strategy

Section ‘B’

Topic : Cooperative federalism in practice

Write Your Answer in Comment Box.

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(Book) INDIAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS By Vivek S Raj, Civil Services Times


Medium: English

Price: Rs. 395/-

Pages: 512

Publisher: Civil Services Times



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(Book) GEOGRAPHY INDIA AND THE WORLD By Vivek S Raj, Civil Services Times



Medium: English

Price: Rs. 425/-

Pages: 527

Publisher: Civil Services Times



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